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Stones for an aquarium

maintenance, care, compatibility

Before getting to the aquarium, the stones must undergo a primary inspection, at which they pay attention to the following aspects:

  1. Effect on water: stones should not dissolve in water and change its hardness or acidity.
  2. On color (color and shades of inclusions and streaks): it is known that light stones will look bad in an aquarium, but dark ones – on the contrary, it is very advantageous.
  3. On the texture or features of the external structure and surface (irregularities, veins, hollows). The most interesting stones of complex, intricate shapes.
  4. Safety – the absence of sharp corners and edges, which can be injured fish.

The term living stones is familiar to experienced aquarium breeders rather than to newcomers in this business. The fact is that they are used mainly in marine domestic water bodies, the design of which requires some experience and knowledge.

One of the varieties of natural natural stones are the so-called living stones. These are pieces of coral that are found or broken on reefs.

They are transported in a moist state, so that the algae, animals and microorganisms that live on their surface or in the pores and holes, remain alive. Live Rock is not only a special kind of scenery, but also an important element of the life support system in saltwater aquariums.

Stones play a supporting role in an aquarium, are a background for living beings and emphasize the nature of the landscape. Their use should be moderate and unobtrusive.

Knowledge of the types of stones and their features will help to choose the best set for each case.

There are the following types:

  • Artificial. They are on sale in zoo or online stores. The easiest option, but requiring cash investments. The most expensive multi-colored glass pebbles. Beautiful specimens are quite expensive. Choose better approximate in appearance to natural, so that the aquarium does not look tasteless.
  • Processed natural origin. Available in specialty stores. Stones can be tinted or glued together in a composition (grottoes, rocks, etc.).
  • Natural natural. Stones taken directly from nature. You should be careful when choosing them, since not all are suitable for an aquarium. Careful preliminary preparation will be required not to bring an infection.

In addition to external beauty, for certain species of fish, stones for an aquarium are an indispensable element of the surrounding world and the ecosystem, contributing to their survival and reproduction. They are also needed to regulate water quality.

Having a minimum set of knowledge about aquarium stones will allow you to choose the right stones for the aquarium.

Find stones for aquariums can be anywhere. In general, this is not such a difficult task, but whether they suit you or not, this is perhaps the most difficult question. Under current conditions, they can be bought at a pet store, which is not difficult, but this method is often ignored by experienced aquarists.

Independent search for fillers for an aquarium brings much more positive emotions and allows you to abandon the established design stereotypes, adding something special, unusual and unique to the design.

When self-searching for stones for aquariums, it is advisable to pay attention to the following places:

  • sea ​​and river bank;
  • quarries for the extraction of building stone, such as marble, granite and their varieties;
  • surroundings of volcanoes.

For ease of understanding, stones for an aquarium are conventionally divided into two types – artificial and natural. Natural stones, in addition, are also divided into several types – of natural origin and processed.

Consider each view separately, as well as their main advantages and disadvantages.

Artificial stones for an aquarium can generally be used to impart a complete aesthetic appearance and are usually made of safe, non-toxic plastics. The external form of such stones is very diverse, from ordinary glass of various shapes and colors to night-glowing stones and fanciful elements of rocks.

The price of such stones varies depending on the complexity of manufacturing and similarity with natural stones. Despite the safety of the material, the instruction on the rules of handling and their preparation before installation goes to artificial stones, as a rule.

Natural processed stones for aquariums are found mainly as finished compositions of natural stones in the form of underwater caves, rocks, or as a finished stone appliqué. As an element of design, in addition to stone processing, it is often found that it is painted and glued.

Despite its visual appeal, being made not from suitable materials, such stones in the aquarium can quickly fall apart and harm the fish. High-quality machined stones will cost accordingly.

Natural stones are the most practical and cheap material for decoration of aquariums. However, not all stones can approach your fish, due to the fact that some of them can release certain substances into the water that change the level of hardness and alkalinity of the water.

They are neutral to water (they do not emit any substances in water) and can safely apply stones such as:

  • granite;
  • gneiss;
  • gray sandstone (not to be confused with porous white sandstone);
  • quartz and quartenites.

Increase water hardness stones from:

  • slate;
  • some types of tuff;
  • dolomite;
  • seashells and coquina;
  • limestone;
  • marble.

Increase the alkalinity of water stones from:

  • calcareous tuff;
  • limestone;
  • porous white sandstone (increases water hardness).

In addition to the above, pebbles are often found on sale. These are natural round stones, the edges of which are ground by water.

They come from completely different materials and, as a result, can have different effects on water.

