maintenance, care, compatibility
It is quite natural that a person standing in front of a shop or market stall may have his eyes scattered from the presented variety of underwater land. There is a variety of soil in color, in shape and in size.
In such an abundance of products it is easy to get lost, not only to a beginner, but also to a different lover. After all, the aquarium bottom is not only an important component of the decor, along with the background, lighting and decorations, it also plays one of the main roles in the biochemical life of the aquarium.
On its surface, beneficial microorganisms, bacteria, fungi, and bryozoans are actively developing and multiplying, and he actively processes the waste products of the inhabitants of the underwater kingdom.
A sort of natural filter in which various kinds of suspended matter and microparticles that pollute water are deposited. And this is all, not to mention the fact that the soil is a substrate for most underwater plants.
So, before grabbing one or another bag of soil from the store shelf, you should first decide – no matter how strange it sounds – what the aquarium is made for.
The further choice of the bottom litter depends on the answer to the question posed, because for fish it is one, and for plants it is completely different.
Caring for the soil is in its periodic cleaning. This is done by a special device – siphon.
It is sold in pet stores. This is something like a vacuum cleaner to clean the aquarium, which is draining unnecessary residues of organic matter from the soil using a vacuum.
If the bottom flooring was chosen correctly, its permeability was preserved, then caring for it is not difficult. Cleaning is done as it is polluted, the ground itself changes completely about once every five years.
In the new aquarium, it is best to feed plants with special fertilizers. In the first year it is not necessary to clean it.
The aquarium can be completely without soil. In this case, the plants are planted on the bottom in special pots.
By the way, the plants themselves can also be used as bottom litter, for example, a creeping echinodorus.
Whatever soil you prefer, the main thing is that it should be chosen wisely and precisely for the goals that were set. Follow these simple rules, and the aquarium will always delight you with beauty, and the underwater inhabitants will remain grateful.
Aquarium soil is divided into three main categories:
Natural. This group includes materials of exclusively natural origin that have not undergone any additional processing, for example, gravel, sand, pebbles, quartz, crushed stone.
This soil does not contain any nutrients, and the underwater garden planted in it will begin to grow no earlier than six months after planting, when there is enough waste and sludge accumulated in it, which plants can use as food.
To speed up the growth of underwater flora, the earth must be further nourished. Underwater fertilizers in the form of tablets, capsules or granules can be purchased at any pet store.
In this group, sometimes there is a variation – processed natural soil, for example, from baked clay.
Mechanical substrate. In this case, the soil obtained by chemical or mechanical processing of natural material.
Artificial. Many companies make certain nutrient mixtures for aquariums.
This type of soil is best suited for the Dutch aquarium, in which the first place plants, and for shrimp.
Which soil is better for an aquarium? Aquariums large and small: clearance
What is the best soil for the aquarium – the first question a person starting to breed fish
- The presence of live plants.
- Estimated species of fish and crustaceans.
- The main colors.
- Volumes of aquarium soil.
Both a small aquarium and its large counterpart must be “painted” with different colors. Usually the owners themselves pick up the jewelry.
But despite this, many experts are inclined to the choice of dark soil, allowing a good view of the contents of the aquarium.
If we talk about the expected thickness of the layer, it depends on the parameters of the aquarium, as well as on the number of living and non-living objects. Therefore, the approach to deciding which soil is best for an aquarium to choose is strictly individual.
It should be borne in mind that for aquarium plants and fish soil will have a significant difference. As mentioned above, representatives of the flora use it as a substrate for rooting and subsequent feeding.
Given this, it should be not only a decorative component, but also life-supporting.
If you believe the general rules of arrangement of aquariums, the soil should be fine or medium-grained, taking into account the power of the root systems. Sand may be used for underdeveloped plants, and a coarse-grained fraction may be used for highly developed plants.
Everything else should be considered and nutritional value of the soil, because for plants and fish the right aquarium is a place that allows them to get nutrients. Sometimes peat, clay, as well as special preparations purchased at pet stores are enclosed in the ground.
Note! If you choose which soil is better for an aquarium, then during its purchase you need to study the material from which it is made, and the color scheme.
The best option for an aquarium would be a natural unpainted coating.
It is also advisable to determine the chemical composition and the origin of the soil before purchasing it. The presence of limestone will provoke carbonate release, which will significantly increase the hardness of the water.
