maintenance, care, compatibility
Even before the launch procedure, it is necessary to solve a number of critical issues and take some necessary steps:
- Decide what kind of fish or aquatic animals you want to have. Find out what conditions they need. Be sure to find out if they are compatible with each other!
- Depending on the decisions on the first item, choose the volume and model of the aquarium, as well as a list of necessary equipment and design items. Based on the species and number of future inhabitants, decide whether you need a heater with a thermostat, for example, how powerful the filter should be, whether an additional compressor is needed, how to decorate an aquarium: stones or driftwood, which plants to plant and so on.
- Choose a place for the aquarium – not in the draft and not in the sun. It is also important that access to the aquarium was convenient, and there were a sufficient number of outlets nearby.
- Buy and install an aquarium (necessarily on a flat surface, so that its edges do not hang from the shelf or pedestal even per centimeter). Pre-aquarium washed without the use of chemical detergents.
- Place the equipment in the aquarium: filter, compressor, heater and thermometer, lighting. Fill the soil with a layer of 3-4 cm. Depending on the type of soil and its source of origin, it may be necessary to pre-heat it, boil it or rinse it. The same applies to stones and snags.
Now the aquarium is ready to fill up with water and start running. But before we give a step-by-step start-up instruction, let’s try to figure out what this notorious launch is for and what the running aquarium is different from the one that is not running.
So, we will analyze the points, how to run the aquarium correctly:
- The run starts with water pouring. Water must be poured plumbing, pre-defend it is not necessary. After pouring water turn on the filter with aeration. If the filter does not have an aerator, then the compressor must additionally work, since nitrifying bacteria require a lot of oxygen and a heater (set at 24-25 °). In this form, with the lights off, the aquarium is left for 5-7 days. All these days they spend only monitoring the operation of the equipment: check whether oxygen is supplied, measure the temperature of the water.
- After 5-7 days, unpretentious fast-growing plants are planted, after which they turn on the lighting for 4-5 hours a day.
- After 1-2 days you can start the first aquarium animals. This may be small unpretentious fish (viviparous or, for example, danios), but it is better to use snail ampoules or hymeno-viruses that are more resistant to water quality. There should be few animals. Feed them once a day in very small portions. It is necessary to constantly monitor their behavior and appetite. Ampulyaria, for example, are excellent indicators of water quality: in clean, good water, they rush around the aquarium at cruising speed, straightening antennae and looking for food. At this stage, the light is turned on for the whole day (8-12 hours), you can add special bacterial cultures to the aquarium to start (they are from different companies, for example Sera Nitrivek).
- After a week, the remaining plants are planted and begin in parts (at intervals of 1-2 days) to launch the main fish population. For each released party you need to carefully monitor, feed moderately.
That is, in fact, all science. True, nothing complicated?
Of course, the equilibrium in the aquarium is still unstable, and some time after the launch such unpleasant phenomena can occur, such as outbreaks of diatoms. But if the launch was carried out correctly, these problems are usually not catastrophic, do not lead to a massive freezing of fish and are solved in working order.
To combat these diatomies, for example, a small charming catfish otozinclus is successfully used.
Above, we wrote that for the reproduction of beneficial bacteria need nutrition and substrate. And, of course, the initial number of the bacterial colony matters.
Thus, in order to accelerate the maturation of the biofilter and, accordingly, the launch of the aquarium, you can immediately add a significant amount of bacteria to the artificial reservoir and prepare a large area substrate for them (there is enough nutrition for the bacteria in the starting aquarium).
Bacteria are introduced with the help of industrial starter culture (we also mentioned about them above) or with water, soil, filter filler from the existing, safe aquarium. To ensure a sufficient area of the substrate for bacteria, it is recommended to use filters with fillers made of porous ceramics or filters of considerable volume with other fillers, plant plants with narrow, feathery leaves, and use fine gravel of even size as the soil.
All these surfaces will inhabit nitrifying bacteria.
Startup control of the aquarium greatly facilitates the use of tests for aquarium water for ammonia and nitrite. These tests are produced by different manufacturers and are not uncommon in pet stores.