Lava is also neutral with respect to water. Compared to other stones, it is significantly lighter, and its bizarre forms will undoubtedly add originality to the water landscape.

However, it is not very popular mainly due to its high cost.

Sea stones look the most interesting, however, you can only put them in the inside after special treatment.

A separate type of stones for decoration of aquariums emit live stones. They represent a small part of coral, obtained as a result of collecting in the sea.

In most cases, they are suitable only for marine fish, as they are part of the marine ecosystem.

Despite the relatively high price, the presence of live stones in the aquarium justifies itself with interest. Being beautiful and safe for the inhabitants of the aquarium, they contain plankton and produce special nutrients.

Coral can also be used as a living natural filter for an aquarium, which constantly pumping water through it will purify it.

When choosing a living stone, it is better to give preference to stones with a developed relief, a large number of dimples and cavities. Such specimens will not only look profitable, but also give the fish additional shelter.

How to choose and check the stones before putting them in the aquarium?

Stone decorations are the perfect complement to your home aquascape. The main condition is that they should not change the chemical composition of water, which can affect the health of fish, plants and other animals.

Stones for an aquarium help to create a natural biotope: African and South American freshwater fish are used to the rocky bottom. A prerequisite for an aquarium stone is its smoothness, hardness and durable structure.

Smooth and flat stones in an aquarium are necessary if cichlids live in it. They serve as nests for future eggs.


What stones can I use? Answer: those that are characterized by a uniform structure and smooth color.

Bright paint can wash off, dissolve in water or partially paint it. Impurities and minerals contained in it are not suitable for the reservoir, where living creatures constantly live.

A smooth, treated surface does not harm the fish. If you do not specialize in geology, do not understand the rocks, then you have the opportunity to buy artificial stones for an aquarium in a pet store.

Stones purchased in specialized retail chains are often safe, suitable for any type of tank. But they are much more expensive, and the choice is not very large. Slate and tuff are most commonly found on the shelves, although not all types of slate are acceptable.

Before you start decorating the aquarium with stones, you need to know what their features are.

See how to choose stones for the aquarium.

Sedimentary rock white or yellow. The composition of the shell rock consists of pressed shells of mollusks attached to each other by cement limestone. The structure is porous, filled with air.

Shell stones are suitable for salt water and high hardness aquariums.

Close to the structure of granite rock. Gneiss has white, pink or grayish-green stripes.

Gneiss stones are suitable for any aquarium because the edges of the rock are smooth and the size of the stones is small.

Calcite (another name – limestone spar), this mineral is found in various structures and shades: from transparent and solid to yellow, brown and liquid. It is undesirable to place stones in the aquarium of calcite, because it is easily leached with water rich in CO2. Marble is one of the variations of calcite.

Mineral is not suitable for aquariums with plants.

In any aquarium it is necessary to create a unique atmosphere. After all, this is not just a tank with fish, but a real underwater area with its own environment and features.

Starting its design, it is necessary to think over everything: technical devices, such as lighting and filters, plants and, of course, design.

They decorate aquariums with different elements: snags, shells, shards. It is important to calculate how many decorations you will need in order not to overload the aquarium and vice versa, not to leave it empty. One of the most popular decoration elements are stones for an aquarium.

They are natural and artificial, round and with jagged edges. Whole decorative compositions or a grotto are made of stones for shelter.

For different aquariums selected certain stones. They can be collected by hand or purchased at the store, most importantly, do not forget about the preparation of stones for a long stay in the aquarium.

A pond is the best option where you can collect stones with your own hands, and as many as necessary. The water in them smoothes out all sharp corners and irregularities, which may cause injury to the inhabitants of the aquarium.

But you need to choose the reservoir carefully: do not take the stones from those that are located near the quarries and mines for the extraction of minerals and metal ores.

If there are no suitable natural places, or the stones are not suitable for them, you can contact the pet shop. Usually there they are presented in different versions: large and small, dark and light, of unusual shape and even glowing stones for an aquarium.

There you will find exactly the options that will help create the necessary design and design.

What are decorative stones for an aquarium? In fact, you can use a wide range of breeds. Some are suitable for all containers, others only for certain types.

Among the most popular are granite, gneiss, sandstone, Kenyan stone.

