maintenance, care, compatibility
Scalaria (lat. Pterophyllun scalare) is one of the most popular aquarium fish of the Cichlid family. Many species of this fish were removed from South American reservoirs, while others were bred by breeding one or more forms.
The common angelfish is perhaps an example of a classic aquarium fish – a disc-shaped body shape, tall and slightly short, with lush sail-like fins. At first glance, it is not so easy to keep such a pet in an aquarium, but this opinion is wrong.
They have a peaceful nature, non-aggressive. They can settle different types of fish of the same calm and medium in size: discus, festivals, crayfish, gourami.
It so happens that novice aquarists acquire a scalar without learning the main rules for caring for them. Run into a new aquarium, where the biological balance of the environment has not stabilized. Improper temperature, high acidity, hard water will quickly ruin the health of the angelfish.
The presence of nitrates, nitrites, ammonia, and non-evaporated chlorine in water also negatively affects the quality of life of pets. With the fluctuations of such substances the scalars can not cope.
This also applies to the parameters of the water in the spawning aquarium, where you have to follow the rules of keeping producers and their brood.
Watch the video story about the content of the scalar.
Therefore, it is important for scalar to maintain a temperature regime. As endemics of tropical freshwater, they are accustomed to warm water. Lowering the temperature of the aquatic environment leads to lethargy, disease, and, as a consequence, death.
Hypothermia or too high a temperature is also harmful, as well as a sudden change of water to a new one. To maintain a full life of a pet, it is necessary to regulate the temperature of the water in the aquarium constantly.
Angelfish came to us from the warm-water rivers of South America, where heat reigns, so a heating system should be installed in the aquarium. The permissible minimum water temperature is 24 degrees Celsius, the maximum is 30 degrees. Overheating is undesirable, heat accelerates metabolic processes in the body, it quickly wears out and grows old.
However, some types of scalar need temperatures above 27 degrees (black scalar), and 30 degrees when spawning. Increased to spawning speed up the process of ripening eggs.
The optimum temperature in the aquarium will provide sufficient space. The tighter the tank, the faster it heats up the water.
The more fish live in it, the less free space to find a cooler corner. The flow of water should be average, many plants will provide them comfort.
The tank should be in a quiet, lighted place, so that no loud sounds or sudden movements in the room would come to it. Stress leads to a loss of bright color.
Place with direct sunlight is not suitable. Lighting LB lamps provide the desired light and temperature.
Sudden fluctuations in water temperature should not occur. Short-term lowering of the fish will survive, but such a risk can lead to hypothermia.
When replacing water, it is necessary to monitor the conservation of the level to, so that the new water matches the old one.
Conclusions: in the general aquarium, the optimal temperature threshold for scalars is 24-30 degrees Celsius. Water should not get very hot and cool.
Make every effort to prevent sudden changes in all parameters of the environment.
See how to quickly calibrate aquarium thermometer.
Angelfish begin to multiply with a gradual increase in water temperature in spawning. Temperature from 27 to 28 degrees – optimal for breeding almost all types of scalar.
With her, the eggs will ripen faster, and the fry in such water will develop comfortably. Within a few weeks, the male and female will get used to the new parameters that will encourage spawning.
After 2 weeks they will produce eggs on the surface of a stone or a plant. A few more days, the roe will ripen, then the fry will hatch. Unfortunately, at low temperature, the roe slowly ripens, or the larvae of the fry never appear.
To avoid this, make measurements to water with a special thermometer. Having raised the temperature a little, some fry of an angelfish will be born.
Another important point – the water temperature in the aquarium for the scalar. These fish are very sensitive to temperature changes and do not like cold water, therefore it is necessary to maintain about 23-26 ° C. There are allegations that scalar dwellers can live very well at a temperature of 16-18 ° C, but we would not advise you to experiment (especially if you are a beginner aquarist) so that you do not have to treat your pets.
During spawning or treatment of diseased fish, the temperature in the aquarium should be raised by several degrees.
Aquarium. Since some individuals can grow quite large, then the aquarium will need a lot.
For example, for two pairs of medium-sized fish, it is better to take a 60-liter container, no less. Moreover, the width of the vessel does not play a big role, but the height of the aquarium should not be less than 45 cm.
Temperature. Some sources indicate that scalar can live successfully in the temperature range from 16 to 35 degrees.
However, we would not advise you to experiment like this, it is a big risk to undermine the health of your pets. The optimum temperature is 23-26 ° C.
Acidity should be maintained at 6.5-7.4, and the rigidity – 18.
Water. Prerequisite – clean water. To ensure it, you need to install a good (bottom or canister) filter, replace a fifth of the water weekly and wash the aquarium itself at least once every 2 months.
We add that the filter should be without a violent ejection of water, as the angelfish do not like a strong flow.
Lighting should be bright, but without a sharp change of day and night.
Vegetation. It is recommended to plant aquarium densely with plants, providing space for swimming. Superficial plants can also be used.
They will dim excessive lighting and create a sense of security in fish.
