maintenance, care, compatibility
Aquarium plants are all for beginners with photos and video
Plants are an established aquarium biosystem, no harmful substances in the water, no algae.
Aquarian plants are a natural interior and “maternity hospital” for fish, fry, shrimps, snails, etc.
Plants are an additional food for aquarium inhabitants.
By the way, about the question of the correct planting
What water plants are unpretentious: some species
Echinodorus – a very popular aquarium plant, is characterized by unpretentiousness and endurance. There are many types of Echinodorus, which combine morphological characteristics.
They have linear or heart-shaped leaves, their color is dark or bright green. Young ekhinodorusy can quickly acclimatize in a new environment, will begin to grow rapidly.
Reproduction occurs due to the separation of daughter plants from the rhizome, or their appearance on the arrows with flowers.
Cryptocoryne – a family of the same, long stem plants. Can be planted at the back of the tank (cryptocoryne aponogetonolist).
The average plan can be placed cryptocoryn Walker or Beckett. In the foreground, a dwarf cryptocoryne will look great.
Reproduction occurs by the method of separation of the daughter plant from the mother when the first reaches the height of the mother bush. Cutting off a child escape, it can be transplanted to another place, rooting in the ground.
What light is needed for those aquariums in which aquatic plants do not live? In such tanks it is necessary to reduce the intensity of light.
To do this, you can take a lamp of lower power. For containers 30 cm long, the lamp power should not exceed 10 watts. With such lighting, the movement of fish will be visible, and the inhabitants of the artificial home pond will feel comfortable.
When choosing the intensity of illumination, you must consider the breed of fish If albino fish live in an aquarium, then even a level of light would be dangerous for them.
For comfortable illumination in an aquarium with a green flora that does not cause stress in fish, a lamp with a length equal to the length of the aquarium is suitable. This is the best option for selecting lighting for shallow tanks.
For deep tanks, it is better to select a certain compromise that would create comfortable conditions for both flora and fauna. There are several solutions to this problem.
If there is not enough light in the tank for aquatic verdure, then fish species should be chosen from shallow reservoirs that are accustomed to bright light. In this case, the fish will not be dangerous bright light, and it will be useful for plants. You can choose the types of underwater flora that do not need too bright light.
Such varieties are well combined with the content of deep-sea fish. They allow you to create conditions for life, close to natural.
You can pick up seedlings with leaves that can float on the surface of the aquarium and consume the right amount of light. The leaves will create a shade in which the fish will feel comfortable under intense light. In this case, the arrangement of the aquarium should begin with the cultivation of underwater plants.
As soon as comfortable conditions for fish are created in an artificial reservoir, it will be possible to launch them. Then, in bright light, fish will be able to hide in the grown leaves of algae floating on the surface of the reservoir.
Usually the plants grow to the desired size in two months. For better growth of plants, while there are no fish in the tank, you need to add fertilizer to the soil or water.
When arranging an aquarium, you can pick up high and low species of plants, evenly distributing them in the pond. For starters, choose unpretentious representatives of the aquatic flora: anubiasa, cryptocoryne, elodea, javanese moss, vallysneria, aponogetony, riccia, bacopa, limnofily.
You can make such an arrangement only in large aquariums. For small volume tanks this option is not suitable.
Watch the video about unpretentious aquarium plants.
When setting the illumination, you can adjust the direction to which the light will go. The lamp is best sent to the places of intensive plant growth.
So you can equip the backlight in large containers. Water areas free from aquatic flora should be decorated with snags or stained oak, which will create shaded “islands” that are close to the natural habitats of fish.
Soil and nutritional substrate for aquarium plants: selection, preparation, laying
Substrates, nutritious soil for aquarium plants
No less important substrate for plants are nutrient soils. Their variety is also very large.
Substrates for aquarium plants should be distinguished from Aquael Grunt soils, as these are not granules, but nutrient substrates consisting mainly of: clay and peat, as well as other components. Substrates can be applied both with ordinary soil and with Aquael Aqua Soil type substrates.
Nutritious substrate for aquarium plants – It is a nutrient store in the soil. It fits under the bottom of the ground, makes it possible to achieve effective growth of aquatic plants with relatively small financial investments.
