maintenance, care, compatibility
Viviparous fishes have found a wide distribution among beginners and experienced aquarists. Screaming bright coloring, calm behavior and simple care for various representatives of this species made them permanent inhabitants of marine and freshwater aquariums.
In the content of viviparous fish are simple. They have high adaptability to different water bodies and conditions in them. Thus, the petsiliev family transfers successfully:
- a sharp increase or decrease in temperature;
- low oxygen content;
- poor light;
- lack of aeration;
- as well as hard water composition.
To create a comfortable environment this family needs good lighting. Natural or artificial reflected light will emphasize the color of the fish and reveal all their coloristics.
When feeding should take into account that the main part of the diet of viviparous fish should be of plant origin. For the rapid growth of petsilievyh need to use various types of food: live, frozen, dry. You can give additional vegetables, pre-doused them with boiling water (cucumbers, cabbage, etc.).
Adult fish is enough to feed once a day, and the young at least 4-5 times.
The presence of abundant vegetation and at the same time free space allows you to bring the conditions of detention to the natural. Tender young shoots of plants will be an additional source of nutrition in the diet of fish.
When settling an aquarium in viviparous, it should be noted that there should be 2-3 females per male. This will avoid confrontation among males in determining the leader.
Viviparous fishes can successfully live in bad water, but to ensure the most comfortable conditions for their existence, it is necessary to carry out weekly changes. The amount of replacement is up to 30%, depending on the care requirements for each type of fish.
Care and breeding of viviparous aquarium fish is not so difficult. They adapt perfectly, allowing you to endure withstanding temperature differences, pressure surges or increased water hardness.
To get such fish at home, you will need to comply with a list of criteria that are important to consider when caring for your pets.
First of all, it is bright, preferably natural lighting (or use a strong artificial). In order for your pets to grow well and develop, you should observe a balance between the place free for swimming and the filling of the space with thick thickets of aquarium plants.
If the aquarium is of a general type with a low density of fish landing, then it is recommended to give preference to floating, small-leaved, dense plants, by type or salvinia. The center of the tank should be empty – this is free space for adult fish.
The optimal temperature range for the majority of viviparous is from +20 to +24 degrees.
Pecilia is well suited for beginner aquarists.
The development time of caviar in different fish species depends on many factors, ranging from the conditions of care and ending with the age of the fish – on average it is 30-50 days. A signal for pregnancy is the appearance of a dark spot on the abdomen – this is a characteristic feature for any species of viviparous fish.
As soon as the fry are born, their main goal is to reach the surface in order to fill the bubble with oxygen, to escape from adult individuals, eating small crustaceans, hiding in dense thickets. From this point on, only proper care will help them survive.
If you are purposefully engaged in breeding and rearing fry, then you need to bear in mind that care for the female should be special. A pregnant fish should be planted in advance in a separately prepared vessel filled with small-leaved plants at the bottom (preferably on the surface too).
To feed the fry will not be difficult – the main thing is that the feed matches the size. At first, experienced aquarium keepers advise feeding babies with small cyclops, daphnia and young crustaceans – Artemia.
Beautiful little guppy.
A distinctive feature – female viviparous fish are larger and pale, but the males are small and very bright.
Viviparous aquarium fish is a large group of fish that tends to live in freshwater and lightly saline waters of the continent of South America. The main difference that is reflected in the name of the group is their ability to live birth, i.e. the roe is fertilized inside the female, and fully formed fry are born that are able to feed and seek shelter.
For a brief introduction, it is worth looking at this list of species and their characteristics in order to form a complete understanding of who they are – these viviparous aquarium fish and what kind of care they should be.
- Guppies are the most unpretentious, widespread and very useful in their natural habitat (they feed on the larvae of anopheles mosquitoes);
- Sword-bearers are also quite unpretentious, the indigenous inhabitants of the lakes of Guatemala and Mexico. A feature of their exterior is the presence of a special tail fin in males – in the form of a sword;
- Plyatipetsillii – fish are able to quickly change their color, having a whole range of colors on the scales. It is best to buy them if you have a small aquarium, but you want an interesting variety;
- Girardinus – interesting fish with a colorful color, which does not impose any requirements on the environment or food, but do not like overheating of water and direct sunlight. To make the fish feel comfortable, create several darkened areas for it using aquarium plants.