The presence of gas bubbles indicates its presence.
- Natural soils – sand, gravel, gravel, pebbles. They can be used where there are small digging species of fish and plants with weak root systems.
- Soils obtained by treating natural materials by mechanical or chemical means. They satisfy almost all requirements and are offered in various colors. Despite this, their bright coloring interferes with the natural perception of the aquarium.
- Artificial primers – glass or plastic balls, made by a special technology. They are absolutely harmless, but they can only be used where there will be single plants. In addition, they are completely unsuitable for keeping burrowing fish.
Since porosity is one of the most important characteristics of a substrate, fine sand with a particle size of less than 1 mm is hardly useful. Everything is due to the fact that metabolic processes are disturbed in such a filler due to the rapid caking of the material.
This, in turn, leads to rotting of the roots of plants.
In addition, the biological balance, which should “visit” the aquarium at home, is very unstable. In this situation, even mollusks and fish, loosening the soil, do not help.
Sand having a particle size of 2 to 4 mm will be an excellent and readily available substrate. Sufficient porosity affects the metabolic processes, which for a long time remain in their original state.
This option is quite suitable for most plants with both strong and weak root system. In addition, it has a high permeability for newly formed roots.
You can also note the success of small pebbles, the particles of which vary from 4 to 8 mm. The level of its caking is much less than that of sand, but the formation of sludge is very slow.
This type of soil is more suitable for large plants with a strong root system.
Pebbles and gravel will decorate rather a small aquarium than a large one. In any case, the amount of such soil should be substantial in order to be somehow different from the general background.
In addition, pebbles and gravel are not used as an independent substrate.
It should be noted that all the above-mentioned natural grounds are connected by common origin – these are small particles of granite. Their massive distribution argues accessibility for aquarium lovers.
Moreover, the color parameters of such soils are from light gray to red shades.
Among artificial substrates, expanded clay is considered to be the most common. It has excellent porosity and low weight, which makes it indispensable for lovers of breeding fish and gardeners.
During the transplantation of plants, this type of soil practically does not injure the root systems.
Together with the above advantages, the internal part of expanded clay is an anaerobic flora – oxygen-free microorganisms. They purify water from numerous organic compounds that appear over time in the aquarium.
To determine how much soil you need in an aquarium, you should take into account its individual parameters. Among them are the dimensions of the “house for fish”, as well as the fullness of living and non-living components.
If you follow the recommendations of experienced aquarists, the soil should be laid in three layers. Moreover, the content and nature of the placement should correspond to a specific sequence.
The bottom layer should consist of gravel, which is enriched with laterite iron or clay. Its thickness should be from 3 to 5 cm and include balls with fertilizer.
In addition, there may be a mixture of trace elements that do not contain phosphates and nitrites, which are so destructive for plants and fish.
It is desirable to focus on the iron in the soil mixture, which is present in chelated form. Otherwise, it will simply not be available for food representatives of flora and fauna.
In addition, ferrous sulphate, usually used for feeding garden bushes, will not work, since it will significantly reduce the acidity of water.
If heating cables are used, they are also laid in this layer. They should not be located directly on the bottom, because uneven heating leads to cracking of the glass, and the house aquarium can quickly deteriorate.
In addition, sand and clay in this case will be inappropriate – they will also be heated unevenly.
The middle layer should contain land with admixtures of peat, constituting 15-25% of the total volume of bottom soil. Its thickness can be no more than 2-3 cm, since an overabundance of soil enriched with peat can provoke the process of decay.
If in the ground there is a large amount of organic matter, then it can be supplemented with sand.
In addition to everything, the middle layer can be filled with microelements and clay balls. However, for this you need to conduct thorough training of peat and earth.
Strictly speaking, such a rule holds for each layer.
The top layer should be of fine gravel mixed with sand. About 5 cm of this soil prevents the turbidity of water due to peat contact with the ground.
It is here that used stones for the aquarium, which can be purchased at the same pet store.
If in the aquarium there are snails or fish digging in the ground, then you need to grow plants in pots or increase the thickness of the upper layer. This will prevent significant damage to their root systems.
It should be noted that usually the soil in the aquarium is uneven. Although it can be distributed in such a way that it will look like a slide that rises towards the back wall.
This option of laying the bottom can visually give the aquarium a volume and a more spectacular appearance.