When choosing a substrate, it is worth paying attention to the composition of nutrients that will come with it to the aquarium. With some manufacturers you can get a set of trace elements and iron, while others feed with nitrates, phosphates and other useful substances.
Nutrient grounds – provide nutrition of aquatic plants through the roots and support their growth, also stabilizes the aquatic environment, normalizes the water parameters. Aquarium plants are able to absorb nutrients, both through the leaves and through the root system. Many species of plants in an aquarium in their natural habitat in dry weather live for months as marsh and at this time they develop an extensive root system in the ground through which they receive water and nutrients.
Usually, such aquatic plants are strong absorbers of nutrients and require good soil in aquarium for good growth. And therefore, the consumption of nutrients only through the leaves is not enough for them.
Liquid fertilizers can be used in an aquarium only as an addition to nutrition, but in no way replace a rich nutrient soil. Therefore, it is very important to choose the right nutrient soils and substrates for your aquarium!
It should be noted that in spite of the usefulness of such substrates, they should not be used in an aquarium, where there will be two – three spreads. Such substrates need good herbalists.
In addition, nutrient soils require stronger filtration, otherwise the water may turn sour.
Below is a description of the substrate that I use.
JBL AquaBasis plus – This is a ready-made mixture of nutrients for aquarium plants. Used when launching new aquariums. Provides asthenia with all nutrients for healthy and fast growth.
D & B Aqua Basis contains iron, trace elements and minerals that all aquatic plants need. Favorable fast, healthy and strong development of the root system of plants. The clay in the mixture acts as a storage pantry for nutrients, which binds nutrients when they are oversupplied and releases in case of shortages.
Provides long-term and complete nutrition of aquarium plants. Does not contain phosphates and nitrates, causing the growth of unwanted algae.
Validity 3 years!
Application: Contents 5 kg. a package is enough for an aquarium of 100-200 liters. It is laid on the bottom of the aquarium with a uniform layer about 2 cm high.
The top layer is covered with a layer of basic soil about 4 cm high with a fraction of 2-3 mm. Do not use coarse gravel!
Video about JBL AquaBasis plus
There are also separate additives and dressings for plants that fit into the ground. Their compositions are different.
In my opinion, the best supplements are thermal-containing feedings. As an additional feeding in my herbalist, I used clean, crushed tourmaline, which I bought as a stone and ground it into powder.
Read more here!
Laying aquarium soil for plants
So, as you understand, the substrate for aquarium plants is a layer cake, which plays an important role in the life of plants.
Once again, the underlining that the use of special substrates for aquarium plants is needed only in “dense herbalists”.
Sometimes, an aquarium design with live aquarium plants is planned so that the plants are in a certain part of the aquarium, for example, in the corner. The rest of the aquarium is free and other decorations are placed on it – stones, snags, etc.
In this case, nutrient substrates should be placed only in the part of the aquarium where the plants will be. At the same time for the delimitation of the zone, you can use ordinary cardboard partitions.
How, for example, does it Takashi Amano at the Moscow seminar.
Below, I will give the scheme by which I laid the soil in
your “dense” herbalist
one. At the bottom of the aquarium, two capsules of a dry biostrater were scattered to speed up the adjustment of the biobalance and the development of a colony of beneficial bacteria in the soil.
And also, two tablespoons (without a hill) of tourmaline powder are evenly scattered.
2. JBL Aqua Basis plus is laid in a layer of 2 cm.
3 Part of the AquaEl Aqua Grunt package.
Scattered for easy mixing with JBL Aqua Basis plus and creating a smooth mass heterogeneity.
four. The basic, usual soil is laid (a crumb of 2-3 ml.).
five. The remaining parts of the AquaEl Aqua Grunt package.
It was scattered to the very top, since predominantly the herbalist consists of the cube chemionus and the elioharis, which, it is extremely dreary to plant, due to its small size. To lighter soil, these plants are easier to take root.
6 And at the end another spoon was spilled, another tourmaline.
And also, while thinking about the cube, the powder from the Tetra PlantaStart tablet, which contains hormones for quicker and better rooting of plants, is scattered.