With their help, you can track the level of these toxic compounds in the water and adjust the population of fish in the running aquarium.
As you can see, the correct launch of the aquarium takes not so much time – it is quite possible to suffer two or three weeks. It does not require a colossal amount of strength and special academic knowledge.
But it helps to avoid many problems in the future, preserves the life and health of the fish, and therefore, the nerves and good mood to their owner.
The appearance of aqua world has been happening for thousands of years, so it is not possible to instantly create an optimal microclimate in the aquarium. It is not enough to buy a rack with specialized chemicals and equipment.
Start the launch of the aquarium by determining the place where the artificial reservoir will be located and only then can the issue of settling and other filling of the aquarium be resolved. However, this is still far away. Place the aquarium in its place and pour water to the top.
This is necessary so that traces of sealant and other hazards dissolve. Now drain it completely. Together with the water will leave the remnants of dissolved materials.
After that, you need to go to laying soil. Pour water into the aquarium for a third of its volume and lay the prepared material on the bottom. It is best to use small round stones, the grains of which do not exceed 5 millimeters.
Try to find a soil with a neutral alkaline environment. You can check it without special devices, just drop vinegar on it, if it starts to sizzle, then the rigidity in such an aquarium will be alkalized and faded.
Properly selected soil allows you to create an organic microclimate and will not allow to form places of stagnation where water does not circulate. Since the soil is considered a natural biofilter for all microorganisms, the continued success of the launch of a new aquarium depends largely on the correct actions for choosing and laying the ground. The bacteria that appeared in it take part in the process of ozonization and nitratization of water, therefore it is important to keep track of areas that are difficult to access for changing water.
In order not to accidentally bring harmful microorganisms and diseases into the aquarium, the soil must be treated. Starting an aquarium from scratch begins with the ignition or boiling of the washed soil.
To prevent the bottom of the aquarium from cracking due to the temperature difference, the ground is lowered into the poured water or previously cooled. After it is in place, add liquid to the required level.
For starters, you can ignore aeration, filtering and lighting. It is enough to turn on the heater if necessary. After a day, the chlorine content will return to normal, the water will acquire the desired temperature, and the excess gases will come out.
You can start planting plants. For their existence, you must properly highlight the water.
Try to put the lamp in the range of 0.35 watts per liter. For the beginning of the 8-hour daylight will be enough.
Plants that help form the right microclimate:
- Cut or pterygoid carrots;
- Indian fern;
- Rapidly growing grass.
The launch of the aquarium is complicated by the lack of bacteria that are responsible for processing the waste products of the inhabitants. Thanks to the above plants, more precisely, the death of their leaves, these microorganisms become larger.
No matter how much you want to run fancy fish at this moment, you have to wait. The first stage has been completed – the plants are in place, now it is necessary to wait for time, so that they adapt, take root and go to growth.
All these actions among aquarists are called – setting the primary balance.
Stages of microclimate formation:
- Active reproduction of microorganisms leads to turbidity of water;
- After 3-4 days, transparency returns to normal;
- The absorption of oxygen and organics leads to the accumulation of ammonia;
- Bacteria begin to work hard and normalize the environment.
Many are trying to find the answer, how much time should the aquarium stand before launching the fish. In fact, there is no optimal time limit.
It all depends on temperature, plants and volume. It is necessary to wait for a light smell of fresh grass, and not a new aquarium with a silicone impurity.
It is time to launch the first fish. If you are not sure that the aquarium is fully prepared to accept the inhabitants, then start with a pair of Guppy or Danyushki.
However, if you did everything according to the instructions, then boldly plant a whole flock of young individuals into the pond. Up to 15 teens can be released into the one-hundred-meter aquarium.
This must be done correctly:
- Bring a jar or bag of young stock home;
- Wait a couple of hours, setting aeration of water in a jar or bag;
- Drain some of the water and add the one in your tank;
- Wait an hour and repeat the procedure;
- Gradually, within a few hours, change all the water;
- Send the fish to the general aquarium.