Most novice aquarists lay out various patterns from the ground. Since they are gradually moved by the action of water, these compositions are short-lived.
Of course, this is not so scary, but the overall appearance of the aquarium can still deteriorate.
The final procedures that will make the aquarium 200 liters perfect will be the installation of the decor, pouring water and planting plants. This should be taken care of in advance, so as not to “slow down” the overall process of arrangement.
The most important criterion when choosing a soil for plants is its nutritional value. Why is that?
The reason is that plants receive substances necessary for growth and development, precisely from the ground. To enrich it, you can put lumps of clay, peat into the aquarium, introduce special preparations that can be purchased at the pet store.
It is not enough to choose the right sand, it is equally important to correctly put it in the aquarium. Laying soil in an aquarium should help recreate the look of a natural reservoir.
It should be laid with a slope to the front glass in the aquarium. What’s the point of this? Thanks to this simple reception, it will be easier to remove the dirt that accumulates in the recesses of the soil.
The thickness may be different, but in the range from 3 to 8 cm. In addition, it is permissible to build a small area in the front glass in the form of plexiglass rims that will be free of soil. In this place of the aquarium, a tubule or bloodworm can burrow.
For this purpose, a transparent glass vessel can be placed in an aquarium.
Soil for aquarium with fish and plants: the rules of preparation
Nutrient soil is extremely important to put in the aquarium. How to do it?
If you collected the soil for the aquarium with your own hands, did not purchase it in the store, then you need to prepare it. How to do it?
Rinse and boil. This is the so-called ground cleaning in an aquarium before it is placed.
It is necessary to prepare also sand, pebbles, bought in a pet store. It is enough to wash and process with boiling water.
An error will be washing with the addition of domestos or other chemicals. How can this affect the constancy of the aquarium?
The fact is that sand, pebbles are well absorbed by chemical compounds, it will be very difficult to wash them after processing, which means that they will gradually be released into the water.
After the selection of soil for the aquarium, it can be placed in the aquarium with fish and plants. You can do this immediately: rinse and still wet place in the aquarium.
Black, colored, quartz, as well as a different sand needs care. How to clean the soil in the aquarium, how to monitor its cleanliness? The soil for the aquarium, along with the plants must be periodically cleaned, in other words, siphon.
Externally, the siphon is a hose in which a vacuum is created and by means of which dirt is sucked in with water. Sand, pebbles need to be cleaned as it gets dirty.
Now you know how to choose sand, pebbles, how to prepare them, how to clean the soil in the aquarium and a lot of other useful information. One thing remains: choose the appropriate option and apply all the knowledge gained in practice.
Why do you need a nourishing soil for plants and how to make it
How a primer coat affects the biological environment in an aquarium
If the inside of the aquarium grows a lot of greenery, then you need to look for the soil, which will enrich the roots, leaves and stems with all the necessary substances. It is necessary to find or make a nutritious ground with your own hands.
The biological balance within the reservoir is closely directly dependent on everything in the water, since the aquarium itself is a closed ecosystem. If one plant gets sick, everybody gets sick.
The mistake of novice aquarists is to create a nutrient soil such as greenhouse. The use of peat, manure, clay interspersed with the soil adversely affects the health of the plants and all living inhabitants of the aquarium.
Peat and clay should be used in minimal proportions, and then, as a top dressing for young plants. Peat is not always appropriate, because it softens the aquatic environment that not all fish will survive.
Adding marble or basalt chips to the soil can add alkalinity and hardness, which is also inappropriate for some fish and plants.
The nutrient primer for the aquarium is the following substrate:
- In its composition there are macro-and micronutrients;
- It may look like a nutritional substrate for a certain type of plant.
These components should be laid with their own hands on the bottom of the tank with a layer thickness of 2-3 centimeters. The top layer is a pebble of a small fraction of 2-3 mm, or coarse sand.
The soil is formed with two layers, in the lower part it will be nutritious, and in the upper part it will protect the organics from rapid leaching. If you expect the soil to serve as a biological filter, use a bacterial activator that stimulates the growth of the reproduction of good bacteria.
See how to lay the soil in the aquarium.
What are the types of nutrient grounds for aquarium plants of commercial origin? Branded products are made in the form of earthen soil, in which nutrients are added.
The most popular substrates are bottom soils in the form of granules, they are produced by German, American, Italian and Polish manufacturers, such as: Tetra, Dennerle, JBL, Aquarel, Estes, Euragurium.