Here is such a solid layer turned out!
The above scheme is naturally not a dogma, but serves as only one example of laying aquarium soil for plants.
The use of soil in the aquascape
It is quite natural that a person standing in front of a shop or market stall may have his eyes scattered from the presented variety of underwater land. There is a variety of soil in color, in shape and in size.
In such an abundance of products it is easy to get lost, not only to a beginner, but also to a different lover. After all, the aquarium bottom is not only an important component of the decor, along with the background, lighting and decorations, it also plays one of the main roles in the biochemical life of the aquarium.
On its surface, beneficial microorganisms, bacteria, fungi, and bryozoans are actively developing and multiplying, and he actively processes the waste products of the inhabitants of the underwater kingdom.
A sort of natural filter in which various kinds of suspended matter and microparticles that pollute water are deposited. And this is all, not to mention the fact that the soil is a substrate for most underwater plants.
So, before grabbing one or another bag of soil from the store shelf, you should first decide – no matter how strange it sounds – what the aquarium is made for.
The further choice of the bottom litter depends on the answer to the question posed, because for fish it is one, and for plants it is completely different.
Aquarium soil is divided into three main categories:
Natural. This group includes materials of exclusively natural origin that have not undergone any additional processing, for example, gravel, sand, pebbles, quartz, crushed stone.
This soil does not contain any nutrients, and the underwater garden planted in it will begin to grow no earlier than six months after planting, when there is enough waste and sludge accumulated in it, which plants can use as food.
To speed up the growth of underwater flora, the earth must be further nourished. Underwater fertilizers in the form of tablets, capsules or granules can be purchased at any pet store.
In this group, sometimes there is a variation – processed natural soil, for example, from baked clay.
Mechanical substrate. In this case, the soil obtained by chemical or mechanical processing of natural material.
Artificial. Many companies make certain nutrient mixtures for aquariums.
This type of soil is best suited for the Dutch aquarium, in which the first place plants, and for shrimp.
Why precisely L-lamps? The fact is that these gas-discharge devices have high luminous efficiency and low heat transfer.
Their principle of operation is that the electric field, acting by its discharge on the pumped gas into a sealed glass tube, creates a strong radiation in the ultraviolet spectrum.
A crystal phosphor-based phosphor converts UV radiation into visible light. Such a luminaire has a high light transmission index (Ra) and creates a diffused even light that is ideal for lighting large rooms as well as small ones.
The relative durability and the possibility of continuous work without shutdowns makes fluorescent lamps indispensable in aquarium.
True, they have a common drawback – the presence of a starting device or a choke, which makes some noise.
There are also specialized lamps, which are represented by Hagen.
- Sun-glo – the spectrum is similar to LB, but more balanced, it shines with white light, in most cases it can be replaced by cheaper LB or imported analogues;
- Aqua-glo – The spectrum is specially selected for maximum compatibility with the absorption spectrum of chlorophyll, shines pink-violet light, good colors red, yellow, orange, blue and blue colors on fish;
- Flora glo – designed for aquariums with plants, shines pink, also improves the color of fish, cheaper counterparts – LF and Osram / 77 Fluora;
- Power glo – has in its spectrum a significant part of blue light, very powerful, can be used in saltwater aquariums or aquariums without plants (for example, in cichlidariums); if plants are there, then it is better to combine it with Aqua-Glo or Flora-Glo, it enhances blue and blue coloring of fish.
These lamps are quite expensive, but give a better effect than conventional ones.
Shine – the most important element of a successful biotope, so the creator of a biotope always has to ask which lamp to use in an aquarium. This question must be considered at the planning stage.
LED bulbs – lamps of tomorrow. They, unlike fluorescent lamps “do not flicker,” and more and more are being introduced into the aquarium practice.
How to choose a lamp in the aquarium?
All tips and strategies can not be described in one or more articles.
In addition to general data on the characteristics of the light, the lamps themselves, it is also necessary to take into account the individual requirements of aquatic organisms living in the aquarium, and the wishes of the aquarist himself to the type of future biotope.