- Minesia is a very capricious viviparous species. Therefore, one should begin one’s experiments not with it, but with simpler options, more than enough of which.
- Formosa is a very useful aquarium species of fish: it is a nurse. In addition, the fish is very unusual and beautiful – the color is creamy yellow, big eyes and a dark stripe along the entire two-centimeter body.
Swordtail – a characteristic fin can not be confused.
Molynesia is a very capricious person.
After acquiring an artificial reservoir from each novice aquarist, the first natural impulse is the desire to fill it with all kinds of fish. But with what, to start?
Today in the world there are many different types of aquarium fish. And the simplest thing that they usually offer or advise in a pet store is live-bearing aquarium fish.
They differ from other species of fish in that they are easier to maintain. Also breeding them is not a big deal.
They also have very diverse offspring.
This happens by breeding and crossing different species of fish. For some reason, it has already been developed that it is these, the so-called viviparous fishes that are always the first to populate new aquariums.
But you get so used to them that you start to get involved in them for many years. Therefore, they occupy the first place among the water aquarium world.
Let us consider in more detail what these fascinating representatives of the underwater world are.
Among inhabitants of aquariums, viviparous aquarium fish occupy one of the leading places. Most fans of aquarium fish begin their passion with viviparous species. Interest in these fish can drag on for many years, not only for beginners, but also for experienced aquarists.
Such a lively interest is explained by the peculiarities of reproduction of viviparous fishes, the ease of their maintenance, as well as a large variety of offspring created by breeding and crossing varieties. Such features give a good chance in a relatively short time period to obtain a variety of varieties of aquarium fish, which will be different from the already existing species.
Features breeding aquarium viviparous fish
Reproduction and maintenance of viviparous aquarium fish is quite simple. Excellent adaptability allows them to endure temperature fluctuations and strong pressure, as well as very hard water.
For the maintenance of most species of viviparous fish do not need a large aquarium. It is desirable that the lighting was quite bright and natural, but in the absence of such conditions, suitable artificial light sources.
Good conditions for the development and reproduction of viviparous fish are created in aquariums with free swimming space and at the same time dense thickets of plants.
plants for viviparous fish
In the aquarium for viviparous must be a lot of plants. Viviparous multiply even in the general aquarium, in which, with a small density of fish landing, it is possible to grow floating, small-leaved, dense plants, for example, Riccia or salvinia. In the very center of the aquarium, there should be enough space in front for adults to swim.
The most favorable temperature for the maintenance of most viviparous fish is + 20-24 °. The composition of water, as a rule, for the maintenance of this type of aquarium fish is not significant, it can have a significant or average hardness, be only “settled”, fresh or even “old”.
Depending on the age of the female, as well as the conditions of its maintenance, the duration of the development of eggs in viviparous aquarium fish ranges from 30 to 50 days (also depends on the species). The female in front of the anal fin during this period has a rather distinctly visible dark spot, which is called the “pregnancy spot”. Literally 2-3 days before the “birth”, the female’s abdomen acquires a “rectangular” shape.
The number of juveniles in viviparous females depends on the species, age, and habitat conditions. After the birth, the fry immediately rise to the surface of the water to fill the swim bladder with air, they literally from the first days begin to feed on small crustaceans and save their lives from adult fish.
The best breeding of viviparous fish is possible, if a particular species is kept separate from others. Shortly before the “birth”, the female is placed in a separate vessel with a large number of small-leaved plants, which can be located both at the bottom of the vessel and on the surface of the water. It is possible to place the female in a separate insulator of the aquarium, the holes in which would not allow her to swim out into the common compartment.
The holes in the bottom should allow the fry to fall down immediately after birth, and only then emerge. The size of only born fry is from 0.6 to 1 cm.
It does not cause difficulties and feeding the fry, they eat almost any food of the appropriate size, but it is best to give them small cyclops, daphnids and young Artemia. The use of home-made or reflex-type feeders, which are self-made or purchased in specialized stores, greatly facilitates the feeding process.
The maturing of the fry of viviparous fish occurs at a rather fast pace; in 4-6 months they already become sexually mature individuals. Females of viviparous fish are larger than males, but males have a more expressive color.