Aquarium soil from Aqua Soil – series Amazonia, Malaya, Africana is considered good. By name it is clear that it is suitable for a certain type of plant and is suitable for fish that come from Africa and South America. This soil mix reduces the pH and water hardness in a freshwater aquarium.
But it is not recommended for use in aquariums, where the fish digging the ground live.
Dennerle Deponit Mix Professional soil mixture includes selected natural peat, high-quality clay, soil with iron oxide and nutrients, quartz sand, biological filter in the form of granules to remove nitrite from water. This type of soil perfectly nourishes and strengthens the root system of plants, heals the leaves, and prevents the growth of green algae.
Another useful blend for a soil substrate is JBL Aqua Basis plus, which has the following components:
- Peat of natural origin;
- Granular selected clay;
- Iron oxide and mineral supplementation;
- Porous texture granules that form denitrifying bacteria. This mixture should be laid on the bottom of the tank with a thickness of 2-3 centimeters, and pour a layer of processed small gravel on it. The soil serves as a substrate for plants. The life of a commercial soil is three years, after which it must be replaced.
Aquarium soil is an important substrate that maintains an artificial reservoir in the correct condition. In the soil there are many beneficial bacteria that play an important role in the ecosystem. They decompose toxic substances and waste products of fish.
You can prepare a quality ground for the aquarium with your own hands, if you read some of the recommendations.
Good soil has nutritional properties that allow plants to properly grow and grow. The main function of aquarium plants is photosynthesis, during which water is saturated with oxygen.
In turn, the fish get it in the right portions.
Soil for the aquarium should be laid in 3 layers. Layer 1 – clay or laterite, layer 2 – clay with peat, layer 3 – gravel, pebble or sand.
So that the contrast between the layers is not noticeable, it is better to indent 2 cm from the front glass in order to fill this line with decorative ground. The nutrient substrate is allowed to be laid only in the places of planting.
See how to lay aquarium soil.
For the preparation of the first layer, you need to take the clay (one tenth of the total volume of the soil). Dip it in water and soak to a soft state. Mix clay with gravel – it is necessary for access of oxygen and prevention of caking.
Then lay the mixture on the bottom of the tank. Laterite can be used instead of gravel and clay.
The height of layer 1 is from 3 to 5 cm. In places of dense planting, you can put separately prepared clay balls.
Do not use iron sulfate in this layer.
To prepare the second layer, mix gravel and peat (15% of the total volume of all layers). In this layer, you can put clay balls for fertilizer (in places dense planting).
Peat at first allocates a high concentration of humic acids, as a result, water will acquire a dark color. Permissible layer height – not higher than 3 cm.
The last, third layer has a decorative purpose, it covers the first two layers, prevents the clouding of water from clay and peat. If in the aquarium live fish who love to dig the ground, then the upper ball should be thicker.
Choose pebbles, sand or gravel.
The first days after the launch of the aquarium, nutrients will be released into the water, bacteria will multiply. After a few days you will notice that the concentration of algae has increased.
To avoid this, once a day you need to replace 20% of the water with fresh and infused, similar parameters. Nutrients love algae, so plant in an aquarium fast-growing plant species that can quickly absorb these substances.
Slow-growing plant species can be planted later in the soil.
Before placing the substrate in the aquarium, it should be washed well under running water. Do not use chemicals and detergents.
After washing, it is better to boil the soil for 60 minutes to destroy parasites and microbes in it. Nowadays, common types of aquarium substrates are:
- Gravel: natural, light and dark;
- Gravel red;
- Gravel of large and small fraction;
- Sand river;
- Sand fines;
- Pebbles of large, medium or small fraction.
Sand – the most common type of substrate for an aquarium with shrimp and small fish. Larger, digging fish can carry large fractions – gravel and pebbles.
The main thing that the fish could not swallow a stone, otherwise it will have health problems.
How to make a soil with your own hands, and where to get it? You can not buy it, but find it in nature.
If you know the area where there is an environmentally friendly plant substrate, you can take it there. But before introducing it into the aquarium, you will have to wash and process for a long time.
- River sand can be found near rivers and ponds. Take a sieve, and wash the sand near the shore.
The process takes a lot of time, but it’s worth it.
See how to do the soil with your own hands.