However, general guidelines might look like this. Consider fluorescent lamp types.
The most important parameters when choosing: power and spectrum of the lamp.
Aquarium with an emphasis on fish is quite enough 0.5 – 1 watt per liter, and two kinds of lamps: one – with a color temperature of 6400K, 7500K, or 10000K, and the second – with a predominance of the red spectrum, which will enhance the color of fish and plants. It is possible to add a lamp with white color, with CC 6400K.
These are all T8 lamps (lamp diameter: 8/8 inch).
If settling down herbalist, or a biotope with a large number of light-demanding plants, the power of illumination should be from 1 watt per liter or more. Some plants and 2 watts per liter will not be enough!
The lamps CT is chosen the same: 1-2 lamps with low CT + 1-2 lamps 6400K (or 1 lamp 6400K and 1 lamp 8000K).
In such an aquarium, bright white daylight should prevail.
In general, different variants of light-organization are possible here, but the predominance of yellow color should not be allowed: in this case the plants will grow worse, and seaweed on the contrary, they will feel very good. It is also recommended to install T5 fluorescent lamps (5/8 inch lamp diameter) with greater light output.
In general, plants need red and blue spectrum for growth.
It is recommended that aquatic plants have lamps with maxima in the red and blue regions of the light spectrum, since these two regions are very important for hydrophytes for photo synthesis. However, a maximum of blue light applied without a red maximum can lead to rapid algae growth.
Therefore, it is necessary to use these two maxima together.
Lamps of warm colors are put on the foreground, and cold tones – on the back. It improves the “depth effect”.
Light reflectors significantly improve the light output of the lamps. And in the herbalist they are necessary, their presence is also desirable in the biotope created primarily for fish.
With an illumination of 0.3 W / liter and less, many plants will not grow at all.
However, even with an unjustified increase in power: 0.6 W / liter, rapid growth of algae may begin.
The color in the designation of a fluorescent lamp usually comes after the “/” sign. Colors can be designated as numbers, and an alphabetic combination. The following lamp designations are most common:
/ 35 – white color, 3500K (W);
/ 54 – daytime color, 6200K (D);
/ 77 – lamp for the aquarium;
/ 79 – with a high content of red;
/ 89 – blue color (actinic, 10000K), used in reef aquariums;
/ 05 – blue color (actinic), used in reef aquariums;
/ 03 – super actinic, used in reef aquariums.
Even a very experienced amateur, setting the lighting system in his aquarium, monitors the state of plants, algae growth and other factors in it and, if necessary, corrects the selected lighting scheme.
Many manufacturers of lamps for aquariums have specialized solutions for a particular biotope and offer a ready-to-install lamp or a combination of lamps.
To form your “light solution” is not a simple task for a beginner. But do not despair: studying the characteristics of light, lamps, the needs of hydrobionts, and, of course, observing your pets in a biotope is the key to a proper solution of this issue.
Before pouring the acquired bottom flooring, it is worth washing it. This is done under the pressure of running water to wash away excess dust and lime.
For greater certainty, you can boil.
Do not use soaps or other cleaning products for this process, since chemistry will be even more difficult to remove in the future.
The flooring can be placed on the bottom of the tank in an even layer, or it can be tilted from the far wall to the front. This type of placement will give relief to the underwater landscape.
Here again, it all depends on the taste and imagination of the owner.
The optimal layer size is 5-7 mm. You can pour 10 mm, but remember that the pressure exerted by the soil on the glass will increase several times.
Will it survive? In addition, a thick layer of flooring will not be well permeable, which means that there is a high risk of starting the process of stagnation and decay.
You can also mix the soil of different colors, creating drawings and patterns at the bottom. There is nothing wrong with this, but over time the ground will spread, and nothing will remain of creativity.
After that, decorations are placed on the bottom – snags, pots, houses, etc. Then the aquarium is filled with water by half, and only now it is possible to plant the plants. After landing, you can add water by stepping back from the edge of 2 cm.
And even when everything is done and the aquarium is ready to receive its first tenants, do not rush. From the moment of launching the aquarium and before replanting the fish in it, it takes 2-3 weeks for the microflora of water to settle, and the plants to take root and strengthen in a new place.
