maintenance, care, compatibility
- Fill in the aquarium a little inert quartz sand.
- Add a little “prepared land.” Preparation of soil for the aquarium is as follows: two months it is in a flower pot and poured with water from the aquarium. This land is saturated with nutrients (the right bacteria and microorganisms), which will help to establish the right balance.
- Mix the ground with sand. How much soil is needed for an aquarium depends on the size of the reservoir itself, the type of plants, and the preferences of all the inhabitants of the underwater world. Land in our mix a bit. Carefully add some water.
- To create a decorative effect and imitate the natural habitat, install stones in the aquarium. Some species of fish use them for spawning. Not all stones can be placed in an aquarium. It is better to choose granite, basalt and large pebbles. They must be cleaned of dirt and boil.
- On a layer of sand with the addition of land we plant the plants. If there is soil on the roots of plants, the soil cannot be washed out for their best growth.
- Locally, pour a cup of quartz sand into all necessary areas.
- It remains to pour water. In order not to rise turbidity, cover all planted plants package. Carefully pour water on your hand so as not to wash off the whole landscape design. A working filter full of bacteria will immediately make the water completely transparent.
Recipes for its preparation quite a lot. Some homemade mixes are suitable for a particular type of home aquatic system, others claim to be universal.
Consider one option for self-preparation of a two-layer soil saturated with the necessary substances for the development of aquarium flora.
It can be prepared using the following ingredients:
- coal (activated in granules or natural birch);
- special sorbent as an active additive;
- finely chopped fallen leaves or coconut fiber;
- coarse sand or small pebbles.
Coal, being an absorbent, it is necessary to neutralize the decay products of organic matter, to clean the soil from harmful elements.
When using it, the following should be considered: coal tends to “throw” accumulated harmful substances back into the environment.
That’s why experts strongly recommend that in 8–10 months completely change the soil where this component is used.
Clay. In different areas, it can have a completely different composition. In the most common red clay there is a lot of iron.
Far not all plants and fish are suitable for too many of this element. Forest and lake clay contain a lot of humus.
In an aquarium, a similar component can affect the unauthorized rapid growth of algae.
To avoid this unpleasant moment can be subject to the use of gray clay.
In terms of its composition, it is able to satisfy the demands of almost all the representatives of flora that are common in aquaristics.
Sorbent. As a sorbent that binds all the components and affects the growth of the grass, often use the composition of “Vermiculite” in granules.
This layered mineral retains nutrients in the soil, preventing them from dissolving too quickly in water.
Peat is a supplier of beneficial organics that plants absorb through their roots. Some aquarists use river silt for this, but it is believed that in large doses it contributes to the acidification of the soil.
Natural forest peat can also cause this phenomenon, therefore it is recommended to use high-quality granulated (or pelletized) pressed peat.
Organics. Some recipes indicate the possibility of using finely chopped fallen leaves as an organic additive. But in this case you need to take into account some points:
- oak and linden foliage secrete many tannins into the aquatic environment;
- maple leaves decompose too slowly;
- in aspen leaves, on the contrary, the decomposition rate is very high.
The cutting of coconut fiber has proven itself in the best way.
Such a substance slowly and continuously releases organic matter, and also has an average rate of decomposition.
Commercial nutrient primers and substrates: an overview
Such branded products for aquarism used to be produced in the form of earth, to which various substances were added. Soils balanced in this way were simply poured to the bottom of the “can”.
At present, granulated bottom substrates have become most popular, many of which are produced by many companies: German Dennerle, JBL, Tetra, Polish Aquael and many others.
Aqua soil. An example of a soil is Aqua Soil – Africana, Amazonia, Malaya. This mixture helps to reduce the pH and hardness of the aquarium water.
Designed exclusively for freshwater aquariums.
Experts do not advise using this soil when keeping fish digging for soil.
Soil mix Dennerle DeponitMix Professional consists of selected natural peat, high quality natural clay, soil with nutrient minerals and iron, quartz sand and granules to ensure biological filtration and removal of nitrite from water. It helps to strengthen the root system of vegetation and healthy foliage.
The absence of a mixture of phosphates and nitrates eliminates the formation of green algae.