  • Granite. This breed has a volcanic origin, is environmentally friendly. The colors of granite are gray, black or white. Sometimes you can find orange copies. The advantage of granite is its neutrality. It does not change the hardness and acidity of water. The disadvantages include weight – small pieces weigh a lot, therefore, stopping your choice on granite, carefully study the strength of the glass aquarium.
  • Gneiss. This stone also belongs to volcanic rocks, similar in composition to granite. It is neutral and safe for fish and plants. The main advantage of gneiss and its difference from granite is coloring. It is characterized by the presence of light and dark horizontal stripes, which makes it an ideal material for decorating an aquarium with which you can come up with the most intricate design.
  • Sandstone. Sandstone is a common sedimentary rock, characterized by a characteristic layered structure. Sandstone is formed by mixing clay and sand. The stone may have a different chemical composition depending on the sand. It should be used carefully: sandstone can increase the hardness of the water and affect its composition. Sometimes the stones are crumbly and fragile, and are not suitable for aquariums.

Sandstone has different colors, can be found as white or light gray, and cream, brown, red and even green and blue, allowing you to develop a unique design. The shape of the stone can vary, for example, cavernous sandstone is a rough or smooth stone with numerous holes.

  • Kenyan stone, or Kenya. Stone Kenya belongs to the sedimentary rocks and is one of the most beautiful species, allowing you to create a unique design in the aquarium. It has a porous structure and irregular shape. Kenyan stone is formed by mixing limestone, calcite, sometimes in some specimens you can see shell prints. The structure determined the peculiarity of the chemical composition; therefore, Kenya is suitable only for aquariums with a high alkaline composition and rigidity, and design of soft water tanks is unacceptable.
  • All stones must be prepared before putting them in the aquarium. This is especially true of those that you collect with your own hands.

    • You need to start with flushing. This will take a long time, but in the future you will avoid many difficulties. If the stones are washed out insufficiently, the water in the aquarium will become cloudy from the remaining dust on them. No matter how much they praise the filters, they will not master such a volume.
    • It is better to take a stiff brush in order to clean the stones from dirt as much as possible. After cleaning, they need to be cleaned with boiling water; some instances have to boil.
    • Pay attention to the cracks, especially when you collected stones in a natural pond with your own hands. They can remain dirt, and with it – the eggs of insects and parasites, which will settle in the aquarium and deliver a lot of trouble. Such stones should be boiled, about 25-30 minutes.
    • Some specimens may crack if they are put in boiling water, so chemical treatment will come to the rescue. Stones should be soaked for 1-2 hours in a 10% solution of normal household chlorine. However, after that it is necessary to rinse them thoroughly and for a long time in order to wash all the substance.

    The appearance of greenery in the aquarium becomes a real disaster for beginning aquarists. When the stones and walls turn green, it’s time to sound the alarm: you are not paying enough attention to care!

    Rare water changes and imbalances lead to the fact that the aquarium is literally full of greenery, a patina appears everywhere, starting from stones and ending with the surface of the water.

    First of all, pay attention to the light. Often, aquariums turn green due to an irregular spectrum of light: insufficient light, as well as too bright, will sooner or later lead to the appearance of green.

    Watch for the light mode, the constant violation of which will soon cause a raid.

    Another reason why the walls in the tank are turning green is pollution of the water by food. Do not overfeed the fish, try to give them so much food that they eat it all, and the particles do not sink to the bottom.

    Also, do not be amiss to clean the stones and other surfaces from plaque with your own hands.

    Making out the aquarium with the help of stones, you can create the most unique and incredible design. Using natural and artificial stones, you can design a whole grotto with your own hands and decorate individual islets and structures.

    That is why most aquarists prefer this type of decor. The main thing is to correctly calculate how many stones you need, and what type is better to use to create the perfect aquarium.

    Stones in the design and design of an aquarium with a photo arrangement example

    As a rule, in pet stores there are no necessary, worthy stones, there is no necessary amount. Selling stones through online shopping is also not an option, as the weight of the stones makes the parcel priceless, and a cat in a bag can come.

    Therefore, almost always, aquarium stones are located independently: in forests, mountains, on old volcanoes or at a rocky seashore. For example, in my aquarium composition, I used the Crimean diabase, which I collected near Alupka.

    Collect stones, you need to wisely! No need to take everything, always in your head you need to submit your stone hardscape and starting from this, take, examine and collect the most appropriate stones.

    At the same time, you need to collect stones in reserve, as not all the collected stones fit perfectly into the composition. For example, I collected a Kamenuk twice as much as I needed … at the same time, then when building an aquarium composition I suffered from a lack of a “stone palette”.

    So, we collected a heap of stones, brought them home, checked them for vinegar, what next? And then wash them! We take a brush, and if the stone is not porous, then any detergent … and begin to wash them under running water.

    After, once again everything is thoroughly washed off. The stone is ready for laying in the aquarium.

    Additionally, for safety, you can boil the stone for 30 minutes.