Caring for the soil is in its periodic cleaning. This is done by a special device – siphon. It is sold in pet stores.
This is something like a vacuum cleaner to clean the aquarium, which is draining unnecessary residues of organic matter from the soil using a vacuum.
If the bottom flooring was chosen correctly, its permeability was preserved, then caring for it is not difficult. Cleaning is done as it is polluted, the ground itself changes completely about once every five years.
In the new aquarium, it is best to feed plants with special fertilizers. In the first year it is not necessary to clean it.
The aquarium can be completely without soil. In this case, the plants are planted on the bottom in special pots.
By the way, the plants themselves can also be used as bottom litter, for example, a creeping echinodorus.
Whatever soil you prefer, the main thing is that it should be chosen wisely and precisely for the goals that were set. Follow these simple rules, and the aquarium will always delight you with beauty, and the underwater inhabitants will remain grateful.
How to determine the acceptable intensity of illumination in the aquarium? You can meet with the information that the optimal calculation is 0.5 W per liter of water in the aquarium.
However, this calculation can not be called the only true. The depth of the water, the individual characteristics of the habitat familiar to the fish and the plant, all have an impact on the final calculation of how much power is needed to determine the intensity of the backlight.
After all, it is obvious that aquarium inhabitants, accustomed to life at depth, need much less light than residents of shallow water. It is also quite clear that at a depth of about 20 cm, the intensity of light is greater than at a 60 centimeter depth.
Therefore, the final calculation of the intensity of the light flux in the aquarium can be selected exclusively by a kind of experiment. It is recommended to take as a basis a typical calculation of 0.5 V / l, after which to increase or decrease the intensity. As a result, you can choose how much is the optimal calculation for your particular case.
If the lighting is excessive, the water in the aquarium will begin to bloom, the filament will develop, the walls will be overgrown with algae. With a lack of light, fish will find it difficult to breathe, small-leaved plants will start to die, and the aquarium will be covered with brown spots.
In this case, you may need additional lighting.
LIGHTING FOR AQUARIUM PLANTS, LEDS AND LED MASSIFES.
INSTALLATION AND STARTING OF THE AQUARIUM CARE CONTENTS CLEANING REGISTRATION.
SOIL FOR AQUARIUM- SPECIES NATURAL NEUTRAL ARTIFICIAL
Soil for an aquarium – types natural neutral artificial
SOIL FOR AQUARIUM
Which soil is better for an aquarium – the first question a person starting to breed fish. Very often at the initial stage of arranging “a house for fish” the question arises: what kind of soil is better for an aquarium? Although later it loses its relevance and ceases to be actively discussed.
However, at the end of the time, mistakes made at the beginning make themselves felt, and as a result large-scale corrections begin.
The soil is not only a decorative element of the aquarium, but also an important part of the internal ecosystem. It is a substrate for rooting of aquatic plants and a habitat for beneficial nitrifying bacteria, which is especially important when using a bottom filter.
In addition, some species of fish instinctively burrow into the ground in case of danger or under the influence of seasonal factors, others feed exclusively on the bottom, sifting soil particles with their mouths in search of food, and still others lay their eggs on the substrate, making small holes in it. for aquarium?
It is recommended to use for a freshwater aquarium, for example, black, gray or white large river sand, building sand, small pebbles or run-in gravel. More specifically, the size of the grains of sand should vary between 2-3 mm. Pebbles for the aquarium may be larger – 2-8 mm.
Fine sand is placed on the bottom (the size of the grains of sand is 1.5-2.5), then a layer of coarse sand (size 3-4.5 mm).
So, it happened. The question to be or not to be with the purchase of an aquarium was decided in the direction of being, after a huge number of logical conclusions and financial calculations. And what’s next?
After all, one desire is clearly not enough for a piece of the sea striking with beauty to appear at home, and the fish living in it always please the eye with health and lively activity. To achieve this goal, you need to solve a bunch of small tasks, and one of them is the choice of soil for the future of the underwater kingdom.
This question is one of the most important and paramount.
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Unpretentious aquarium plants