Viviparous fish include a large group of fish living in low-salt and fresh water bodies of South America. All species of viviparous aquarium fish are different from other ones in that the fertilization of eggs takes place inside the body of the female, fully formed fry are born, ready to eat fully.
The greatest interest in breeding viviparous fish is the possibility of breeding new species, but to practice selection and crossing of various subspecies of viviparous fish, it is necessary to understand the features of the biology of this group of aquarium fish. To do this, you must have, as a rule, several aquariums, as well as theoretical training. To have a clearer idea of which viviparous fishes, let’s consider their most prominent representatives:
- Guppy. This type of aquarium fish belongs to the most unpretentious, so novice aquarists are advised to breed guppies. The name of these fish received from the English botanist named Guppy. They are well accustomed and have received their greatest distribution in the aquariums of Venezuela, the island of Barbados, and the Trinidad Islands. Under natural conditions, guppies are very useful because they destroy the larvae of the anopheles mosquito.
red swordtails: male and female
- Swordtails – unpretentious and prolific inhabitants of the waters of Guatemala, Honduras and Mexico. The males of this species of viviparous aquarium fish have as decoration tail fin, resembling a sword in shape. Sword-bearers during spawning are not averse to eating offspring, so you should organize a “birth” so that the fry fall to the bottom immediately after birth through a narrow slit.
- Pliatipecilia – quickly changing color, motley fishes. Their body has a whole range of color shades. These fish are the most suitable option if you want to have a wide variety of aquarium fish, but the presence of a small aquarium.
- Girardinus – These colorful fishes are unpretentious neither to living conditions, nor to food, but they do not tolerate overheating of water and direct sunlight. Girardinus is able to withstand water temperatures of + 15 ° C. Shady areas for habitat of Girardinus are easy to create with abundant vegetation. Because of these peculiarities of living, it is difficult to keep them in a common aquarium with other fish.
- Mollies refers to a rather capricious viviparous species of fish. After this initial experience, it is best to tackle this fish with guppies, swordtails, and beaches. In order to reproduce mollies, aquarists try to choose darker representatives for offspring with a black, slightly velvety color.
- Formosa – is a two-centimeter fish with a creamy yellow color and big eyes. A dark stripe runs along the body of formose, which intersects with transverse stripes at an equal distance from each other. Formosa is a useful fish, it is the nurse of the whole aquarium.
Viviparous aquarium fish are often found in home aquariums due to the ease of their maintenance and breeding. The aquarium fish from the order of the toothed carnivans of the family Pelziliev are the most popular live-bearing inhabitants of aquariums.
Fish from the order kartozubyh in nature inhabit the waters of the countries of South and North America in places with slow-flowing or standing waters with dense vegetation. Some species can live in alpine lakes saturated with oxygen, and some live in brackish water near the sea.
Viviparous aquarium inhabitants are gregarious fish, but get along with almost any other species that suit them in terms of water parameters and body size. Among all viviparous representatives there are both peace-loving and aggressive fish.
Therefore, the best option would be to keep one species of viviparous fish in a separate aquarium.
Viviparous aquarium fish as representatives of the aquatic world occupy a leading position in the ranking of popular aquarium fish due to the lack of difficulties in the care and beauty of their appearance. Bearing offspring and birth of fish is a fascinating process for observation.
The species of viviparous aquarium fish attract many home aquarium lovers due to their unpretentiousness and endurance. Live-breeding aquarium fish do not require deep knowledge for maintenance, care and breeding.
Common species of viviparous aquarium fish:
The main difference between viviparous fish lies in their name. Instead of throwing eggs, such fish give birth to fry alive. Eggs are attached to the wall of the uterus of the fish and developed there thanks to the nutrients received from the mother.
After birth, the fry dwells for some time at the bottom, and after a few days they rise to the rest of the fish in the upper layers of the water. About six months later, the fry becomes a full-fledged mature fish, capable of continuing the race.
The process of intrauterine development in fry in viviparous fish may take about 30-40 days. Before spawning the fry, the female’s abdomen becomes almost rectangular. An interesting feature of the viviparous fish is the ability for multiple genera.
After one fertilization, the female, for example, guppy, can give birth up to 6-8 times.
The number of fry that the female bears and gives birth to fish is not constant and depends on many conditions:
- fish age;
- conditions of detention.
Guppies – are the most famous species of viviparous aquarium fish. Male guppies are much larger than females in size and have bright colors.
