Hello dear blog readers and colleagues. Today we will talk about water for an aquarium, what properties it should have, and so on.
But before you start directly post on the topic, I want to apologize to you for delaying new articles. The fact is that the 3G modem purchased by me works figs understand how it connects today, not tomorrow.
Here a couple of days ago worked as an asshole, everything was fine, and then the next day, for no reason, he refuses to connect to the Internet and at least you burst it. So forgive me, dear readers and subscribers, I think this is a temporary inconvenience and they will end soon.
Well, now go directly to the topic of the post.
Water is truly an amazing and unique natural phenomenon and its properties are still being studied by physicists, glaciologists, chemists from all over the world. Water as a substrate is also interesting because it is amazing as the habitat of organisms: the Earth’s hydrosphere is very, very diverse. The special qualities of water contribute to the formation of aquatic organisms, or so-called hydrobionts, with special adaptive abilities.
These abilities allow organisms to live in both natural and artificial reservoirs — our aquariums. For the successful management of the process of life in aquariums, nature lovers should know all the features of this habitat, plus the adaptive features of aquatic organisms.
By itself, water is an excellent solvent. In addition, the water contains enough diseased amounts of all kinds of gases.
Saturation with aquarium water gases is carried out on the surface thanks to the work of special tech. devices such as filters and aerates. All gases pass through the surface of the water according to the principle of molecular diffusion.
When air bubbles pass through an aquarium filter or spray in the aerator, the same principle of molecular diffusion is observed.
Oxygen. Aquarium water is saturated with oxygen due to photosynthesis of aquarium plants.
Moreover, oxygen in the aquarium water also gets through the atmosphere. Basically, the highest concentration of oxygen contains the upper layers of water.
Therefore, in order to evenly distribute oxygen throughout the entire volume of your aquarium, you need to constantly mix water vertically using a filter or aerator. A similar process of oxygenation of all water layers occurs in all natural water bodies due to currents.
The higher the temperature of the water and the more saline it is, the less will be dissolved oxygen in it. As a result, if you warmed the aquarium water to 28 degrees to spawn any fish, or you were going to treat the sick fish with salt baths, all lost oxygen should be compensated by aerators. Underwater inhabitants of the aquarium can react differently to elevated levels of oxygen, for example, cyclops to this parameter water is undemanding.
However, daphnia, when the level of oxygen in the water is suitable for cyclopics, will die. The situation is similar with the pipe worker and the bloodworm, river daylings and dragonfly larvae, melania and bivalve mollusks.
According to the requirements of oxygen, fish can be divided into 4 groups:
1. Fish of fast and fairly cold rivers, or rheophilic: these include sturgeon, some catfish, salmon, and goby.
2. Fish prefer weak flowing waters that live in the creeks of rivers and lakes – these include most of the aquarium fish.
3. Fish living in stagnant waters – goldfish and all its varieties, Amur eleotris and rotan.
4. Fish that can also breathe air – the so-called labyrinth.
In order to avoid difficulties with keeping and caring for fish, it is necessary to maintain a special oxygen regime for fish of the second category. Plus, everything else in the aquarium should be clean water, a sufficient number of well-lit aquatic plants and constant mixing of aquarium water, which can be achieved with an aerator or filter.
As you know, the amount of oxygen that fish consume is not constant. Consider the moment that the fish from the fourth group may not immediately breathe air, but only at three months after hatching from the eggs.
It is by this time that they have already developed additional respiratory organs. Naturally, in the presence of such respiratory organs, the oxygen demand in fish is different.
For example, a macropod needs less oxygen than its relative in the group, Lalius.
When the concentration of dissolved oxygen in aquarium water decreases, the development of fish changes somewhat. As a rule, appetite does not decrease, the biological assimilation of food changes, and the amount of assimilated nutrients decreases, and this in turn will greatly affect the growth of fish.
If there are a lot of young stock in your tank, ensure high-quality aeration of water.
Carbon dioxide. During their breathing, living organisms release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Fish secrete through their gills, but loaches up to 90% of carbon dioxide emit through their skin.
