maintenance, care, compatibility
So, let’s start preparing for the new home for your new pets. Adult scalars are quite large – about 30 cm in height and 15 in length. Therefore, an aquarium for scalar needs a big one.
For example, for two pairs of housing volume should be at least 60 liters. In the corners you need to locate aquatic plants, since the scalar are, by their nature, very cautious and shy and like to take shelter in dense thickets on occasion.
In addition, these fish love bright light.
Scalarians need clean water, so the filter should constantly work in the aquarium, and one fifth of the water should be replaced once a week. The tank should be washed periodically, at least once every couple of months.
Angelfish in an aquarium get along quite well with almost all other peace-loving aquarium fish. The main thing is that all the fish should be about the same size, otherwise the smaller scalar neighbors can serve as food for them, and the larger ones may well pat the long scalar fins.
And, of course, the size of your tank should match the number of its inhabitants.
Another important point – the water temperature in the aquarium for the scalar. These fish are very sensitive to temperature changes and do not like cold water, therefore it is necessary to maintain about 23-26 ° C. There are allegations that scalar dwellers can live very well at a temperature of 16-18 ° C, but we would not advise you to experiment (especially if you are a beginner aquarist) so that you do not have to treat your pets.
During spawning or treatment of diseased fish, the temperature in the aquarium should be raised by several degrees.
The floating crescent, winged leaf, or angelfish rightly takes the place of one of the favorite fish of many breeders, perhaps due to its unusual body shape and soft, but diverse and beautiful colors, and possibly due to its active behavior and livable character. This fish is quite capricious and demanding to the conditions of detention, especially with regard to the purity of water and the quality of food.
Therefore, if you decide to settle it in your pond, then you need to thoroughly prepare for it.
Aquarium. Since some individuals can grow quite large, then the aquarium will need a lot. For example, for two pairs of medium-sized fish, it is better to take a 60-liter container, no less.
Moreover, the width of the vessel does not play a big role, but the height of the aquarium should not be less than 45 cm.
Temperature. Some sources indicate that scalar can live successfully in the temperature range from 16 to 35 degrees.
However, we would not advise you to experiment like this, it is a big risk to undermine the health of your pets. The optimum temperature is 23-26 ° C.
Acidity should be maintained at 6.5-7.4, and the rigidity – 18.
Water. Prerequisite – clean water.
To ensure it, you need to install a good (bottom or canister) filter, replace a fifth of the water weekly and wash the aquarium itself at least once every 2 months. We add that the filter should be without a violent ejection of water, as the angelfish do not like a strong flow.
Lighting should be bright, but without a sharp change of day and night.
Vegetation. It is recommended to plant aquarium densely with plants, providing space for swimming.
Superficial plants can also be used. They will dim excessive lighting and create a sense of security in fish.
Priming. As the soil is good to use coarse sand, fine gravel.
Angelfish do not have the habit of digging it up.
Registration. Housing can be decorated with snags, decorative rocks and stone gorges.
Caves and shaded areas will serve as shelters. The main principle of selection is safety.
There should be no sharp corners.
Angelfish: content, compatibility, care, breeding, species, photo-video review
SCALARIES content, compatibility, care, reproduction, species, photo-video review In my opinion, Angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) are among the most beautiful aquarium fish.
These South American cichlids simply fascinate with their elegance and beauty of sailing fins, which, like the wings of an angel, support it in dimensional weightlessness. Actually not for nothing foreign these fish are called angels.
Their mannerism and affinity with the elite Discus, give an aristocratic polish that is unique to them. Aquarists have known these aquarium fishes for more than 100 years and during this time they have earned recognition and respect.
In addition to these advantages, scalarians have well-developed intellect, are not capricious in content, and are caring parents.
Latin name: Pterophyllum scalare.
Order, family: Perciformes (Perciformes), cichlids, cichlids (Cichlidae).
Comfortable water temperature: 22-27 ° C.
Ph acidity: 6-7.5.
Stiffness dH: up to 10 °.
Aggressiveness: not aggressive 30%.
The complexity of the content: easy
Compatible scalar: although the scalars are cichlids, they are not aggressive.
Favorable attitude even to small, peaceful fish and even to vivipartes. As neighbors we can recommend: the Red Sword-bearers (they look great with black sklyarias), terntions and other tetras, danios, all soma, gourami and lyaliusi, parrots and apistograms, other non-aggressive chichlades.