The choice of soil for the aquarium. What soil is needed for an aquarium
The soil in the aquarium is designed to create a type of natural reservoir and biological balance of the environment. Being a substrate for rooting plants, the soil contains the necessary microorganisms that feed the roots of plants and maintain cleanliness in the aquarium.
As a decorative element, the soil determines the color background and the overall composition in the aquarium, and therefore the choice of soil for the aquarium is not as simple as it seems.
As the soil for the aquarium can be used natural sand, pebbles, rubble or other types of soil obtained from the processing of natural materials. In this case, the soil must be permeable to water and air and not emit harmful substances soluble in water. The main parameter when choosing aquarium soil is the size of its grains.
Fine-grained soil lies in a dense layer at the bottom of the aquarium and impedes the circulation of water in it. Such stagnation can lead to plant rot and water pollution.
The loose soil serves as a shelter for some species of fish, but also contributes to the pollution of the aquarium environment with feed particles and other waste products stuck among the grains of the soil.
The best soil is gravel, large grains of which should not contain calcium salts and minerals.
To consolidate the root system of plants, gravel is poured in an even layer of 5–8 cm. Yellowish or gray gravel is most often used as a background design.
For decorative compositions in aquariums without plants or with unusual fish breeds, bright colored gravel is used.
The most common types of soil for a freshwater aquarium are coarse river sand, pebbles and gravel. It is not recommended to use light sand, reflecting light from the walls of the aquarium, and quartz sand, the sharp edges of which can cut the fish. For the formation of the relief is often used mixed soil of sand and pebbles of different sizes.
Such soil provides good aeration and creates a natural background. The soil of sand of various colors is ideal for large aquariums with goldfish, llyariusami and scalars.
The background in the form of a sea bottom can be created with the help of soil from quartz or coral chips, sea pebbles and small shells. One of the most popular decorative ornaments for a marine aquarium is colored artificial soil that does not affect the composition and properties of the water in the aquarium. The basis of the reef can be formed from pieces of tuff or soil of another volcanic rock.
Fragments of sea shells are used as shelters for such species of aquarium fish as a clown, karang or angelfish.
In a marine aquarium, a coarse-grained substrate is responsible for the biological purification of the aquarium and the required composition of water. Shell crushed stone and coral sand increase the calcium content in the soil and have a high buffer capacity.
Understanding what kind of soil is needed for an aquarium, you can carefully select it to maintain the natural biological processes and are necessary for shelter and reproduction of many types of aquarium fish.
Herbal Aquarium – a natural aquarium with live plants do it yourself with a useful photo video
This issue is a priority, and without solving it, it is impossible to go further. For an aquarium with live aquarium plants, you can derive the formula:
FERTILIZER (CO2, MICRO, MACRO)
CARE (TEMPERATURE, FILTRATION, WATER SUBSTITUTE, ETC.)
Lighting is the most important element, without it the plants will not grow, the process of photosynthesis will not occur, without it, no matter what you do, no matter how hard you try, all works will go down the drain.
My notes and results of the work done, I stated in these articles: LAMPS FOR THE AQUARIUM AND ILLUMINATION OF THE AQUARIUM BY YOUR OWN HANDS.
Here I will note that the standard lighting, the one that is under the standard cover, is not enough. For an aquarium tightly filled with plants, and even more so for a “herbalist” with a ground cover, you need lighting of 1W per liter, or even more. In addition, you need to understand that Watts are not everything, quality lighting characteristics are also important, such as the spectrum of light, Kelvin.
In addition, it is important to understand and study the characteristics of a particular light source: the discreteness of the light, the suites, etc. And, selecting this or that light, it is important to proceed from the height of the water column of your aquarium.
The higher the pole, the more powerful the illumination should be in order for the light to penetrate the water column and reach the bottom, to the ground cover plants.
What else. The “legend of omnipotent lamps for aquarium plants” roams the Internet. We are talking about fluorescent lamps with a special spectrum, with peaks of red and blue light.
These lamps are presented as a panacea and an easy way to deal with the cultivation of aquarium plants. However, it is not.
It is a pity that it leads many people astray, so I want to debunk this mythical legend.
In fact, aquarium plants absorb the entire visible spectrum of light — from red to violet; plants need a full spectrum, not a cut-down one. Why, then, do they make and sell lamps with a red and blue spectrum?
