maintenance, care, compatibility
The most popular and unpretentious plant for an aquarium is Javanese moss. Outwardly, it resembles ornate, tangled green threads.
Moss tolerates shade and bright light; it is easy to grow. It does not need to be planted in the ground, because there is no root system. Java moss can grow on the scenery, even independently attached to them.
It does not bloom, but reproduces by spores. You can also plant moss in a different way – by separating a fragment of a plant, and transplanting it to another area (on the ground, snags, stones).
To prevent the current from moving it, Javanese moss can be secured to the surface with a fishing line or synthetic thread.
A popular plant species among beginners is the Thai fern. It does not have a root system, it does not need to be planted in the soil. But thanks to the rhizoids, it is easily fixed on the solid surfaces of the aquarium.
With it, you can create unsurpassed aquascape compositions.
Admire the thick Thai fern.
Good plants for beginners – elodey. Elodea of 4 genera are on sale: Egeria, Lagarosifon, Hydrilla, and, actually, Elodea.
In an aquarium, elodeas create lush green thickets in which fish and their fry can hide. These plants were imported from America, and well adapted to our latitudes.
Another useful plant for the aquarium – rogolotniki. They are known to all – grow in freshwater bodies of our latitudes. The stem is thin, harsh to the touch, whorled leaves.
Cormorants can live submerged, and bloom under water. There are no rhizoids, therefore it is not necessary to plant in the ground.
Can be mounted on the decorations of the aquarium, at its walls.
Plants nayas, or naiads – nayas Guadalupe and nayas Indian. A great choice for beginners aquarists.
Grow only under water. Characterized by a dark green shade of leaf plates, small stalks thin and branching, the leaves are covered with small spikes. Nayas bloom, but in conditions of captivity, this rarely happens.
It is recommended to contain in water hard or medium hardness. In soft water, nayas literally dissolve.
The root system is powerful. You can plant in the ground, and over time you will see how the openwork bush was formed.
Nayas can develop if it is let through the water, and not planted in the soil.
Peristuphrium, or myriofillum – is a beautiful plant for the aquarium, which has a graceful and thin stems. Leaves are dark green in color, pinnate. The roots are thin, thread-like, you need to plant a perististeum in fine sand.
On the new stretch of soil adapts quickly, and grows well.
Hygrophiles are beautiful and famous aquarium plants. All species have distinctive morphological characteristics.
About 10 varieties and their forms are found on sale. Hygrophils – marsh plants that can grow above the surface of the water, and grow further in the air.
The leaves are located opposite each other, in pairs.
Anubiasas are famous aquarium plants of the genus Anubias of the same name. Thanks to a strong root system and tough leaves, they are suitable for aquariums where digging and herbivorous fish live.
The stem is creeping, hard leaves of a dark green color are moving away from it, petioles are long. On the basis of the leaf plates can be cuts, the tips of the leaves are pointed. Anubias grow slowly, but are hardy, can live in low light.
They are expensive. Anubiases should be planted in such a way that their roots are tightly immersed in the soil, and the stem is located above it.
The root system of Anubias allows you to fasten them to the stone, snag. Even in this form, they grow well.
See how to seat anubias nana.
Crinum Thai is a hardy seedling that, thanks to a bulb, can tolerate a wide range of conditions, absorbing the maximum amount of nutrients. Crinum unpretentious to the lighting and composition of the aquatic environment.
Leaf color is light green, their structure is soft, belt-like, delicate, strong and elastic. Crinum Thai can be trimmed, tied into knots, they do not damage aquarium fish. Reproduction – vegetative, due to the daughter bulbs, which are formed at the base of the parent.
May bloom: an umbrella with white flowers can rise above the surface of the water, the peduncle is durable. Only large plants thrive in captivity, with bulbs the diameter of a human fist.
Crinum should be planted in the soil of the soil, or in pots of soil, not burying the bulb itself.
Cryptocoryne – stiff-leaved aquatic plants. There are many species that are popular in aquarism. Can grow in submerged, semi-submerged or above ground.
Usually a bush consists of 5-15 leaves. The leaves may be lanceolate or ovoid, grow on the petioles. Leaf color – from green to brownish.
The inflorescence forms a tube, inside which there is a short ear. Light in the content of the types of cryptocoryne apoponogotonolistnye and cryptocoryne related.