Sword-bearers also delight their masters with various bright colors – they are lemon, and red, and red-speckled. Petilia fishes can have a color of various shades, from black, gold to marble.
Viviparous aquarium fish prefer a constant water temperature of 22-26 ° C, medium hardness and weekly updating of the water in the aquarium. Viviparous aquarium fish, such as the Petsilia and the Swordsman, love high hardness water with an alkaline environment.
These wishes are better fulfilled, so your pets will be healthier.
The viviparous aquarium fish prefer an aquarium of a small size, with a volume of 5-6 liters. If there are many fish, then choose an aquarium based on the volume of 1.5 liters of water per fish.
Lighting is best natural, but if this is not possible, get a special lamp. Adjust the degree of light to light enough, but the algae do not bloom.
As for the vegetation in the aquarium from viviparous fish, it should be a lot. Take care that there is a Javanese moss downstairs in which fry can hide and eat after their birth. In the upper part of the aquarium should also be thick algae, such as peristristis, lyudvigiya and others.
You can also use floating plants on the water.
The maintenance of viviparous aquarium fish involves feeding them with plant and live food. You can mix different types of feed and add chopped lettuce or dandelion leaves to your diet.
Do not translate the fish exclusively on plant food.
Keep viviparous fish of different species can be in the same aquarium, if the conditions of their content are the same. Do not forget about the possible crossing of these fish, the volume of the aquarium for this should be sufficient. In order to prevent interbreeding, breed fish in different aquariums.
To save all the fry at birth, it is recommended to replant the female in a separate container with water and algae.
These inhabitants of freshwater bodies of predominantly South America quickly conquered the hearts of aquarists around the world. Many of them are unpretentious, easily and quickly divorced, not too demanding to feed, lighting and even the volume of aquariums.
Select the most common ones.
Vivipars aquarium fish: guppies. In Europe, these beauties appeared thanks to a botany with the surname Guppy a century and a half ago. Perhaps, it is these fish that should be started up by a beginner aquarist in the first place.
They have a calm disposition, a peace-loving character (they rarely attack their own kind). These fish are very bright (especially males) and, being similar in size and structure, are very different in color.
Females are usually somewhat larger and less well-dressed, but adult males delight with unusually long multi-colored fins and mantle-tails (although not all have long tails and fins). They become especially beautiful when they reach sexual maturity.
Guppies do not require strict temperature control, they do not need thorough care and a huge amount of additional expensive aquarium equipment.
These aquarium fish are viviparous. The fry is born completely independent, rising to the surface of the water immediately after birth. For breeding guppies necessarily need the upper algae, in which the kids will hide from their parents, able to eat their own children in the first days.
The optimum temperature in the aquarium is + 24 ° C.
For feeding an adult guppy, both live food and dry food are suitable. And for newborns only dry, finely ground food is suitable.
Unfortunately, these fish live a little: no more than three years. However, they ripen very early and leave large offspring.
Six-month-old guppies are already able to reproduce new fry.
For breeding selected beautiful and healthy couple (or several pairs). The very close birth will indicate the appearance of a dark spot with a blackening dots (at the anus) on the rounded tummy: the dots (fry heads) are darker, the closer the births are.
It is difficult to accurately predict the duration of pregnancy in guppies: both food and water temperature are important here. The female can carry their babies from one month to two.
Viviparous aquarium fish: colorful beaches. They have a bright color with different color combinations and shades, they easily change color, like a chameleon. Plyatipekillii suitable for those who can not afford large aquariums, but loves bright fish in large quantities.
These fish are hardy, unpretentious, like the guppy, to the stern and expanse of the home. And the temperature is the same.
Without being inferior in beauty (and even surpassing) guppies, they have one more merit: they do not pose any danger to their newly born offspring. In addition, by crossing varieties of beaches and peptides (among them there are mirror, and pinpoint, and black, and spotty), you can get completely new colors.
Sword-bearers are also viviparous fishes. And also unassuming and prolific.
These fish can not be confused with others: their tail fin is a real semblance of a sword that always holds with proud dignity. The more familiar color of these fish is red.
However, emerald greens with various specks and stripes are increasingly common. The most prolific of them are golden cream montezums.
