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Skimmer for aquarium: description and production methods

The success of maintaining a sustainable biosystem in an aquarium will largely depend on the use of various equipment. Skimmer for aquarium allows you to solve problems with a high content of protein in the aquarium, removing all protein, nitrates, nitrites and other contaminants.

Most often, such equipment is used in a marine reef aquarium where it is required to ensure maximum purity of water.

The skimmer, or as it is also called pennick and floater, is one of the main filtering devices in the marine aquarium. In a closed biosystem, organics, protein, and other contaminants that can be harmful to fish and corals will invariably accumulate.

Without the use of this device to do in the marine aquarium, where there is a high level of pH, it will be simply impossible.

A penny in an aquarium is necessary for:

  • removal of dirt and organic matter;
  • excretion of phosphates and proteins;
  • suppress algae growth.

Most skimmers use bubble cleaning technology, when tiny bubbles adsorbing dirt, phosphates and proteins are fed into the body of the device through the compressor, thereby ensuring high-quality cleaning of the aquarium. It is possible to use a skimmer for a freshwater aquarium, where such equipment allows the removal of ammonia and nitrates from the water.

It is only necessary to correctly determine the power of the pump, depending on the volume of the aquarium.

The principle of the skimmer for an aquarium is extremely simple. Many, being on the sea, noticed abundant dirty foam at the running line. Such foam, which is formed from the beating of water by the surf, contains organic matter and other contaminants.

A similar principle of operation uses a skimmer. Inside a glass or plastic cylinder is a powerful air compressor and a special impeller, which allows you to get the smallest air bubbles.

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The fewer the air bubbles that are knocked out, the better the cleaning. Air bubbles carry along protein molecules, organic suspensions and other contaminants.

Subsequently, this dirt is removed from the aquarium in the form of a bad-smelling zheshy.

It will be difficult to build a stable marine ecosystem and, in particular, a reef coral aquarium without pennicka. In many ways, the popularity of such equipment is due to its following advantages:

  1. Skimmer effectively removes pollution, preventing their decomposition and water poisoning. Such equipment supports the necessary level of acidity.
  2. Redox potentials increase and the load on the used filtering system decreases.

Of the drawbacks of using such devices, they note the extraction from the water of a number of useful substances, including trace elements, vitamins and amino acids, which are necessary for the proper functioning of corals. In order to compensate for the loss of such useful acids, it is imperative to make various vitamins and other trace elements in the water.

It should also be noted the high cost of such equipment, the price of which can be 20-30 thousand rubles.

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To date, several types of skimmers have become common, which differ in the principle of their work and purpose. Some models operate from an external compressor and are designed for aquariums with a capacity of not more than 300 liters.

Popular are the options that should be installed in the samp, located under the aquarium and having a constant water level.

The most common today received the following types of skimmers:

  1. Direct-flow. The simplest modification of skimmers, which are intended for installation in a small aquarium. This type of equipment has a contact chamber into which compressed air is supplied through a compressor. The smallest bubbles in the chamber rise, mix with water, after which a thick foam is formed on the surface, which is sent to a small sump.
  2. Countercurrent skimmers are a sophisticated version with water supply from top to bottom. The speed of oncoming flows of air and water is less here, respectively, the direct contact of the smallest bubbles and water lasts longer, which increases the performance of such equipment. Depending on their size, countercurrent skimmers can be installed both inside the aquarium and in the sump, where water is supplied using a separate pump.
  3. With Venturi nozzle. This is the most effective and at the same time complex apparatus, which includes a pump for water supply and a special compressor. The presence of Venturi nozzles with needle valves allow you to break the air into the smallest dust, which ensures the maximum possible efficiency of the use of skimmers. Skimmers built on Venturi nozzles can be installed only in the sump, where the water level is constantly maintained.

Properly selected pennic will replace the filter, eliminating the aquarist from the need for frequent water changes. This reduces salt consumption, which reduces the cost of maintaining a reef aquarium.

The effectiveness of the use of skimmers in a marine aquarium will largely depend on how correctly chosen pump power and type of equipment for the volume and specific population of the biosystem. Today, most manufacturers make various models of skimmers that are designed for a particular volume of the aquarium, which greatly simplifies the choice.

Depending on the characteristics of the operation of the flotator, it can be configured to dry or wet foam. When setting up for a wet foam, the device will work with maximum efficiency, and the aquarist will have to regularly add additional trace elements and living plankton to the water.

When setting up work for dry foam, a skimmer can work at half its capacity, knocking out only water and other contaminants from the water.

Setting up the device to dry or wet foam can be done by adjusting the flow of air mixture pump. Most devices allow to reduce or increase the intensity of the air supply, respectively, there is the possibility of fine-tuning the operation of the skimmer, depending on the load on the biosystem.

You can also adjust the skimmer by changing the level of foam in the reactor, for which you raise or submerge the device in a sump or aquarium.

Maintenance of skimmers is not particularly difficult, and this work should be performed on a regular basis. The aquarist will need to empty the container of the foam container once every two weeks, clean and replace the nozzles.

The frequency of such maintenance will depend on the intensity of feeding of corals and fish, the workload of the aquarium and the availability of other equipment in it. The foam collector is cleaned on a regular basis, and once a month, the foam box is removed from the sump and washed completely.

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The cost of high-quality branded skimmers today is extremely high, which somewhat limits their distribution in the domestic market. Many aquarists make foam separators with their own hands, which can significantly reduce the cost of such equipment, and if properly assembled, the homemade unit will not be inferior in terms of performance and efficiency to costly factory units.

To make a skimmer with your own hands, you need the following:

  • powerful return pump;
  • aquarium compressor;
  • glass or plastic container;
  • plastic fitting for connecting containers;
  • plastic pipes and fittings for them;
  • waterproof sealant.

Step by step assembly instructions:

  1. Used plastic or glass containers are glued together with a sealant. In the presence of an intermediate partition, it is cut or drilled. The result is a high transparent foam separation column, some of which will be under water.
  2. In the third tank with a smaller diameter, it is cut out with a construction knife or a hole is drilled with a diamond drill, its diameter is slightly smaller than the plastic tube used. In the future, it will be necessary to ensure a tight fit of the pipes and tightness inside the tank.
  3. The intake tube must be manufactured in such a way that it narrows to the entrance to the foam separation column.
  4. All joints are carefully lubricated with sealant and listen.
  5. The pump and the compressor are connected separately, seeking to obtain as small bubbles as possible, which, rising through the foam separation column, adsorb the contaminants, after which they are discharged into the sump.

It is possible to modernize the self-made design by using needle-type nozzles, as well as by sharing the fence and draining water from the foam separator column.

To make a skimmer for an aquarium with your own hands will not be difficult. It is only necessary to choose the power of the pump and compressor, and subsequently use high-quality plastic containers and polypropylene tubes from which the device body is made.

The most popular self-made skimmers, which are intended for installation inside the sump. Such devices can have a nondescript appearance and increased dimensions, but at the same time they are very efficient, providing high-quality water purification from various contaminants.

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