Priming. As the soil is good to use coarse sand, fine gravel.
Angelfish do not have the habit of digging it up.
Registration. Housing can be decorated with snags, decorative rocks and stone gorges.
Caves and shaded areas will serve as shelters. The main principle of selection is safety.
There should be no sharp corners.
The life expectancy of an angelfish in an aquarium can be 15-25 years, if you follow a number of requirements. First, be sure to launch these fish into a spacious tank of at least 100 liters per pair (female and male). Secondly, install the compressor and the aerator, the fish saturated with oxygen will only be delighted.
The compressor must be turned on for 20-30 minutes twice a day.
As for the general cleaning in the aquarium, it does not need to be carried out too often. If you remove the remnants of food and rotted plants in time, the water can be changed less often, some people manage to keep the water in crystal purity for more than six months.
Otherwise, water replacement should occur at least 3 times a month. Be sure to clean the soil, wash the walls of the tank and the filter from the accumulated dirt, green algae.
Watch the water temperature – the new water should correspond to all the parameters of the “old” one.
Do not forget that the angelfish will live more years if the feed in the aquarium is not worse than they are fed in the wild. In the wild, they are omnivorous: they feed on insect larvae and insects, zooplankton, and plants.
Therefore, they can be fed all appropriately feed: artificial for cichlids, dry, frozen and live. You can not give bloodworms and tubers, because they do not live in weakly acidic water.
You can see how the fish form brownish blisters at the anus – these are the negative effects of feeding the bloodworm and the strawman.
What decorative angelfish eat: micro-worm, artemia, earthworms, snails, koretra, daphnia, cyclop, lettuce and spinach. It is not recommended to give meat to warm-blooded animals that are saturated with fats. Feed pelleted with spirulina can be additional feeding.
You need to feed such portions so that the fish ate the food in 2-5 minutes. Overfeeding is also harmful and shortens the life of fish, food debris can oxidize water, spoiling its quality.
See how to care for scalars to prolong their lives.
Because of the violation of metabolic processes, improper conditions of detention, untimely hygiene, fish can get sick, having lived in an aquarium for few years. With poor aeration, the fish have difficulty breathing, hold on to the surface of the water, gasping for air. The eyes become pale, the gills from the inside become covered with necrotic plaques.
In this case, you can gradually increase the aeration by adjusting the temperature of the water and the supply of oxygen.
If it seemed to you that the angelfish in the aquarium is sluggish, swims slowly, the anus is inflamed on the body, this is a disturbing signal. Hexamitosis is a parasitic disease of the gastrointestinal tract. Late intervention with the use of drugs can lead to infection of other fish or death.
It is possible to treat with erythrocycline baths with trichopol (50 grams and 10 grams, respectively, in proportions to one liter of water).
A scalar can form a fin rot, which is a consequence of infection with a rod-shaped bacterium. This is the result of heavily polluted water if it is rarely changed. On the body of a scalar appear white turbidity, also the eye corneas turn pale.
Later the rays of the fins begin to exfoliate and fall off, ulcers form. The consequences of such a disease can be lethal – a fish will live for few years if it is infected from time to time. Treatment of fin rot: take malachite green, hydrochloride and bacillin-5 (in proportions of 0.1 mg, 100 mg, 4000 units per liter of water, respectively).
The solution is added to a water tank. Be sure to process the decorations of the aquarium, plant plants bacillin.
Ringworm – a disease of fungal origin, which reduces the number of years of fish life. Late treatment will be fatal.
Symptoms: white bloom on the body. Later, the fungus can spread to the internal organs. For treatment it is necessary to use streptotsid, bacillin-5, copper sulfate, potassium permanganate (in the proportions of 1 gram, 4000 units, 0.5 gram, 0.05 gram, respectively).
Timely prevention of diseases, quarantine and quality treatment prolong the life of pets.
Scalaria (lat. Pterophyllum scalare) fish is large, voracious, eager for fry and shrimp, but beautiful and with interesting behavior.
High body compressed from sides, various colors, rather large sizes, accessibility, all this made it one of the most common and popular fish that almost every aquarist contained.
Angelfish are very beautiful and unusual, popular among experienced aquarists, and among beginners. In nature, they are camouflaged, with black streaks along the silvery body. Although there are changes there, fish without bands, completely black and other options.
But, it is precisely this tendency to change that aquarists use to bring out new, brighter views. Now many different types are displayed: black, marble, blue, koi, green angel, red devil, marble, diamond and others.
Despite the unusual shape of the body, they belong to the same species as the discus, to cichlids. It can be very high, and reach a length of 15 cm.
Medium in complexity, but the scalar needs a spacious aquarium so that it can swim without problems. The minimum volume is 150 liters, but if you contain a couple or groups, then already from 200 liters.
How many live scalaries? They live in an aquarium for a long time, 5 years or more.
Angelfish can be kept in the general aquarium, but do not forget that they are cichlids, and it is not desirable to keep very small fish with them.