maintenance, care, compatibility
Tropical Guest from the Past – Indian Fern
Its content does not require too much effort. In general, the requirements are fairly standard:
- Temperature. It was already mentioned above that the homeland of this plant is the tropics, so it is not surprising that the optimum water temperature for it is high – from 24 to 28 degrees. However, the fern will endure a lower temperature. But we must bear in mind that the growth of the plant will slow down significantly, and the color will become dull. When the temperature drops beyond 20 degrees, the plant stops growing at all.
- Acidity. Ideal parameters for Indian fern range from 5 to 6.5 pH. With a weakly alkaline reaction, the alga will slow down growth and may die.
- Rigidity. Water in a fern tank should not be hard. The best indicator is not more than 6 ° dGH. As in the case of acidity, in hard water, the alga feels bad, growth slows down and as a result the fern dies.
- Priming. All ferns, including Indian, differ in a sufficiently developed root system. True, their roots are usually thin, soft and brittle. Accordingly, the soil for the aquarium should be chosen with small particles, and landing carefully. Coarse sand will be the best substrate. Take note that the substrate must be moderately silted – it is a source of nutrients for the plant. Pour the soil should be 4-5 centimeters thick.
- Top dressing. While maintaining the required conditions in the aquarium, the fern does not need additional mineral dressings and fertilizers. Usually, the volume of substances that it receives from the aquarium water and the soil is sufficient.
- Lighting. The Indian water fern needs it especially. Requires lamps of at least 0.5 watts per liter of water. Daylight hours are planned for at least 12 hours. Natural light will also be useful, but make sure that the direct rays of the sun on the leaves was not.
Places of natural growth of this species are tropical belts on the continents and islands. Indian aquarists have honored water fern, and the masters of the underwater landscape also use it very successfully to create their masterpieces.
Content of indian fern in aquarium
This plant shows its decorative qualities and incredibly fast growth in full with proper maintenance. To say that it is difficult and demanding care is impossible, but you will have to follow certain rules. Successful cultivation of fern in an aquarium is impossible without the following actions:
- Since the plant is a guest from the tropics, in the conditions of the aquarium it will be necessary to ensure the basic parameters as much as possible. In particular, it concerns the temperature. It should be in the range of 22-26 ° C. With its decrease, the fern grows in the aquarium badly, and the leaves themselves noticeably shrink and the decorative effect decreases markedly.
- Be sure to follow the reaction of water: if it approaches a hard alkaline, the plant withers. Ideally, the reaction should be neutral, slightly acidic is allowed.
- Fern needs high-quality lighting in the aquarium. Combination of natural and artificial light is allowed. The latter is quite well provided by fluorescent lamps and even incandescent bulbs. Your task is to provide the plant with 12 hours of daylight.
- Indian fern does not just do without supplements, but even withers away from their excess. Especially it does not tolerate excess nitrates and nitrites.
But the care is greatly simplified by the indifference of the plant to the change of water. Some plants need to be constantly replaced or partially replaced.
This plant does not require such actions and grows quite well in old water, if it contains humic acids.
The water parameters for the content should be the following: water hardness up to 6 °, with a weakly acid reaction, for this purpose, pieces of boiled peat are added to the filter.
Water temperature is 22-26 ° С. When the temperature drops below 20 ° C, the plant may die
The lighting is very bright, not less than 0.5-0.7 W / l, it is possible to illuminate the aquarium, both with fluorescent lamps and incandescent lamps, when the sun beams on the aquarium, the light must be diffused, the direct rays will cause algae to grow on the leaves.
The soil, the root system of the plant is quite well developed, but at the same time, the roots are very fragile. Therefore, for planting suitable fine soil, well-silted, but not soured.
The leaves of the plant are small, dissected, light green tones. In height the stem of a fern can reach 50 cm.
From the rhizome of the plant depart thin stalks. Leaflets are attached to these stalks.
Indian fern grows in the ground, and can float on the surface.
Conditions of detention
Artificial lighting or natural, does not play a role. The main thing is that it was powerful. For fluorescent lamps, 0.4-0.5 watts should fall on 1 liter of water.
Sunlight will need to shade the plant. Indian fern day lasts 12 hours. Despite the fact that the roots of the plant are well developed, they themselves are very fragile and brittle.
When planting a fern in the ground, be extremely careful. Coarse sand is suitable for the substrate.
It is desirable that the soil was silted, but not soured. Sand lay at 4-5 cm. Additionally, the plant should not be fed, because the fern is sensitive to the presence of nitrates and nitrites in the water.
Water and soil provide the plant with all the necessary substances.
Since the fern Indian plant is a thermophilic tropical aquarium it will be just right for him. The temperature suitable for a fern is 22-26 degrees. If the leaves of the plant suddenly become faint, and the growth slows down, then the temperature in the aquarium is below normal.
Stiffness not higher than 6 degrees. Alkaline, hard water does not suit the plant.
Acidic environment should be neutral, it is possible to withstand a slightly acid reaction. In the filter, you can put pieces of boiled peat. The fern does not need frequent water changes.
Water saturated with humic acids, satisfies the plant. Indian fern serves as a light filter that protects neighboring plants from algae fouling. In addition, he acts as a kind of assimilator, the water where the plant grows is always immaculately clean.