Necessary to create a harmonious aquascape are floating plant species. They can scatter on the surface of the water in the likeness of small beads (like wolfia, or a blooming hyacinth), or spread their wai (fern leaves) like the Indian ceratopopteris. Floating plants do not need to be planted in the ground, but for them the composition of water is important, from which they will receive useful substances.
They also need safe overhead lighting so that the space between the lamp and the leaves is at a certain distance. Leaves can create diffused light inside the aquarium, or partial shade.
The root system is poorly developed or absent.
Any decoration of the aquarium is difficult to imagine without such an important element as aquarium plants. And this is not surprising, because beautifully and tastefully decorated, they will not only become an excellent decoration of an artificial reservoir, but also add to it an elegant charm.
And this is not to mention the fact that it is the plants in the aquarium that determine the internal arrangement of the vessel.
For example, using the thick aquatic plants, the photos of which can be seen below, you can create stunning landscapes, the type of which will capture the spirit of everyone who sees them. It is true that not only the owner of the aquarium, but also the fish that inhabit it, benefit from properly selected vegetation.
In order to systematize a huge number of different plants, differing from each other in form and method of placement in the aquarium, they were divided into several groups. So, today allocate:
- Aquatic aquarium plants that root in the ground.
- Aquarium plants that swim in the water column.
- Aquarium plants that float on the surface of the water.
Consider each of them separately.
There are many benefits of living vegetation, but two main groups of functions can be distinguished:
- impact on the hydrochemical parameters of the aquatic environment – nitrogen compounds are consumed from water, they are saturated with oxygen, the twigs and leaves serve as a refuge for the biofilter bacteria;
- creating a favorable environment for fish and other animals – an additive to food, the formation of shelters for adults and young fish, the substrate for spawning.
There is also an aesthetic function. But let’s be fair: this is a matter of taste.
Some people like natural landscapes, while others like urban landscapes and lunar ones, and with the help of artificial elements, an aquarium can also be made very interesting.
Perhaps the only type of aquariums where it is objectively practically impossible to maintain living plants is tanks with very large fish, such as, for example, adult pterigoplichts, astronotuses and the like. They destroy any young growth completely mercilessly and with a speed that excludes the possibility of its recovery, moreover, in such aquariums a very strong flow is created for the implementation of the required level of water purification, which the plants simply cannot transfer.
And even in such cases, it is difficult to do without natural greenery; it is simply carried out outside, equipping plant filters.
So, without the plants in the aquarium is bad and difficult. So, we need to create conditions under which they can live in our home reservoir.
Before you begin to select the vegetation for your pond, you need to know what conditions are created in it. The amount of light is measured first.
To do this, take the power of the lamps in watts (if there are several, then the sum of power) and is divided by the volume of water. For example, in a standard 80-liter aquarium there are 2 fluorescent lamps of 18 W each, which means the illumination will be 0.45 W per liter. It is quite sufficient for undemanding species, if the lamps are new, the spectrum is selected correctly, and the height of the aquarium does not exceed 40-45 cm.
For incandescent bulbs, the power should be about three times higher, and less for LEDs, but lamps of such types are used less often in aquarism and are not recommended for beginners.
Next, you need to evaluate the values of acidity and hardness, this can be done only using special tests. Now they are available in many pet stores in large cities and are not particularly expensive.
Residents of small towns and villages, where such delights can not be found, we can recommend to order them in online stores or ask borrowed from experienced aquarists, having become acquainted with them on the forum.
It should be noted that most plants do not like hard water (with an indicator of total hardness gH above 8 ° and temporary carbonate hardness kH above 6 °). If the indicators of your tap water exceed this indicator, then it is necessary either to select the appropriate types of plants (and there are not so many of them), or to lower the hardness – this is done by adding reverse osmosis or distilled water.
If you can not get it, then use boiled water without sediment. Another option: check the rigidity of various types of bottled water and try to find among them soft.
Based on the results, the selection of plants begins.
Generally recognized endurance champion among aquarium vegetation is considered Javanese moss. It endures low light, a wide range of pH and acidity, as well as temperature.
It can grow in water and on the surface, it can be fixed on various underwater objects using fishing line. True, in an aquarium with insufficient light, Javanese moss is not recommended to be planted at the bottom in the form of ground cover (lawn grass), since there will be little light penetrated through the water column even for this unpretentious handsome.