JBL AquaBasis plus – Received a wide distribution, it consists of:
- natural peat, performing the role of humus;
- selected clay in the form of granules;
- mineral supplements that also contain large amounts of iron;
- porous granules for the formation of colonies of denitrifying bacteria.
The mixture is laid out evenly along the bottom of the aquarium (layer thickness 2–3 cm), and carefully treated gravel of fine fraction is poured on top. In this case, a commercial mixture, whose service life is 3 years, plays the role of the substrate.
Plant Complete Substrate Concentrate from the company Tetra is a ready-to-use primer. In its composition there are: a mixture of different varieties of natural sand, mineral substances, humic acids, which have ion-exchange, sorption and biologically active properties, as well as peat.
The soil is poured at the bottom of a new aquarium with a layer thickness of 2 cm. In places where it is planned to plant water plants, the layer can be made a little thicker. It is allowed to use both finished product and mixing with fine-grained run-in gravel.
This concentrate prevents the appearance of algae, strengthens the roots, contributes to the normal development of stems and leaves.
The range of nutritious soil mixtures is very wide, and for the right choice, you should carefully familiarize yourself with their composition, as well as carefully read the instructions for use.
Nutrient soils are designed to ensure the good development of aquarium plants, but this is not their only function. Modern commercial ready-made mixtures significantly improve the quality of water.
And this is the most important factor in the good health of ornamental fish.
Video tip on how to make a nutritional substrate for aquarium plants:
Which soil is better for an aquarium? Aquariums large and small: clearance
What is the best soil for the aquarium – the first question a person starting to breed fish
- Natural soils – sand, gravel, gravel, pebbles. They can be used where there are small digging species of fish and plants with weak root systems.
- Soils obtained by treating natural materials by mechanical or chemical means. They satisfy almost all requirements and are offered in various colors. Despite this, their bright coloring interferes with the natural perception of the aquarium.
- Artificial primers – glass or plastic balls, made by a special technology. They are absolutely harmless, but they can only be used where there will be single plants. In addition, they are completely unsuitable for keeping burrowing fish.
Since porosity is one of the most important characteristics of a substrate, fine sand with a particle size of less than 1 mm is hardly useful. Everything is due to the fact that metabolic processes are disturbed in such a filler due to the rapid caking of the material.
This, in turn, leads to rotting of the roots of plants.
In addition, the biological balance, which should “visit” the aquarium at home, is very unstable. In this situation, even mollusks and fish, loosening the soil, do not help.
Sand having a particle size of 2 to 4 mm will be an excellent and readily available substrate. Sufficient porosity affects the metabolic processes, which for a long time remain in their original state.
This option is quite suitable for most plants with both strong and weak root system. In addition, it has a high permeability for newly formed roots.
You can also note the success of small pebbles, the particles of which vary from 4 to 8 mm. The level of its caking is much less than that of sand, but the formation of sludge is very slow.
This type of soil is more suitable for large plants with a strong root system.
Pebbles and gravel will decorate rather a small aquarium than a large one. In any case, the amount of such soil should be substantial in order to be somehow different from the general background.
In addition, pebbles and gravel are not used as an independent substrate.
It should be noted that all the above-mentioned natural grounds are connected by common origin – these are small particles of granite. Their massive distribution argues accessibility for aquarium lovers.
Moreover, the color parameters of such soils are from light gray to red shades.
Among artificial substrates, expanded clay is considered to be the most common. It has excellent porosity and low weight, which makes it indispensable for lovers of breeding fish and gardeners.
During the transplantation of plants, this type of soil practically does not injure the root systems.
Together with the above advantages, the internal part of expanded clay is an anaerobic flora – oxygen-free microorganisms. They purify water from numerous organic compounds that appear over time in the aquarium.
To determine how much soil you need in an aquarium, you should take into account its individual parameters. Among them are the dimensions of the “house for fish”, as well as the fullness of living and non-living components.
If you follow the recommendations of experienced aquarists, the soil should be laid in three layers. Moreover, the content and nature of the placement should correspond to a specific sequence.
The bottom layer should consist of gravel, which is enriched with laterite iron or clay. Its thickness should be from 3 to 5 cm and include balls with fertilizer.
