The spawning method and the spawning required for this depend on the type of fish. Viviparous fish mate and produce fry, not paying much attention to what surrounds them. “Non-parent” fry-eating fish often lay eggs in a separate aquarium with a minimum of decoration items. In such an aquarium, a pair or a small flock of fish is usually placed when they consider that they are ripe for spawning.
As for the fish “parent” species, then they will have to reasonably reproduce their natural environment, and sometimes even allocate a separate aquarium for manufacturers for a long time. “Parental” fish can make an attempt to raise offspring in the general aquarium, but this will certainly cause big problems, as they will fiercely protect their family and may even hurt other fish. It should be noted that many unpretentious fish in normal conditions can be kept in water, the chemical composition is markedly different from that which is characteristic of their natural habitat.
But in order to induce them to reproduce and ensure the viability of the roe and milt, during spawning, as well as for some time before spawning, they will need the “correct” chemical composition of water.
Below are some spawning methods and equipment used for this. These methods are numbered in accordance with the links in Chapter 3.
A separate aquarium with a minimum of decoration items is required – as a rule, only a substrate is needed for the deposition of caviar or its protection. This may be a natural shelter, where the fish can lay eggs so that other fish do not eat them immediately, or some kind of fixture that does not allow the fish to eat their eggs, or both.
Fish are placed in a spawning aquarium only for a short time – a few hours or a few days. In the second case, a small airlift filter should be installed in the aquarium. If spawning does not occur, the producers are usually returned to the old aquarium, and later make another attempt.
If they put off caviar, they may need a subsequent rest in another separate aquarium, and only after that they can be returned to the general aquarium. Embryo development in roe occurs either in the spawn or in a special incubator aquarium, usually smaller in size.
This basic method has several options:
• Javanese moss or plants with finely dissected leaves are used as a substrate. This method is used for fish that spawn or who lay it among plants so that it sticks to the leaves.
• A plastic mesh (for example, a diffuser for greenhouses) is placed on the bottom of the spawning tank. The fish spawn over the net, the roe falls down through the cells and is safe.
This method is used for cannibal fish, usually randomly spawning eggs and not needing any special substrate.
• The bottom of the aquarium is covered with glass beads. Further see option 2.
• As a substrate, plants with wide leaves are used. This method is intended for fish that stick eggs to the leaves of plants and at the same time prefer this type of vegetation.
This method requires a separate aquarium with a minimum number of design items, moreover, for a slightly longer period than for the previous method. It is usually used for kartozubyh, most often laying off eggs in small portions over several weeks.
The aquarium is equipped with a small air-lift filter and a suitable substrate for laying eggs. The fish stay in this tank until the female stops laying eggs, then it can be replaced by another mature female. Below are two main options for this method:
• 1) Peat is used as a substrate. It is intended for annual fish, which naturally spawn eggs in the silt at the bottom of their reservoir.
After spawning, the fish are removed, the water dries out, and the peat is removed, laid out in a plastic container and put in a cool place. On the container stick label with the name of the species of fish and shelf life.
When a certain period of time, characteristic for fish of this species, passes, the substrate with caviar is poured with soft water and the fry are hatching from it.
• 2) A bundle of nylon yarns attached to a float or a stone is used as a spawning substrate, depending on where there is vegetation on which fish in nature usually lay eggs – on the bottom or on the surface of the water. Every day, the eggs are gently removed from the beam and kept in the water until the fry leave it.
Under natural conditions, fish, of course, lay eggs on the leaves of plants, but the plants do not react particularly well to the daily touches of human hands when they need to gather eggs, therefore it is better to use an artificial substrate.
It is used for “parent” species of fish. Requires a special aquarium for medium or long term.
In the aquarium we need the appropriate items of interior design and filtering. There are three variants of this method:
• It is used for fish that protect their eggs and care for their offspring (one of the parents). When the fish are ready to spawn, take a couple of producers, put them in the spawning ground and leave there for spawning. After that, those of the parents who do not guard the spawn are removed.
The second parent is removed after it ceases to protect the spawn.
• It is used for fish guarding their eggs and caring for offspring (both parents). The pair is placed in the aquarium, as for the first method, but both remain to guard the eggs.
When the care of the offspring is over, they are both removed, or this pair is left for repeated spawning, and the fry are removed.
• It is used for fish incubating eggs (for example, in the mouth). As a rule, they spawn in the general aquarium, but then the fish that incubate the eggs, are transplanted into a separate aquarium, where no one will interfere and bother her.
When the incubation of the eggs and the subsequent protection of the fry are completed, the fish is returned to the general aquarium.
Used for viviparous fish and involves the use of “birthing”. Fry born alive most likely immediately after birth will be eaten by their neighbors in the aquarium or even their own mother. To prevent this, they usually use a “birch”, that is, a special container that can be bought at pet stores.
A pregnant female is placed in this container when she is about to give birth. Fry after birth have the opportunity to slip away from the mother, swimming through the small holes in the container.
There are two types of such “streamers”. The “birthmark” of the first type is intended for use in the general aquarium, and there is a special chamber in it, into which the fry swim away, fleeing from the parent “guardianship”. The “birthmark” of the second type allows the fry to “escape” into the aquarium and is intended for use in separate spawning aquariums where there are no other fish. Females and fry should not be kept in these “birthing” longer than necessary, since the “traps” are not intended at all for raising fry, but only for their temporary protection.
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