maintenance, care, compatibility
The appearance of aqua world has been happening for thousands of years, so it is not possible to instantly create an optimal microclimate in the aquarium. It is not enough to buy a rack with specialized chemicals and equipment.
Start the launch of the aquarium by determining the place where the artificial reservoir will be located and only then can the issue of settling and other filling of the aquarium be resolved. However, this is still far away.
Place the aquarium in its place and pour water to the top. This is necessary so that traces of sealant and other hazards dissolve. Now drain it completely.
Together with the water will leave the remnants of dissolved materials. After that, you need to go to laying soil.
Pour water into the aquarium for a third of its volume and lay the prepared material on the bottom. It is best to use small round stones, the grains of which do not exceed 5 millimeters. Try to find a soil with a neutral alkaline environment.
You can check it without special devices, just drop vinegar on it, if it starts to sizzle, then the rigidity in such an aquarium will be alkalized and faded.
Properly selected soil allows you to create an organic microclimate and will not allow to form places of stagnation where water does not circulate. Since the soil is considered a natural biofilter for all microorganisms, the continued success of the launch of a new aquarium depends largely on the correct actions for choosing and laying the ground.
The bacteria that appeared in it take part in the process of ozonization and nitratization of water, therefore it is important to keep track of areas that are difficult to access for changing water. In order not to accidentally bring harmful microorganisms and diseases into the aquarium, the soil must be treated.
Starting an aquarium from scratch begins with the ignition or boiling of the washed soil. To prevent the bottom of the aquarium from cracking due to the temperature difference, the ground is lowered into the poured water or previously cooled.
After it is in place, add liquid to the required level.
For starters, you can ignore aeration, filtering and lighting. It is enough to turn on the heater if necessary. After a day, the chlorine content will return to normal, the water will acquire the desired temperature, and the excess gases will come out.
You can start planting plants. For their existence, you must properly highlight the water.
Try to put the lamp in the range of 0.35 watts per liter. For the beginning of the 8-hour daylight will be enough.
Plants that help form the right microclimate:
- Cut or pterygoid carrots;
- Indian fern;
- Rapidly growing grass.
The launch of the aquarium is complicated by the lack of bacteria that are responsible for processing the waste products of the inhabitants. Thanks to the above plants, more precisely, the death of their leaves, these microorganisms become larger. No matter how much you want to run fancy fish at this moment, you have to wait.
The first stage has been completed – the plants are in place, now it is necessary to wait for time, so that they adapt, take root and go to growth. All these actions among aquarists are called – setting the primary balance.
Stages of microclimate formation:
- Active reproduction of microorganisms leads to turbidity of water;
- After 3-4 days, transparency returns to normal;
- The absorption of oxygen and organics leads to the accumulation of ammonia;
- Bacteria begin to work hard and normalize the environment.
Many are trying to find the answer, how much time should the aquarium stand before launching the fish. In fact, there is no optimal time limit.
It all depends on temperature, plants and volume. It is necessary to wait for a light smell of fresh grass, and not a new aquarium with a silicone impurity.
It is time to launch the first fish. If you are not sure that the aquarium is fully prepared to accept the inhabitants, then start with a pair of Guppy or Danyushki.
However, if you did everything according to the instructions, then boldly plant a whole flock of young individuals into the pond. Up to 15 teens can be released into the one-hundred-meter aquarium.
This must be done correctly:
- Bring a jar or bag of young stock home;
- Wait a couple of hours, setting aeration of water in a jar or bag;
- Drain some of the water and add the one in your tank;
- Wait an hour and repeat the procedure;
- Gradually, within a few hours, change all the water;
- Send the fish to the general aquarium.
If possible, try to measure the parameters of water first time. To do this you will need testers for acidity, nitrates and ammonia.
Fish pioneers need to be fed live food, if there is none, then ice cream is allowed. Feeding dry food is not desirable.
If there is no other choice, then enter it for not many, arranging fasting days for the inhabitants. It is imperative to observe this rule so that a bacterial outbreak does not occur.