In addition, there may be a mixture of trace elements that do not contain phosphates and nitrites, which are so destructive for plants and fish.
It is desirable to focus on the iron in the soil mixture, which is present in chelated form. Otherwise, it will simply not be available for food representatives of flora and fauna.
In addition, ferrous sulphate, usually used for feeding garden bushes, will not work, since it will significantly reduce the acidity of water.
If heating cables are used, they are also laid in this layer. They should not be located directly on the bottom, because uneven heating leads to cracking of the glass, and the house aquarium can quickly deteriorate.
In addition, sand and clay in this case will be inappropriate – they will also be heated unevenly.
The middle layer should contain land with admixtures of peat, constituting 15-25% of the total volume of bottom soil. Its thickness can be no more than 2-3 cm, since an overabundance of soil enriched with peat can provoke the process of decay.
If in the ground there is a large amount of organic matter, then it can be supplemented with sand.
In addition to everything, the middle layer can be filled with microelements and clay balls. However, for this you need to conduct thorough training of peat and earth.
Strictly speaking, such a rule holds for each layer.
The top layer should be of fine gravel mixed with sand. About 5 cm of this soil prevents the turbidity of water due to peat contact with the ground.
It is here that used stones for the aquarium, which can be purchased at the same pet store.
If in the aquarium there are snails or fish digging in the ground, then you need to grow plants in pots or increase the thickness of the upper layer. This will prevent significant damage to their root systems.
It should be noted that usually the soil in the aquarium is uneven. Although it can be distributed in such a way that it will look like a slide that rises towards the back wall.
This option of laying the bottom can visually give the aquarium a volume and a more spectacular appearance.
Most novice aquarists lay out various patterns from the ground. Since they are gradually moved by the action of water, these compositions are short-lived.
Of course, this is not so scary, but the overall appearance of the aquarium can still deteriorate.
The final procedures that will make the aquarium 200 liters perfect will be the installation of the decor, pouring water and planting plants. This should be taken care of in advance, so as not to “slow down” the overall process of arrangement.
Nowadays, aquarium owners prefer waterfalls as a stylish and original decor element. He looks very beautiful and spectacular. At first glance, the phrase “waterfall in an aquarium” seems absurd.
Whence and where does water fall when the reservoir is already filled with it? Sand comes to the aid of the aquascapers, because it is the one that flows down from the top down.
Due to this, the illusion of a waterfall is created. Is it possible to create such a decoration at home?
And what will it take to make a waterfall in an aquarium with your own hands?
Necessary components for making a waterfall
When all the components of the design are ready, you can proceed to the layout. To collect the waterfall in the aquarium, you first need to make the prefab sand tank into the rubber hose at the slot, which was made earlier, temporarily fix with adhesive tape and glue with silicone glue.
Next, you need to attach a thin tube system for the dropper to the bottom edge of the rubber hose. It will be supplied through the air injected by the compressor.
At the top of the main rubber hose, you need to make a large slot, from which sand will pour. This hole should be located just below the water level in the aquarium.
For proper and uniform operation of the device, this slot should be covered with a thin padding polyester, which will function as a filter.
Waterfall for the aquarium is almost ready. It is recommended to ensure that all the joints of the structure are well sealed with silicone in order to avoid weakening the injection.
Next, it remains to show imagination and make decorating the device.
The sand used in the construction influences the fullness of the waterfall illusion. It should be chosen, guided by such principles:
- Do not use too fine sand, because the air flow can spray it in different directions.
- Too coarse fraction of bulk material is not recommended, as larger sand grains can create congestion inside the rubber hose.
Waterfall in the aquarium will look more impressive, elegant and unique, if you use colored artificial sand.
Before you finally install the design in the tank, you should conduct several experiments using bulk material of different fractions and choose the right one that will create the necessary drop effect.
A waterfall in an aquarium is a fashionable and unusual element of modern art for creating an underwater landscape. Each fish breeder dreams that his pets’ house stands out with a special, original element of decor.
It is a waterfall, created by yourself, and will be such a highlight, successfully fit into the overall interior of the aquarium. Moreover, to manufacture such a device is not too difficult.