What is detrimental to a Javanese is frankly dirty water, when particles of organic matter settle on its small leaves, covering them with a solid coating and depriving them of the possibility of respiration and photosynthesis.
Floating on the water surface wolfia, riccia, duckweed are an excellent vitamin-rich fertilizer for fish, as well as shelter and canteen for fry of many species, but their emerald beauty can only be appreciated in aquariums open from above.
Plants that do not require rooting: elodea and their numerous relatives, sold under the same name, forming the nayad (nyas) lacy clouds, white-headed hydrokotyla with round bright green leaves. They drift in the water column, getting the necessary minerals from it, but they, like the above-mentioned romanthorn, can be pressed to the bottom if desired, forming bushes and thickets in the background and in the corners of the aquarium.
Rooting plants need nutrient soil, sand or fine gravel. If the aquarium is new and the ground is not silted, you can add fertilizer to it.
This group of vegetation includes luxurious karomba Caroline, various types of hygrophilous with thin willow, openwork or patterned leaves, elegant pink rotala, thin spiral-shaped wallisneria. Some types of Echinodorus (for example, Amazonian) and cryptocoryne (aponogetonicolist) are also quite hardy and, with some zeal, are quite capable of beginners.
Another beautiful and picky plant from this group is the Indian water fern – a rare handsome, absolutely, however, not tolerating hard and alkaline water.
Algae in an aquarium, how to get rid of and fight with all their species
An algal flash is a visual indication of a violation (absence) of a biobalance in an aquarium. This is the loss of any link in the balance!
Finding out what link fell, you need to return it to its place. What a newbie to do is hard!
Here are the main reasons for the loss of the biobalance link:
– excessive amount of daylight in the aquarium or wrong aquarium lighting mode. Accordingly, it is necessary to reduce or adjust daylight hours.
Or in general, if possible, turn off the light for a couple of days, as a preventive measure.
– lack of daylight or the use of “wrong” lamps with a “wrong” spectrum. Accordingly, it is necessary to increase the light day or remove the lamps with a “bad” spectrum and you need to buy lamps for the spectrum or purchase lamps for the missing spectrum.
Read more Lighting aquarium and the choice of lamps and Lighting aquarium do it yourself.
– the presence in the aquarium of excess dead organic matter and dirt (dead plants, fish, food residues, kakul, etc.). Simply put, the aquarium does not have time to cope with so much “garbage” and the only way out of our beloved, living aquarium, is a call to help algae, who happily gobble up all this byaku.
Accordingly, it is necessary to remove all the “garbage”: siphon the bottom of the aquarium, clean the walls, decor and equipment, mechanically try to remove the algae, as well as make more frequent and more complete water changes for fresh, eventually, pour aquarium coal into the filter compartment.
– The following reason follows from the above and is a destructive continuation of the “dirt” in the aquarium. All dead organics are decomposed by beneficial bacteria and fungi, and removed from the aquarium. If this dead organic matter a lot and it accumulates, the microorganisms do not have time to process it!
In the aquarium, poisons begin to accumulate – decomposition products: ammonia, nitrites and nitrates, which leads not only to the appearance of algae, but generally ruins all life in the aquarium.
In addition to the above measures for thorough cleaning of the aquarium, you need to apply the following aquarium chemistry:
A) Zeolite. Sold in pet stores or other places.
For example, a mixture of zeolite and coal is ubiquitous. Fluval Zeo-Carb.
On a note: you need to know that aquarium coal is not effective from poisons and only ion-exchange resin – zeolite removes them. Read more …
B) Preparations of bio-starters, as well as preparations promoting the increase of colonies of beneficial bacteria. Simply put, these are drugs that contain the very bacteria that decompose poisons.
A lot of such drugs, for example, are popular: Tetra Bactozym, Tetra NitratMinus, Tetra NitrateMinus Pearls, Sera bio Nitrivec and others.
3. A large number of plants in the aquarium.
No one has scientifically proved that plants suppress algae, but the fact remains that in an aquarium with live aquarium plants (1/2, 2/3), there are no algal outbreaks, except greenish dots sometimes appear, and then from strong illumination.
Here is an example from my own experience. I had a herbalist for growth (I grew plants for the future of an aquascape), there were many different plants.
