Plants in an aquarium not only give it a unique look and personality, but also are able to highlight the beauty of aquarium inhabitants. Being engaged in their maintenance and independent reproduction, each fan can create a unique design in his aquarium, combining plant species and controlling the density and size of planting, color and even growth rate.
A subsidiary plant is a plant originating from the adventitious kidney on any organ of the mother plant.
In a number of plant species, like the Thai Fern, adventitious buds appear on the edges of the leaves, from which new (daughter) plants are formed.
After the formation of leaves and roots, they are separated or they come off and float to the surface of the water.
Subsidiary plants strengthened on the substrate.
Hygrophil leaf with daughter plant
In plants of the acanthaceae family, for example, Hygrophil or Cinema, it is possible to separate a leaf or its part and let it float on the surface of the water. After some time, an accessory bud and a daughter plant will appear on the edge of the leaf, which after the formation of roots and leaves is separated and planted in the ground.
Some plants with a shorter stem develop a floral arrow, at the top of which an inflorescence is formed.
Flower arrow Ekhinodorus pressed to the ground
A number of species Echinodorus in the field of inflorescence formed daughter plants, which usually grow under water. After the formation of the roots and 5-7 leaves, they are separated and planted in the ground.
You can tilt the flower arrow to the ground and squeeze with a stone so that the daughter plant will take root.
Some species of Atonogeton also form in the inflorescence region a daughter plant, which is separated after the formation of a tuber and several leaves.
In bulbous plants, such as the Crinum of Thailand, daughter bulb plants are formed from the axillary buds of the bulb, which, when separated, develop into daughter plants. After the formation of several leaves, the plant is dug out and planted in a new place.
Dissection of a long rhizome with several children plants
A number of rhizomatous plants, such as Akorus, Anubias, Kubyshka and various species of Echinodorus, form young daughter plants from adventitious buds on the rhizome. After such a plant will give several leaves and roots, it is separated with a sharp knife with a piece of rhizome and planted in the ground. When transplanting an old rhizome of a plant with a long rhizome, a piece can be cut from it and pressed to the ground.
Over time, a daughter plant is formed from dormant buds.
Atonogetony can be propagated by dividing the rhizome or tuber. For this, a tuber or rhizome of a highly developed bush is divided by a razor blade into 2-4 parts, making cuts in the vertical direction through the growth point, and the powder from charcoal is rubbed in the cut plane. These parts are planted in a well-lit place.
Having been ill, the plant gives young plants from buds.
Branch is a young plant that forms on a creeping shoot.
In some plants, such as Vallisneria, a creeping shoot that forms in the leaf’s axil consists of a long internode with a bud at the end and is called a mustache. First, the internode grows in the horizontal direction, and then the development moves to the bud, which forms the roots and leaves of the young plant – the cuttings.
He, in turn, forms a mustache, and the formation of new layers follows one after the other – a “chain” of plants is formed. The layers that formed the leaves and roots begin to feed on their own and can be separated from the mother bush, but this will slow down the formation of the next layer. If the mustache is not cut, then you can get an optimal reproduction of the plant.
Each plant from the bosom of the leaves forms a whisker, which leads to a high degree of vegetative reproduction. Over time, the mustache connecting the plants die off.
Cryptocoryne undergrowth division
In other plants, such as Cryptocoryne, a creeping shoot consists of several internodes and is called a whip.
A separate basal leaf sits in the knot, and adventitious roots are formed.
The whip develops under the ground for some time, then the tip breaks through the surface and a tight knot appears, which can be referred to as a rhizome. With its occurrence, intensive root formation begins, and the basal leaves are replaced by normal ones and a young plant is formed – the layering, which can be separated after the formation of 2-3 leaves.
New lashes are formed, as a rule, from the site of rhizome, but can also come from the buds in the axils of the basal leaves.
Many species of plants floating on the surface of the water, such as Vodokras, Limnobium, Pistia and others, also reproduce with layers.
I. Sheurmann writes: “It is impossible to separate the layering too early. A young plant should grow to a third, better to half of the mother (the cryptocoryne is of almost the same size).
The branches of the floating plant are not separated, the compound disintegrates by itself. “
The stalk is a part of the shoot of a plant with an elongated stem, suitable for vegetative propagation.