Conditions of detention are the same as for guppies. By the way, the Sword-bearers, like the guppies, react to newborns as if they were live food, which they can enjoy with pleasure.
Eternal babies – viviparous fish with the mysterious name formosa. Creamy yellow crumbs with a dark stripe along the body and intersecting transverse stripes are also unpretentious to the volume of water space and food. A hardworking nurse of an aquarium collecting plaque from microorganisms appearing on plants and walls of an aquarium.
Adults are not dangerous for their children. But it is recommended to densely plant the aquarium with plants, since it is the algae and microorganisms that develop on them that are food for these fish.
Vivipars aquarium fish: mollies. For novice aquarists are not recommended, because quite capricious.
Swordtails resemble, but the dorsal fins are much higher and more voluminous. Have several varieties.
The most beautiful are black representatives.
These viviparous fish carry their babies for about 45 days. In young individuals, up to 30 fry can appear, in older ones – up to 100.
In a beautiful black outfit they dress in the second year of life. Males become black and velvet, females – silver-gray with black specks scattered throughout the body.
The water temperature should be constant, drops are unacceptable (+ 25 ° С). Therefore, thinking about purchasing mollies, please note that you cannot do without a thermostat.
Food needs a special, dry, with the presence of vitamin D. In addition, these fish are fed dried salad (garden), seaweed, dry daphnia, live food. The straw pipe for feeding mollies is not suitable (the fish die from it).
The height of the aquarium (water level) is no more than 40 cm. The progeny of mollies is rather tender and extremely sensitive to deviations from the maintenance rules.
Presented viviparous aquarium fish are really easy to maintain (except for mollies). They do not require additional equipment, they also feel fine at ordinary room temperature, they leave home for any expanses of their water possessions, and undemanding to the stern.
After birth, fry fry should be deposited in a separate container (any small aquarium or even a three-liter jar will do) until they grow up. But one of the main dangers is chlorinated water.
In such water, the fish die very quickly. Therefore, before settling pets, make sure there is no chlorine in the water.
I wish you success!
Now there is a lot of talk about the crisis and the rise in prices, they are justified, but we need to remember that not so long ago there were no such things as CO2, special lamps and powerful filters. And there were small, on 50-100 liters aquariums with viviparous fishes and simple, often just floating plants.
Simple, affordable, cheap.
I do not urge you to return to such things, but it will not hurt to remember about viviparous fishes. Moreover, many of them were undeservedly forgotten by aquarists.
If you look at the USSR time book on aquarism, you will find there some viviparous aquarium fish, which are not even mentioned on the Internet. And in the book Exotic Aquarium Fishes by William Innes (Innes Publishing Company, 1948), 26 of them are listed!
Compare with modern books that list the big four: mollies, guppies, swordtails, platies, and all. If aquarists for 60 years contained many species, then why now everything has been reduced to four? The fact is that these are the brightest species, with many variations.
In addition, simple live beetles from nature were often viewed by aquarists as a simple and uncomplicated fish, suitable for beginners.
Let’s take a look at some forgotten viviparous fishes. All of them are peaceful, for breeding does not require special efforts, water changes and scientific degree in chemistry.
Experienced aquarists will recognize old friends among them, and newcomers will get to know a new fish, which is actually a good old forgotten one.
It is unusual for these fish that both females and males are very similar. They are silvery, with a wide black stripe running in the middle of the body. They also have a black spot at the caudal fin.
To determine the sex of formosis, you need to look at the anal fin, which in males forms gonopodia. This is common for all viviparous traits, with the help of gonopodium (similar to a tubule), the male sends milt to the female.
Formosa – small fish! Males are not more than 2 cm, and females are 3 cm in length. Although they are very peaceful, such modest size imposes restrictions on neighbors, with which it is possible to contain formosis.
If you want a specific aquarium, then opt for cherry shrimps and banana shrimp, as they need the same conditions. This is cool, hard water and a large number of plants.
A small addition of salt will create the necessary conditions for formosis, they live in nature in brackish water. Salt is also useful in bacterial diseases, but you can do without it.
Unlike many tropical species, formosa is a subtropical species and loves water with temperatures around 20 ° C, slightly cooler in winter and slightly warmer in summer.
You also need a strong current and a lot of free space. Like other viviparous, formosa loves a mixed diet consisting of plant and animal feed.