Not compatible with: neon, guppies (they will be eaten sooner or later), goldfish (they are pigs, they have a different feeding regime, nervous goldfish and scalars are chasing and plucking them), discus, too, though relatives, but in my opinion not the best neighbors – discus Dear, love warm water, they grow into large fish, capricious. In general, I am in favor of keeping the discus separately in a species aquarium.
See the article – compatibility of aquarium fish.
How many live: Angelfish are long-lived aquarium and can live for more than 10 years. Find out how much other fish live HERE!
angelfish in the aquarium black and white photo beautiful
From 100 l., In such an aquarium, you can put one, maximum two scalar. Under good conditions, they grow into fish of impressive size, and given their wide fins, it is better to buy an aquarium from 250 liters for them.
About how much you can keep fish in X liters of aquarium, see HERE (at the bottom of the article there are links to aquariums of all volumes).
The above process is a reference example of breeding scalar. Often, because of the neighborhood with other fish in the general aquarium, producers stress and fry too. Of course, this does not lead to anything good.
There have even been cases where parents, under stress from their neighbors, ate their offspring. In addition, due to the fact that in the commercial breeding of the angelfish, they use the method of jigging of caviar, it is now difficult to find a bona fide pair of producers who would be able to independently produce offspring.
This is considered a miracle.
With this in mind, usually immediately after spawning, the angelfish, with the leaf on which it is located, are transplanted into another aquarium of 10–20 l. In this case, all parent functions are shifted to your shoulders.
Protecting eggs from fungal diseases, methylene blue is added to the water, whitish dead eggs are regularly removed with a pipette, and a sprayer with a very very weak aerated water stream is placed under the leaf.
Interesting about scalar
Fashionable trend today Glofish not passed and scalar
here is an example of a photo of fluorescent scalar
Recommended literature and books about scalars
A. N. Gurzhiy “Skalyarii” 2009
Kochetov Sergey “Skalyarii” 2005
The fish are omnivorous and the feed is absolutely not whimsical. They are happy to eat dry, live food and substitutes. Like many aquarium scalar dwellers love live food: moth, artemia, choke, cyclops, daphnia.
The feed by scalaries is taken from the surface of the water and in its thickness, the fish do not disdain to walk along the bottom after collecting the remnants of food.
The scalar has a peculiarity – they can refuse to eat for up to 2 weeks. So if your scalar does not eat – there is nothing wrong with that.
Feeding aquarium fish must be correct: balanced, diverse. This fundamental rule is the key to successful keeping of any fish, be it guppies or astronotuses.
Article “How and how much to feed aquarium fish” talks in detail about this, it outlines the basic principles of the diet and feeding regime of fish.
In this article, we note the most important thing – feeding fish should not be monotonous; both dry and live food should be included in the diet. In addition, you need to take into account the gastronomic preferences of a particular fish and, depending on this, include in its diet ration either with the highest protein content or vice versa with vegetable ingredients.
Popular and popular feed for fish, of course, are dry food. For example, hourly and everywhere can be found on the aquarium shelves of food company “Tetra” – the leader of the Russian market, in fact, the range of feeds of this company is striking.
In the “gastronomic arsenal” of Tetra are included as individual feeds for a certain type of fish: for goldfish, for cichlids, for loricarids, guppies, labyrinths, arovan, discus, etc. Also, Tetra has developed specialized foods, for example, for enhancing color, fortified or for feeding fry.
Detailed information on all Tetra feeds, you can find on the official website of the company – here.
It should be noted that when buying any dry food, you should pay attention to the date of its production and shelf life, try not to buy food by weight, and also keep the food in a closed state – this will help avoid the development of pathogenic flora in it.
In nature, scalars live in northern South America
Breeding, reproduction and sexual characteristics of scalar
Angelfish (Latin Pterophyllum scalare) is one of the most beautiful aquarium fish, the history of their breeding in aquariums in many countries of the world has been over 100 years old.
The natural origin of the fish is the territory of South America, the freshwater Amazon River and its tributaries. In these bodies of water, the water is mild and slightly acidic, relatively warm. In some countries, the fish has been nicknamed the “angelfish” (angelfish) because of its elegant appearance and mannerism, giving it an aristocratic charm.