If possible, try to measure the parameters of water first time. To do this you will need testers for acidity, nitrates and ammonia.
Fish pioneers need to be fed live food, if there is none, then ice cream is allowed. Feeding dry food is not desirable. If there is no other choice, then enter it for not many, arranging fasting days for the inhabitants.
It is imperative to observe this rule so that a bacterial outbreak does not occur.
In the beginning, you should not build a schedule for changing and changing water, just watch the inhabitants. You can change 10-20% of water if:
- All fish have fallen into the lower layers;
- Melting in pairs or flock;
- Presses upper fin.
To make sure you need to change the water, check the acidity and temperature. If the thermometer scale is above 25 degrees with a pH of more than 7.6, then change part of the water.
It is important to make sure that all the fish have fallen to the bottom, and not just one individual. In the event that one of the fish descends low alone – drop him into quarantine and continue to observe.
Experienced aquarists offer another way to normalize balance. Sow all the fish for a day and wait for the decrease in ammonia.
Then the inhabitants come back.
Running the aquarium and settling fish in it affects the quality of the water. Each individual creates a chemical cloud around itself that affects its neighbors.
The higher the density of fish, the greater the impact of harmful substances.
So that the launch does not turn out to be a waste of time, it is necessary to carefully plan the follow-up care: the number and frequency of changes in water or part of it. Tap water is completely unsuitable for creating optimal water.
Tap water is too aggressive for sensitive fish. It is strictly forbidden to change all the water (except for the “patient”).
In the aquarium is established its own environment, like the one that is familiar to the type of fish.
The optimal amount of water added is no more than 1/5 of the part. Fish will be able to restore the normal microsphere after a couple of days. If you change ½ the volume of water at a time, this inept action can lead to the death of fish and plants.
Recovery of hydrobalance large amount of water is possible only in 2-3 weeks. Complete replacement of water will lead to the death of all living things, and it will be necessary to launch the aquarium from the very beginning.
Use separated water, the temperature of which will be approximately equal to the aquarium one – this will reduce the chance of fish killing.
Launching a new aquarium is a complex process that requires careful preparation. In order to properly organize the launch of a new aquarium for fish, you need to prepare the aquarium itself, plants for it, decorations, a filtration system, a backlight, and a compressor with a spray. After purchasing all the equipment, it is installed, then water is poured.
But that is not all. In the aquarium should be formed favorable biological environment of beneficial bacteria.
Many, wanting to get an aquarium, believe that the fish – those pets that bring the least trouble. And only experienced aquarists know that this is far from true.
Many people are convinced by their own experience that launching an aquarium is a complex process that is built up depending on a large number of factors. However, those who start, making the first launch of the aquarium, do not even suspect about all the stages that should precede such a joyful event as the launch of fish.
Start the aquarium correctly – the first task of the aquarist
Preparation of the aquarium for launch begins with the introduction of soil into it
The added tap water for some time should just be left in the aquarium so that it will settle. The duration of this period for supporters of traditional methods is several days.
At the same time, there are special modern tools, adding which you can shorten this period to one day and carry out a quick launch of the aquarium.
Then the water is inhabited by microorganisms that are involved in the processes occurring in the water. To make this process faster, it is recommended to turn on the filter and saturate the water with air.
After the water is saturated with the simplest life, unpretentious plants are planted in the ground. And although some types of plants are quite acceptable to transfer the landing before filling the aquarium with water, it is better to do it after.
Plants should not be much.
Together with the planting of plants, you can begin to turn on the light for a short time: 4-6 hours.
A day later it will be possible to launch snails into the aquarium. Thanks to the products of their vital activity, the number of bacteria will increase, which will help establish equilibrium in the nitrogen cycle.
Only in 3 weeks from the moment of launch it will be possible to land half of the total planned “green spaces”. At this time, there will already be enough light for them, and they can no longer upset the balance.
Launching the aquarium, each owner is looking forward to the moment when it will be possible to run fish into it. After a few days from the very beginning of the process, it is possible to increase the lighting time of the aquarium to 9 or even 12 hours. At the same time, unpretentious types of fish are launched.