    Basics of building aquarium composition with stones

    Video: Takashi Amano’s material class on decorating an aquarium with stones

    It is difficult to imagine the beautiful, rich underwater world of an aquarium without the presence of stones in it. This decor item not only serves as an ornament, but is also an excellent shelter for fishes and a place for their spawning. Also stones for an aquarium serve as fastening for various types of plants, hide technical devices, hold additional elements of a decor – terraces, towers, etc.

    There are a lot of types of decorative stones for an aquarium, but not every cobblestone can be put into your home pond.

    Stones from granite, basalt, gneiss, porphyry, granite, quartzite and other primary rocks are suitable for decoration. Sedimentary rocks, such as shell rock, limestone, are very soluble in water and increase its rigidity, thereby causing harm to aquatic inhabitants.

    Natural stones for aquarium, as a rule, have a flat shape, it is not recommended to use polished, processed stones, they look unnatural in the aquarium, and it is also not advisable to put shale – they have sharp edges, which fish can injure.

    Well suited and sea stones for the aquarium, such as: sea pebbles, cave sandstone. Very useful are “live stones”, harvested on coral reefs.

    Thanks to them, biological filtration in the aquarium is accelerated, the fish color improves, the mortality of organisms decreases. And this is a very original piece.

    Quite often, artificial stones for an aquarium are used as a decor. They are completely safe and have a wide variety of colors, shapes, properties, and perfectly imitate natural ones.

    These stones have a rounded shape, are very similar to river pebbles, 1-2 cm in diameter, made of high-quality plastic, and covered with a special luminous paint that is safe for the environment.

    These glowing stones in the aquarium are able to accumulate light and continue to glow in the dark for 8-12 hours a day. They also can decorate different vases, windows and other items.

    Such decoration is just a godsend for aquarists.

    Before laying the stones of natural origin must be cleaned of dirt, moss, lichen and boiled in water. It is recommended to carefully examine the stone for the presence of metal particles in it, which can form toxic solutions in aquarium water, as well as some insects. Then the stone is checked for the presence of lime; for this purpose hydrochloric acid is dropped onto it.

    If foam bubbles appear, there is a limestone, such a stone is not suitable. After inspecting and processing the stones for the aquarium, they need to be re-washed with water and can be used for their intended purpose.

    For best effect, large stones should be placed in the background, medium ones in the center, and small ones in front. Putting stones should be close to the walls so that the fish are not stuck in the openings.

    All large stone structures are placed on the very bottom of the aquarium, so that they do not fall under the ground. The stones that make up the caves set on each other, providing them with stability.

    Putting stones in an aquarium is necessary before water is poured into it. So you can avoid the displacement of the soil and, consequently, the devastation of the whole structure.

    If the stones are small, for example: glowing stones for an aquarium, pebbles, gneiss, they can be put directly on the ground, however, in an aquarium where fish like to create shelters under the stones, this is not recommended.

    Making an aquarium with different types of stones is always beautiful, natural and as close as possible to nature.

    Stones for the aquarium species description of the photo design design video.

    The main functions of aquarium stones are as follows:

    • decoration of the aquarium;
    • imitation of natural habitat;
    • serve as shelters;
    • during spawning, it is necessary to build a nest and lay eggs;
    • regulate the level of water hardness.

    Before you place a stone in an aquarium, you must prepare it. This applies not only to the stones found in nature, but also to the store.

    Preparation of store stones. Even if it seems to you that the purchased stone is clean, do not rush to put it in the aquarium.

    Sometimes, on such seemingly clean stones, there is a lot of dirt. Take a stiff brush and clean the stone under running water.

    Do not use chemicals.

    Preparation of stones found in nature. First, clean the stone from dirt, moss, grass, etc.

    Pay special attention to cracks and holes. Then, treat the stone with a stiff brush under tap water. Next, the stone must undergo heat treatment.

    To do this, place it in a container with water and put it on fire. Keep the stone in boiling water for an hour.

    This time will be quite enough to get rid of all possible parasites, bacteria, microorganisms, as well as insect larvae and other inhabitants. Instead, you can dry the stone, but it will take 1-2 weeks.

    After treatment with boiling water, the stone must be removed and cooled. Now the stone is ready, it can be installed in the aquarium.

    Tips for choosing stones:
    • Do not collect stones in the area where there are mines or quarries and metal or mineral ores are mined. If there are quarries somewhere nearby, in which stones are mined used in construction or for the manufacture of tombstones and statues, This is a good sign, since such stones must necessarily have a uniform structure and do not contain inclusions of foreign minerals that may be toxic. However, this does not exclude their effect on water hardness and pH.