Reproduction of long-stemmed plants by cuttings: a – dissection of the stem; b – planting cuttings; in – the state of the cuttings in 2-3 weeks
From the stem with a sharp knife or nails of the fingers separate the top – the head stalk, which must consist of at least 3 nodes, and then, removing the leaves from the lower 2 nodes, they are planted in the ground so that the leafless nodes are covered with them, because they will give roots. If the plant has a lateral shoot, the stalk is separated directly above the knot from which the lateral shoot leaves.
In addition, it is possible to separate the lateral shoot itself as a cutting, if it formed at least 3 knots. If the plant is large enough, then apart from the head cutting, the next part of the stem can be separated – a shoot with not less than 4 nodes, and removing the leaves from the bottom 2 nodes, plant it in the ground.
The head stem begins to grow most rapidly. The maternal plant remaining in the soil, which has a developed root system, also soon begins to produce lateral shoots at the nodes.
The last to start off is the growth of the shoot stem.
The cuttings are propagated by plants floating in the water column, such as Elodea.
In this case, they throw out the beginner to rot away the last piece of the stem of the mother plant.
With sexual reproduction, fertilization occurs and the formation of a new plant. In flowering plants, fertilization occurs in a flower, and as a result of it, seeds are formed.
Therefore, their sexual reproduction is called seed.
Transfer of pollen from anthers of stamens to stigmas of pistils of a flower – pollination.
In self-pollination, the stigmas are pollinated by the pollen of their flower, as a result the offspring is genetically equivalent to the parent plant. When cross-pollination, pollen from other plants gets on the stigma; as a result, the offspring is more diverse in terms of hereditary characteristics and more viable.
In addition to pollinating the stigmas with the pollen of their own plant species, there is pollination with pollen of a closely related species — hybridization.
Hybrids – possess signs of two types. Hybrids are very common among Atonogetons, with the result that real, pure species are quite rare.
In many species, both cross-fertilization and self-pollination are possible. At the same time, in some species of plants, such as Barclay’s long-leaved, the flowers do not open, but give seeds.
In aquarium breeding seed propagation is used mainly only for Atonogetonov, which form inflorescences, and very rarely for some species of Echinodorus, Barclay, Kubyshki and Water Lilies.
Due to the absence in the overwhelming majority of cases, natural methods of pollination are applied artificially, in which pollen from stamens to stigmas is transferred with a soft brush, and in self-pollinated plants it is possible to carry out stamens and pistils with a clean finger.
It should be noted that young plants that give a flower arrow and inflorescence after pollination, are very depleted and grow poorly, so their first arrow is better to cut and allow the plant to gain strength.
In Ekhinodorusov degree of ripening of seeds is determined by color. Ripe seeds change color from green to brown.
Easily separated seeds are removed, dried for 1-2 weeks, then some aquarists keep in a vessel with soft, strongly circulating water at a temperature of 23-25 ° C for 1.5-2 hours to improve germination and put in a vessel with sand and low water at 28 ° C.
As the germination of the water level is gradually raised.
In Atonogetonov, when the first flowers open, you can begin pollination, which is best done in the afternoon or evening in 10-14 days. Ripened fruits fall out and float on the surface of the water.
In order not to lose the seeds released after decomposition of the pulp of the fruit, the spike should be wrapped with fine gas or other precautions should be taken.
If it is not necessary to sow now, then the seeds can be stored for some time in water at 15-16 ° C.
The seeds are germinated in a vessel without soil with a water level of 10-15 cm. After the formation of thin roots and 2-3 leaves, the seeds are planted in the soil (deepening by 2-5 mm, depending on the size of the seeds), poured by a layer of 2-3 cm and consisting of mixtures of sand, clay and boiled peat chips in a ratio of 3: 1: 1 at a water level of 20-25 cm. As the plants grow, the water layer increases.
You can hang the vessel with seeds in the aquarium and lower it as the plants grow.
Water temperature 26-28 ° C.
Seeds can be sown immediately, without prior germination, in a vessel with the ground. To do this, make small depressions in it, in which seeds are dipped, then drop by drop in water at a level of about 1 cm.
The water level gradually increases as the seeds germinate.
Barclaya is a self-pollinating plant.
Flowers both come out of the water and open, and remain undiscovered under water, but in both cases they can produce fruit. Seeds that fall out of the fruit are best allowed to float in water until a first leaf 3-5 mm long and a thin root are formed.
After that, the young plant is planted in the ground.