Their number should not exceed one third of the population allowed for the selected aquarium volume. With the proper start of the aquarium, it is very important not to feed the fish at this time.
It will not suffer from such a forced starvation diet, but it is easy to break the forming nitrogen cycle by feeding, which will lead to the need to restart the aquarium. It will be possible to organize food for the fish only 4 days after their stay in the emerging ecosystem.
A few days after the launch of the first fish, you can populate the aquarium with fish in half of their estimated number. At this time, it is already possible to release more capricious species of fish – the threat to them is minimal.
At the same time, it is already worth replacing one-fifth of the water, and at the same time siphoning the primer. It is also time to rinse the filter.
A week later, all the fish will be planted, the same amount of water will be replaced again, the filter cleaned and the soil cleaned.
The decomposition products of fish and other macro-organisms living in an aquarium, when decomposed, are converted into ammonia, which is dangerous for them at even low concentrations. This is such a toxic compound that its concentration at the level of 0.2-0.5 mg / l is fatal for the inhabitants of the reservoir, and when the content of ammonia in the water in a proportion of 0.01-0.02 mg / l in fish, immunity is significantly reduced.
As a result, they become very vulnerable to all sorts of diseases and parasites.
Proper start-up of the aquarium is aimed at ensuring that microorganisms inhabiting the water could process the entire volume of ammonia. Then it practically will not be in the aquarium, which can be verified with the help of special tests.
The preparation of the aquarium for start-up must be carried out primarily because in the new aquarium the volume of ammonia grows very quickly and the fish, getting into such conditions in most cases either die immediately or start to hurt. In this case, only the restart of the aquarium can help.
The process of reproduction of beneficial bacteria can be accelerated in several ways. Traditional: add water and dirt from the old one to the new aquarium.
Along with them will be made a significant number of bacteria, which then inhabit all of its volume. If there is no other aquarium, the bacteria can be bought at a regular pet store. The process of their reproduction is accompanied by the appearance of the effect of turbid water.
Launching a new aquarium for the first time, at this time you can make a big mistake: change the water. This is not necessary.
The water will become clear again in a couple of days.
The initial stage of the aquarium start-up cycle averages two weeks, during which the number of bacteria increases, but not as rapidly as in the first days.
The overgrown population of bacteria successfully processes ammonia into nitrites, which are also toxic, but to a much lesser extent. Other beneficial bacteria recycle nitrites and they are converted to nitrates, which are also toxic.
Both nitrites and nitrates can reach a critical volume when they adversely affect fish.
To avoid further restarting the aquarium, which is also associated with significant inconveniences, it is better to carry out a slow start of the aquarium from the first time and not rush to inhabit it with fish.
After the first start of the aquarium, sometimes the water becomes cloudy, thus acquiring an uncharacteristic color. In itself, turbidity is not a terrible phenomenon, it is a signal that something is wrong in the water and there is a need to do preventive procedures to eliminate the problem.
Turbid water after launching appears due to a number of reasons, after studying which, the reservoir can be put in order.
What is the aquatic environment characteristic of new aquariums?
A few days after installation and start-up, the water in the aquarium dimmed dramatically. Why it happens?
- The fact is that in the “immature” reservoirs the biological environment has not yet formed, the beneficial bacteria have not spread enough, and are in a state of “stress.” While they multiply massively, and after a few weeks, their colonies will adapt to the new reservoir. In old aquariums, bacteria do not multiply abundantly.
- The water in the new aquarium also becomes cloudy from the light particles of soil, which rises under the influence of frequent water changes. When pouring water directly on the ground, its pellets rise sharply, floating for a long time. This process creates a visual turbidity of water. To avoid this, it is necessary to make a careful and gradual injection of fluid into the tank. After this, the sediment will “calm down” and settle to the bottom. Purchased fish are unlikely to create a “hurricane” in a new home – they are shy and often hide in shelters. Water with sand sediment is harmless to fish and plants.
Watch the video about why the water in the aquarium grows cloudy.