In addition to these signs, the scalar fish has a developed intellect, its maintenance in the home environment is simple. Aquarium fish scalar are also good parents who can independently take care of offspring.
They live in reservoirs with a slow or medium course, where there is a lot of reed beds. Their disc shape is the result of evolution.
This body shape allows you to beautifully maneuver among underwater plants. In nature, fish are kept in packs of 8-10 individuals.
Latin name: Pterophyllum scalare
Family: Cichlids (Cichlids)
Comfortable water temperature: 22-30 ° C
“Acidity” pH: 6.0-7.5
Stiffness dH: up to 10 °.
The nature of the angelfish is peace-loving, some individuals may not attack small fish and their brood, but it is worth remembering that all cichlids are predators. When settling in a common aquarium, you must be careful. Representatives of their species will be good neighbors for them, or other fish: corridors, tetras, gourami, lyalius, iris, plecostomus, combat, barium, rasbor.
With large aggressive cichlids, some species of barbs, cockerels, goldfish content is unacceptable. Proper care will ensure the fish a long life – the scalar can live 10 years or more.
Care and maintenance:
- The fish requires good aeration and filtration of the reservoir, as it is used to clean and oxygenated water. Replacement of 20-30% of water 1 time per week is required.
- The reservoir does not need to be tightly closed with a lid, the scalar is not jumping fish.
- Maintenance and care for the scalar will be comfortable if you provide them with moderate lighting with LB lamps of 0.4-0.5 W per liter of water. The tank can be placed in a quiet, quiet place where there is no access to bright sunlight. As plants, use hard-leaved species with wide leaves (vallisneria, echinodorus, cryptocoryne). Soil – washed coarse sand or gravel.
- Scenery for the reservoir: rocky rocks, caves, grottoes, snags. They love a large space, so one pair of fish is better to settle in a minimum 100-liter aquarium.
Watch a video about the content of angelfish in the home aquarium.
Scalaria (lat. Pterophyllum scalare) fish is large, voracious, eager for fry and shrimp, but beautiful and with interesting behavior.
High body compressed from sides, various colors, rather large sizes, accessibility, all this made it one of the most common and popular fish that almost every aquarist contained.
Angelfish are very beautiful and unusual, popular among experienced aquarists, and among beginners. In nature, they are camouflaged, with black streaks along the silvery body. Although there are changes there, fish without bands, completely black and other options.
But, it is precisely this tendency to change that aquarists use to bring out new, brighter views. Now many different types are displayed: black, marble, blue, koi, green angel, red devil, marble, diamond and others.
Despite the unusual shape of the body, they belong to the same species as the discus, to cichlids. It can be very high, and reach a length of 15 cm.
Medium in complexity, but the scalar needs a spacious aquarium so that it can swim without problems. The minimum volume is 150 liters, but if you contain a couple or groups, then already from 200 liters. How many live scalaries?
They live in an aquarium for a long time, 5 years or more.
Angelfish can be kept in the general aquarium, but do not forget that they are cichlids, and it is not desirable to keep very small fish with them.
Angelfish form a stable, monogamous couple, and they actively spawn in the general aquarium, but it is rather difficult to save caviar. As a rule, caviar is deposited on vertical surfaces: a piece of snag, a flat sheet, even on the glass in an aquarium.
For reproduction often put special tools or cones, or a piece of plastic pipe, or a ceramic pipe.
Like all cichlids, the scalar developed progeny care. Breeding is not easy to spawn, the parents take care of the roe, and when the fry hatch, they continue to care for them until they swim.
Since the angelfish themselves choose a pair, the best way to get such a pair is to buy six or more fish and grow them until they are determined. Very often the aquarist learns about the beginning of spawning only when he sees caviar in one corner, in the other all the inhabitants of the aquarium. But, if you are careful, you can see a pair that is preparing for breeding.
They stick together, drive away other fishes, and protect a secluded corner in an aquarium.
Angelfish usually reach the adult age of 8-12 months, and can spawn every 7-10 days if taken from them. Spawning begins with the fact that the couple chooses a place and begins to methodically clean it. Then the female lays a chain of eggs, and the male immediately fertilizes them.
This continues until the whole caviar (sometimes a few hundred), will not be postponed, the scalar caviar is rather large, of a light color.