The concentration of carbon dioxide in the aquarium is increased by increasing the number of aquarium plants and aquarium fish. The aquarist will be able to notice the lack of oxygen, but the processes preceding this will not reveal themselves. The fact is that with an increase in carbon dioxide concentration in fish, the metabolism, inhibition and waste of all the nutrient reserves previously stored are changed.
Some species of fish to increase the level of carbon dioxide in the water react with an increase in appetite, but the food is not properly absorbed in their bodies, which contributes to increased feed intake and depletion of the body.
It is possible to achieve the removal of this gas from water with the help of aquarium plants during their photo-synthetic activity. Its amount decreases with increasing salinity and water temperature.
Practically for all hydrobionts, carbon dioxide is poisonous.
If there is a clear lack of carbon dioxide in aquarium water, this will adversely affect aquarium plants. Most of the aquatic plants (echinodorus, cryptocoryne, etc.) are coastal, which are periodically flooded with water.
In nature, these plants can easily absorb carbon dioxide in its pure form. When a plant is immersed in water, it absorbs carbon dioxide through the aquatic environment during photosynthesis.
Similarly, by the way, there are other plants that have relatively recently become aquatic, for example, the aponogatones, which mainly live in rivers, where carbon dioxide flows along with the current. However, in those aquariums where there are practically no fish or they are completely absent (the aquarist only grows aquatic plants), all the accumulated gas per night during the breathing of aquatic plants will be fully assimilated in the first half of the day.
Intake of carbon dioxide in the process of breathing plants will be minimal and it will not be enough to fully cover all the photosynthetic needs of plants. As a result, acute starvation will occur, the plants will stop growing, and then their tissues will begin to collapse.
Some aquatic plants that live in exceptionally stagnant water, for example, an elodea, extract the missing carbon from the most complex compounds that are in any case present in the water, and the remaining botanical rarities are extracted exclusively from carbon dioxide.
Hydrogen sulfide. This gas will be formed in old aquarium ecosystems due to the vital activity of various putrefactive bacteria, or other bacteria that reduce water sulphates. The role of the latter is allotted insignificant, and the first is extremely high, and especially if there is a mass of undernourished fish food on the bottom.
Hydrogen sulfide is a very dangerous gas, as it will reduce the concentration of oxygen in water when participating in chemical processes.
Methane. This gas is formed and accumulates at the bottom, in the aquarium soil.
Methane gas is formed as a result of the decomposition of already dead microorganisms or parts of aquatic plants. Like hydrogen sulfide, methane gas is poisonous to virtually all species of aquatic organisms.
To prevent the formation of these dangerous gases in your aquariums, keep your cans clean, follow the correct maintenance and maintenance regime for the aquarium, filter and aerate the water.
I think you know that tap, river and groundwater have a rather complex hydrochemical composition. If you want to see the water in its pure form, then go to the laboratory.
There is an opinion that rainwater is the purest water, but this opinion is erroneous: in this water you can always find sulfate, calcium, sodium, chlorine, ammonium. The amount of the above substances will vary from emissions of industrial waste into the atmosphere. There is no sense at all to speak about tap water as “clean”, because as far as we know what is there in it.
And I recently spoke with a man from water, who said that our tap water in general at the treatment plants does not undergo any cleaning – only chlorination and that’s all.
A lot of biological processes occur in the water of natural water bodies, which will change the chemical composition and saturate the water with various organic substances. The combination of all these substances will determine the chemical composition of the aquarium water.
However, in different regions of the country, this composition will be different. The water in the aquarium will contain all sorts of substances in molecular and ionic forms.
The basic salt composition contains seven ions: sodium, calcium, potassium, magnesium, sulfates, bicarbonates and chlorides. Moreover, water contains elements such as: boron, zinc, manganese, fluorine, iron, copper and many other elements. In addition, the degree of mineralization of water from different regions will be different, but as a rule it is 1 gram per liter of water.
To understand the biological role of all the above components, you need to know what form they will be in the water and know about the chemical reactions that take place in it.
It is on this optimistic note that I will finish this article and in a couple of days I will write a continuation of the article. As you understand, there will be two parts, so do not forget to subscribe to blog updates in order to be among the first people who will read the new publication.
On this I have everything, see you soon in the comments.