The time has come, I made my scape, spread out plants and flooded some algae (algae) in it, and this is all because the aquarium is young, the plants have not gotten stronger after transplantation, and their number has decreased. The time passed, the plants grew stronger and took over the lower ones and the thread disappeared.
Therefore, if you have the opportunity to provide plants with proper care: LIGHT, CO2, PLE – surely plant beds!
4. There are useful fish that fight – eat algae and algal plaque:
A) Siamese Algae Eaters – tireless workers of the aquarium, sometimes it seems that the only meaning of their life is the insatiable desire to kiss all the plants, suck all the stones and walk through all the aquarium decorations. They can still be found under the abbreviation SAE, which stands for Siamese Algae Eater and translates as Siamese algae.
There are also KAE and IAE – Chinese and Indian algae. Effective from algae “black beard”, “filament” and “deer horns”, etc.
B) Ototsinklyus – no less effective fish. Due to the structure of its mouth gently and well remove algae from plants, decor and walls.
Copes with green, brown (diatoms), etc.
B) Ancistrus– also helpful. But, unlike the aforementioned fish, adult antsistrus individuals are lazy.
And they say that in addition to algae, they chew and plants.
D) The whole family is also a good helper in the fight against algae. petsilievyh – guppies, swordtails, mollies, patcilia and others.
D) All possible clams. – apularias, coils, fizy, etc.
5. And finally, the aquarium chemistry will come to the rescue, the overwhelming algae.
In pet stores sold a lot of these drugs, as a rule, in their name they contain the word “Algo” (alga), for example, Tetra AlgoStop Depot. Use these drugs should be carefully, wisely and according to the instructions. I recommend Tetra products precisely because they have the mildest effect.
With proper applications – taking into account all the circumstances in the aquarium, Tetra preparations do not adversely affect the plants.
So, we have examined the main causes of the appearance of algae in the aquarium, as well as dismantled the main methods of dealing with them. Finally, it should be noted that, as a rule, “algal trouble comes in a complex”, and therefore it is necessary to deal with it in a complex, i.e. not one method, but several at once, if not all at once.
Algae in the aquarium – know the enemy in the face!
Anubias content in the aquarium, species, breeding, planting, photo-video review
Anubias heterophylla or Anubias congensis
Required parameters for keeping a variety of leaves in an Anubias aquarium
Anubias Barter – Variegated (Anubias barteri var.Variegated)
The conditions of optimal content are the same as for all Anubias Barter
Anubiases can gladden only in the greenhouse or paludarium. Although, nevertheless, sometimes – it happens in the aquarium
Types of Anubias
Anubias Afzeli or Anubias Afzelii (Anubias afzelii)
Echinodorus (lat. Echinodorus) is a genus of plants of the same name of the Chastukhov family.
Natural habitat – North and South America. Many species were cultivated in home aquariums. There are annual and perennial plants growing above water or under water.
Echinodorus can grow in water with different parameters, well adapted to acidic and weakly acidic water. All aquarium plants love bright lighting, which allows them to become saturated with pigment and grow upwards.
The maintenance of the plant echinodorus is very simple, with the exception of some demanding species. Heat-loving, prefer a temperature of 19-30 degrees Celsius, water acidity from 5.0 to 8.0 pH, medium hardness 4 dH.
In soft water they become weak, the leaves wither and fall. Also for planting requires clean soil, with a fine-grained substrate (pebbles or sand).
Ground siphon is allowed for cleaning of accumulated organic matter.
The plant loves clear water, muddy water does not allow light rays to pass through. Filtration and aeration are mandatory, as is water renewal at least once a week for fresh water. It is desirable to saturate the water with CO2.
Some species take fertilizer and fertilizer with iron as fertilizer, with other organics and chemical fertilizers should be careful, they are used only with strong growth of the bush. In a new soil for Echinodorus make feeding from clay or boiled peat.
Admire the echinodorus small-color aquarium, the Red Flame, the heart-shaped Marble Queen and other aquarium plants.
The genus was first described at the end of the 19th century, exactly 100 years later, he was given a detailed description, dividing into species and subspecies. Most ekhinodorusov grow on the territory of South America in the basins of freshwater rivers or in swampy areas. Rarely found on the dried areas, where species with strong and long roots take root.