The fact is that it is scientifically proven that plants need more red and blue spectrum, but this does not mean that they do not need another spectrum.
Now imagine a newcomer replaced the regular lamps with special ones and waiting, waiting, waiting … and when his plants grow! And they do not grow … Yes, as an evil, instead of plants, flooded algae. Disruption of the sea: the money paid, but the effect is mute!
Why all? Because there is a shortage of watts, the spectrum is not full, and besides, the red and yellow spectrum is loved not only by plants, but also by algae.
Conclusion. Do not try to compensate for the lack of lighting power with special lamps.
Such lamps can be used only in combination with other lamps, for example, with fluorescent lamps marked “full spectrum”.
No matter what type of light source you choose: fluorescent lamps, LED lighting or metal halide, carefully study its quality characteristics – not only Watts, but also suites, Kelvin, spectrality, Ra, etc.
Still. Critical about information on the Internet, recheck it. For example, often in the network you can read that LED lighting is not suitable for aquarium plants.
However, it is not! Look at the date of publication of articles. Technical progress does not stand still and powerful LED strips and projectors have already appeared that meet the necessary requirements.
See details LED tape in the aquarium.
Try to think about lighting your aquarium, so that it mimics the actions of Mother Nature. Namely: imitated dawn, zenith and sunset sun.
For good growth and well-being of plants, it is not necessary to “fry them under monotonous lighting” for fifteen hours. It is enough to give a peak of powerful lighting for 3-4 hours, and the rest of the time to keep moderate lighting.
This can be achieved by a combination of light sources. For example, Amano in his lamps ADA uses metal halide lamp in combination with fluorescent lamps.
In my “herbalist” I use two LED spotlights of 30 Watts + LL T5 24 Watts (full spectrum).
And also – pay attention reflectors.
Soil and substrate for herbalist and aquarium plants
The main points of the use of soil in the aquarium, I outlined in the articles SOIL FOR AQUARIUM PLANTS, TOURMALIN IN AQUARIUM.
I would like to draw your attention to the fact that there are a lot of substrates and soils and they are all different! Be sure to look at their compositions and study the issue of application. In this case, proceed from the requirements of your plants.
Good substrate, good soil – this is 50% success in growing. This is a good feeding and excellent well-being of plants in general.
I would also like to draw your attention to the fact that the thickness of the soil in the aquarium should be about 5-7 cm. In order for the soil colonies of nitrifying bacteria to develop well in such a soil, so that there are no oxygen-free zones (which leads to acidification of the soil) and rounded ground.
Alas, a heavy, angular ground over time compresses, which makes it difficult for water to circulate in the ground and leads to disastrous consequences.
At the same time, I note that a light, porous soil for aquarium plants (for example, Aquael Aqua Grunt and / or Aquael Aqua Floran) has a certain disadvantage – it is impossible for them to form slides, hills in an aquascape, with the addition of water the entire landscape spreads. Therefore, if you experiment with the topography of the soil, I advise you to mix light soils with heavy ones (for example, quartz chips, which you must first check for hissing).
Despite the fact that there is already a nutrient pad in your tank, you should also use liquid fertilizers containing micro and macro elements. In this case, it is desirable to separately have not only complex Udo, but also preparations containing individual elements.
At the moment, I have a separate bottle of UDO Ermolaev iron and iodinol, which contains potassium.
Studying the information about the arrangement of the herbalist, I read somewhere that in such an aquarium there should not be a strong filtration. Why, it was not specified.
Thinking it over, I came to the conclusion that strong streams of water will take down the plants, and, moreover, a dense “herbalist” needs nitrates, if the filtration will remove them, the plants will “starve”.
Given this, I’m 110l. Aquarium took external filter JBL CristalProfi e401 greenline – 450 l / h. And what do you think!
His really missing.
Moreover, he noted that in the place where the flute is directed from the filter, the cube chemianthus and other ground cover is not growing.
It is worth noting that at night I additionally turn on a small internal filter. It basically works as an aerator, but it helps a little with filtering the herbalist.
Therefore, the recommended power range of the filter 450-600l / h for herbalist per 100l.
Once the biobalance is established in the herbalist, it becomes easy to care for him:
– daily need to make liquid fertilizer, to monitor the supply of CO2
– weekly you need to make an easy cleaning of the aquarium, cutting plants and replacing 1/4 -1/2 of the water.