Parents care for caviar, fan it with fins, eat dead or unfertilized eggs (they turn white). A few days later, the eggs peck up, but the larvae remain attached to the surface.
At this time, the larva does not eat yet, it consumes the contents of the yolk sac. After about a week, she becomes a fry and begins to swim freely. You can feed the scalar fry with the nautilia of Artemia or other fry feeds.
Millions of scalar fry were raised precisely on the nautilia of Artemia, so this is the best choice. You need to feed them three or four times a day, in portions which they can eat in two or three minutes.
In an aquarium with fry, it is better to use an internal filter with a washcloth and without a lid, as it provides sufficient filtration, but does not suck the fry inside. Clean water is just as important as regular feeding, because of the accumulated harmful substances the fry often die.
Often aquarists ask why the angelfish eat their eggs? This may be due to stress, when they spawn in a common aquarium and are distracted by other fish, or in young couples who are still inexperienced.
What to feed? Angelfish are omnivores, in the aquarium they eat all kinds of food: live, frozen and artificial.
The basis of feeding can be high-quality flakes, and additionally provide live and frozen food: a pipe maker, bloodworm, artemia, and a coretica. It is important to know two things, they are gluttons and cannot be overfeed, no matter how much they ask. And very carefully give the bloodworm, but it is better to give it up altogether.
A little overfeed with bloodworms, and the scalar begins intestinal distention, and such bubbles come out of the anal bladder. It is much safer to feed branded feed, the benefit they are now of high quality.
Angelfish can tear off delicate plants, though not often. In my case, they regularly tear off the tops of Eleocharis and tear off the moss from the snag.
In this case, you can add in the diet with spriulina.
Discus and Angelfish in the huge aquarium, the Amazon biotope:
Angelfish are quite unpretentious fish and can live more than 10 years, if you provide them with suitable conditions. Because of their shape, high aquariums of at least 120 liters are preferred for maintenance. However, if you are going to contain several of these beautiful fish, it is better to get an aquarium of 200-250 liters or more.
Another benefit of buying a spacious aquarium is that parents feel calmer and eat caviar less often.
The scalar aquarium fish should be kept in warm water, when the temperature of the water in the aquarium is 25-27С. In nature, they live in subacid, fairly soft water, but now they are well adapted to a variety of conditions and parameters.
The decor in the aquarium can be any, but preferably without sharp edges, which the fish may be injured.
Angelfish can tear off delicate plants, but not very much. At me they persistently eat Eleocharis, although they are never hungry and regularly eat food with vegetable ingredients.
And the attempt to add moss to the bark, they won is very simple. Regularly cutting off Javanese moss on a twig.
It is difficult to say why they behave this way, but apparently from boredom and greedy appetite. In the aquarium, it is advisable to plant plants with wide leaves, such as nymphs or amazon, they like to lay eggs on such leaves.
The body structure of the aquarium scalar is not adapted to swimming in a strong current, and filtration in the aquarium should be moderate. A large flow of water causes stress, and slows the growth of fish, as they expend energy to fight it. It is reasonable to use an external filter, and supply water through a flute or an internal one and spray current.
Required weekly water changes, about 20% of the volume.
First of all, the growth of scalar depends on its species. Some easily reach 30 cm in height and 20 cm in length. Pets reach maximum size in the second third of their life, i.e. by about 10 years.
The growth of the scalar, of course, is influenced by the size of the aquarium. In order for the scalar to grow to its maximum size, it must be maintained in a 400-liter aquarium.
Of great importance is food. If fish are undernourished or fed with low-quality low-protein feed, then they will not only stop growing, but also begin to get sick.
Therefore, food must be rich in protein. It all depends on how fast the scalar grows.
Good nutrition is important for scalar since childhood. You can feed the fish with special vitamins for healthy and fast growth.
It is necessary to comply with all conditions of detention – that is, to monitor sufficient filtration, aeration, hardness and temperature of water, as well as to observe the correct light regime.
The scalar breed is of great importance. By nature, these fish are not very large, and in aquarium conditions (even the best possible ones) will not be able to grow more than their own norm.
Once again, reiterate the importance of proper content in childhood. A fish that grew in a close aquarium and did not feed properly could never reach large sizes, even if later it was provided with good food and a sufficient amount of water.
Observing these simple rules, you can grow in your aquarium beautiful healthy angelfish, which will delight you for many years.