Few species are able to live under water all year round, they need land and growth in the world. Propagated by seed or vegetatively due to rhizome.
There are a number of hybrid species that are difficult to distinguish from South American endemics.
Echinodorus narrow-leaved – received a description in 1975. Natural habitat – Mato Grosso, Brazil. Differs in endurance and thermophilic.
It has a simple appearance, the leaves are long and pointed up, green. Under abusive conditions, leaf plates may turn yellow.
It is recommended to land behind the middle and background. The bush grows 50-60 cm high, the leaf width is 4 mm. In an aquarium, it can take root in water slightly acidic and hard.
Heat-loving look, the required temperature of the content: 20-30 degrees Celsius. Suitable as a shelter for small fish.
For rapid growth, the amount of daylight required is 10-12 hours, in the case of LB light with 0.4 W lamps per 1 liter of water. Landing narrow-leaved Echinodorus is better in a spacious aquarium, as it grows heavily.
Echinodorus oziris – the plant was first described in 1970, the natural environment of distribution is southern Brazil, areas of the Orinoco river. Leaves elliptical, wide. The color of the leaf plate is green or light brown.
An adult plant reaches a length of 40-50 cm, so it is initially recommended to plant it in a spacious aquarium with clean water. If you land in nutrient sand with soil, you will grow a thick bush. In bright light, the leaves become orange-red.
The plant is preferably planted in the foreground. A number of requirements for maintenance in an aquarium: water temperature 18-29 degrees, acidity 6.0-7.5 pH, hardness – no more than 4 dH.
Echinodorus yarrow – described in 1970, a very popular ornamental plant. Also loves lighting and clear water.
Forms a wide bush for 10-20 whorls, the color of the leaf plates from light green to dark green. The plant grows up to 60 cm in height.
The leaves are long, elliptical in shape. Requires fine-grained soil for planting, without impurities. Water should be slightly acidic, hard.
Allowable temperature content in the water – 22-28 degrees. Planted better in the foreground or background.
Watch a video about Echinodus milfoil.
Echinodorus small-color (black amazon) – unpretentious aquarium plant. Habitat in nature – freshwater reservoirs of Bolivia and Peru. Short stem, bush height 40 cm.
The shape and length of the sheet are directly dependent on the length of daylight. The color of the leaf plate is bright green with brown streaks. Recommended content in a tropical aquarium with relatively warm water.
A number of requirements for water parameters: temperature 21-28 degrees, acidity 6.0-8.0 pH, hardness 2-15o. Weekly it is recommended to update 25% of water for fresh, prefers not turbid water, without organic impurities.
It is better to plant in the back of the tank. Growing year round.
The soil should be silted and nutritious.
Echinodorus Mercedes (Mercedes) is a very popular hybrid plant of Czech selection. Forms a rosette of 5-6 stems and broad leaves of elliptical shape. The color of the leaf plate is olive-yellow, with a purple edging.
The height of the leaves is 30-35 cm, width is 5-7 cm, the width of the bush is up to 30 cm. In an environment saturated with iron, a Mercedes may acquire a dark brown, purple color. Plants also love warm water, growing in the world, it is better to use for this lamp LB with a capacity of 0.3 W per liter.
It takes root in water at a temperature of 20-27 degrees, with a hardness of 4-9 dH, acidity pH 6.0-7.0. Flower arrows throws out several times a year.
As the soil suitable sand granular without impurities. Vegetatively propagated, with the help of lateral shoots on peduncles.
Echinodorus ruby is a popular ornamental plant of bright color. In contrast to the collections of natural origin, it is very hardy even in acidic and soft water, does not impose special requirements on the content. Unwashed sand is suitable as a substrate for planting, where it feels comfortable.
It grows to a height of 60 cm, the leaves are oblong, purple-red, 8-10 whorls in one outlet. Allowable temperature in the aquarium: from 22 to 30 degrees.
Echinodorus rose – a small hybrid with light pink leaves. The height of the bush is 15-25 cm, width is 20-35 cm. In the socket of 8-9 leaves of elliptical shape, the width of the leaf plate is 3-5 cm.
The plant is planted in the central or rear part of the aquarium. Loves lighting, 0.4 watts per 1 liter.
Required to land in nutrient soil with silt. The temperature of the aquatic environment in the aquarium is 22-30 degrees, it does not grow very quickly.