It is better to plant a fern one by one, closer to the center of the aquarium.
Breeding of Indian fern is carried out by the daughter plants. When the buds of the roots and a pair of leaves appear on the mother bush, the subsidiary plant independently separates and floats to the surface.
Floating in thickness, it continues to grow like a normal plant. Sprouts with roots can also be placed in the ground.
Thai fern or pterygoid-aquarium plant
Lighting can be strong or moderate.. The fern can withstand long-term shading, but grows well only with sufficient light. Natural diffused light has a positive effect on plant development.
Incandescent and fluorescent lamps can be used as sources of artificial light. The power of the illuminators is selected individually depending on the needs of neighboring plants and the characteristics of the aquarium.
Daylight hours should be approximately 12 hours.
Soil for Thai fern is not required. Its rhizome is always located on top of the soil, and the root system is relatively poorly developed, it is enough for it to accumulate sludge at the bottom.
Therefore, in the aquarium with the soil the nature of the particles of the substrate does not matter.
Feels comfortable Thai fern in tropical aquarium with a water temperature of 24 ° C. Even under optimal conditions it grows slowly. And at a temperature below the specified growth almost stops.
According to the parameters of the reaction and the hardness of water can be any pterygoid fern it doesn’t matter. However, mildly acidic or neutral water with a hardness not higher than 6 ° will be optimal.
These conditions are usually formed in the old water, and therefore it is not recommended to make frequent changes of it. The easiest way for a plant is to transfer 1 / 5-1 / 6 parts of the total water volume. aquarium no more than once or twice a month.
For content of thai fern lighting need moderate or strong. Withstands shading for a long time, but its growth is impaired.
Of course, the most favorable is the natural diffused light. Sources of artificial lighting can be both incandescent lamps and fluorescent lamps, the power of which is individually selected for each aquarium taking into account the needs of neighboring plants. Light day should be at least 12 hours.
Rhizomepterygoid fern poorly developed and, as a rule, located above the ground.
Therefore, the nature of the substrate, as well as its presence, does not matter at all. For such a root system, there is quite enough sludge that has accumulated at the bottomaquarium.
To improve growth performance fern It is recommended periodically, about 1-2 times a month, to make a mineral fertilizer.
Special attention should also be paid to the addition of nitrogen fertilizers and trace elements, the doses of which should be minimized. Of the number of nitrogen fertilizers, urea is the most suitable, adding 1-2 granules per 100 liters of water two or three times a week.
Plant tolerates anxiety.
Mineral supplements applied to water improve fern growth. Particular attention should be paid to the addition of trace elements and nitrogen fertilizers.
For the pterygoid fern, the minimum doses of trace elements added to the water 1-2 times per month are enough. From nitrogen fertilizers, it is best to use urea 2-3 times a week, 1-2 granules per 100 liters of water.
In the aquarium, Thai fern breeds only vegetatively. The rhizome of the plant is divided into parts with 2-3 leaves.
From each part a new plant is formed. This species of fern has one more method of vegetative reproduction: on the edges of old crumbling leaves, growth buds are formed, from which young plants develop.
After the death of the old leaf daughter plants come off and float to the surface. A floating young plant gradually develops a rhizome, under the weight of which it falls to the ground.
When growing Thai fern it is necessary to take into account that it completely does not tolerate anxiety and the presence of suspended organic particles in water. In an aquarium where it grows, it is necessary to transplant plants and catch fish as seldom as possible.
Intensive purging of the aquarium, a strong flow of water and the presence of fish digging in the aquarium significantly impair the growth of this fern.
The Polypodiaceae or Polypodiaceae family.Aquarium plants This family is represented by terrestrial or epiphytic ferns.
The rhizome of these representatives may be prostrate or erect, thick or thin, bare or scaly.
The leaves are usually alternate, but can be found bundled. The leaves are grassy, thin, evergreen and hibernating.
In young plants, leaf blades are coiled, and in adults, pubescent or bare from pinomish to simple.
Sporiferous leaves of these aquarium plants from vegetative may not differ or differ in shape and size. Small, collected in sori, sporangia are located on the lower side or along the edges of the leaf. Can be with covers and without them.
Plants can serve as decoration for an aquarium or a wet greenhouse. The Millipede family is cultivated in these places by several species, mostly marsh.
Thai pteriform fern or Microsoriumpteropus (Blume) Ching.
These aquarium plants in nature are often found in the tropical part of Southeast Asia (from Indonesia to India). Under natural conditions it grows up to 45 cm in height. Plants grown for an aquarium are, of course, much smaller in height.
The rhizome is formed very branched, hard, creeping.
Usually colored dark green. From the rhizome vertically upwards stretch the next single leaflets.
Adventitious roots are covered with small villi and have a dark brown color. The leaves are located on small stalks, stiff to the touch, lanceolate, simple, bright green.
very easily, baby-cuttings, which are formed on the old leaves on top. It can also be propagated using spores that appear on the underside of the leaf or on the edges, in rare cases, on adventitious roots.
For good growth and reproduction need soft waterand full immersion. These aquarium plants swim along the surface of the water.
If it is necessary to lower it to the bottom, the cuttings are heated. The property of the root system of Thai fern attached to the pebbles of the soil, which are located at the bottom of the aquarium.
It is recommended to put sour boiled peat pieces under the roots of the plant.