    Valuable information about rocks can sometimes be provided by workers in quarries.
    Avoid areas where stones may be contaminated, such as pesticides or radioactivity.
    • Do not take stones with metallic streaks or rust-colored layers, or stones containing colored crystals. However, if you see white or transparent crystals or streaks, it is most likely quartz, it is safe.
    • Do not use soft or crumbling stones (with the exception of calcareous tuff – in alkaline aquariums).
    • Do not forget that matte grayish-white stones are most likely limestone, and stones, in color and structure resembling sand, are likely sandstone.
    • Look for stones with a uniform color, evenly spaced specks and a uniform structure.
    • Among stones polished with water, choose those with a uniform surface and no holes or cracks.
    • Remember that fossil-containing stones are usually limestone.
    • Avoid brightly colored stones (if you are not sure that they are safe), because this color may be characteristic of some unwanted minerals.
    • Do not take stones from the walls and do not spoil the environment in any one place. If possible, ask permission to collect stones and try not to leave any signs of their activities.

    If possible, leave the rural landscape untouched. In general, it can be said that the simpler the stones look and the less interesting they look, the more likely they are safe in terms of toxicity, although they can still affect the chemical composition of the water.

    This can be verified using the “acid dough”, which was discussed above in the section on materials for soil.
    And one more note: You should not refuse to decorate the aquarium with stones just because their acquisition requires some effort. As soon as you have suitable and safe stones, they will never collapse or wear out completely and become a long-term valuable acquisition for your hobby.

    If you do not feel sufficient confidence in your abilities and knowledge to independently collect and test natural stones, it is better to contact pet stores. Some stores sell artificial stones, including the so-called lava, which is not a real volcanic lava at all. Some artificial stones are surprisingly similar to real ones, although the range of their sizes and shapes is rather limited and they are quite expensive.

    But they, like the real ones, will serve you all your life.

    Granite. This breed has a volcanic origin, is environmentally friendly. The colors of granite are gray, black or white.

    Sometimes you can find orange copies. The advantage of granite is its neutrality.

    It does not change the hardness and acidity of water.

    The disadvantages include weight – small pieces weigh a lot, so, choosing granite, carefully study the strength of the glass of the aquarium. What are some decorative stones for an aquarium? In fact, you can use a wide range of breeds.

    Some are suitable for all containers, others only for certain types. Among the most popular are granite, gneiss, sandstone, Kenyan stone.

    • Gneiss. This stone also belongs to volcanic rocks, similar in composition to granite. It is neutral and safe for fish and plants. The main advantage of gneiss and its difference from granite is coloring. It is characterized by the presence of light and dark horizontal stripes, which makes it an ideal material for decorating an aquarium with which you can come up with the most intricate design.
    • Sandstone. Sandstone is a common sedimentary rock, characterized by a characteristic layered structure. Sandstone is formed by mixing clay and sand. The stone may have a different chemical composition depending on the sand. It should be used carefully: sandstone can increase the hardness of the water and affect its composition. Sometimes the stones are crumbly and fragile, and are not suitable for aquariums. Sandstone has different colors, can be found as white or light gray, and cream, brown, red and even green and blue, allowing you to develop a unique design. The shape of the stone can vary, for example, cavernous sandstone is a rough or smooth stone with numerous holes.
    • Kenyan stone, or Kenya. Stone Kenya belongs to the sedimentary rocks and is one of the most beautiful species, allowing you to create a unique design in the aquarium. It has a porous structure and irregular shape. Kenyan stone is formed by mixing limestone, calcite, sometimes in some specimens you can see shell prints. The structure has determined the chemical composition, therefore Kenya is suitable only for aquariums with a high alkaline composition and hardness, and it is unacceptable to decorate them with soft water.

    The appearance of greenery in the aquarium becomes a real disaster for beginning aquarists. When the stones and walls turn green, it’s time to sound the alarm: you are not paying enough attention to care!

    Rare water changes and imbalances lead to the fact that the aquarium is literally full of greenery, a patina appears everywhere, starting from stones and ending with the surface of the water.

    First of all, pay attention to the light. Often, aquariums turn green due to an irregular spectrum of light: insufficient light, as well as too bright, will sooner or later lead to the appearance of green.

    Watch for the light mode, the constant violation of which will soon cause a raid.

    Another reason why the walls in the tank are turning green is pollution of the water by food. Do not overfeed the fish, try to give them so much food that they eat it all, and the particles do not sink to the bottom.

    Also, do not be amiss to clean the stones and other surfaces from plaque with your own hands.

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