In the beginning, you should not build a schedule for changing and changing water, just watch the inhabitants. You can change 10-20% of water if:
- All fish have fallen into the lower layers;
- Melting in pairs or flock;
- Presses upper fin.
To make sure you need to change the water, check the acidity and temperature. If the thermometer scale is above 25 degrees with a pH of more than 7.6, then change part of the water.
It is important to make sure that all the fish have fallen to the bottom, and not just one individual. In the event that one of the fish descends low alone – drop him into quarantine and continue to observe.
Experienced aquarists offer another way to normalize balance. Sow all the fish for a day and wait for the decrease in ammonia.
Then the inhabitants come back.
Running the aquarium and settling fish in it affects the quality of the water. Each individual creates a chemical cloud around itself that affects its neighbors.
The higher the density of fish, the greater the impact of harmful substances.
So that the launch does not turn out to be a waste of time, it is necessary to carefully plan the follow-up care: the number and frequency of changes in water or part of it. Tap water is completely unsuitable for creating optimal water.
Tap water is too aggressive for sensitive fish. It is strictly forbidden to change all the water (except for the “patient”).
In the aquarium is established its own environment, like the one that is familiar to the type of fish.
The optimal amount of water added is no more than 1/5 of the part. Fish will be able to restore the normal microsphere after a couple of days.
If you change ½ the volume of water at a time, this inept action can lead to the death of fish and plants. Recovery of hydrobalance large amount of water is possible only in 2-3 weeks.
Complete replacement of water will lead to the death of all living things, and it will be necessary to launch the aquarium from the very beginning. Use separated water, the temperature of which will be approximately equal to the aquarium one – this will reduce the chance of fish killing.
Run the aquarium from scratch. Preparation and proper launch of a new aquarium: step by step instructions
Starting the aquarium from scratch should start with the choice of the tank itself. If the aquarist is a beginner, it is preferable to choose medium-sized models, the volume of which varies from 80 to 200 liters. Such a step makes it easy to maintain biological balance in comparison with small containers.
The step-by-step start-up of the aquarium, described below, will help to avoid problems.
The heater-thermostat, pump with filter are brought to the aquarium. Technique remains unconnected.
Water can be used the most simple – plumbing. It must be allowed to stand in order for the chlorine to completely evaporate.
If you do not want to wait, you can buy bottled drinking water.
To prevent erosion of the soil, a saucer is placed on its bottom. The flow of incoming water should fall on him. Aquarium is full.
Then you can turn on the equipment. It is necessary to immediately check how the filters function, heating, what temperature level is established in the system.
The filter should work all the time, it can not be disabled. After a few weeks, the inside of the device creates its own bacterial environment, which becomes a biological filter.
If you turn it off, the bacteria will quickly die without oxygen and fresh water. Their place will immediately be replaced by anaerobic microorganisms that produce hydrogen sulphide and methane – from them the whole system will cease to function.
The final check should take place seven days after launch. In the first days of work, the water in the aquarium will become muddy, as part of the plants will die off, and the bacteria will begin to multiply rapidly.
The activity of microorganisms normalizes this process over time, and it will be possible to talk about the stabilization of the internal biosystem. Only then the tank is ready to receive fish. It will take about a month to complete the formation of an environment where every resident will feel well.
One fish should be about 10 liters of water.
A week after the start of the launch, it is desirable to increase the lighting time of the aquarium to 12 hours. At this time, you can run unpretentious species of fish in an amount not exceeding one third of the allowable for such a population size. It is important that with the proper launch of the fish at this time should remain hungry – it is absolutely harmless for them.
Feeding can disrupt the nitrogen cycle, resulting in the need to restart. Food fish will be able to get after four days.
A few days later, the aquarium may be populated by half of the population. During this period, you can run more capricious fish.
After seven days you can run all the fish.
If the house has soft water, you should choose those inhabitants who prefer this pH level, and vice versa. The aquarium, the photo of which is presented below, is launched absolutely correctly and delights with its beauty.
Starting a new aquarium may be difficult if it is of a marine type. All stages are similar to the previous ones, but water requires special preparation. It must be treated with reverse osmosis, and then settled for three days.
After that, the salt concentration is brought to the required level.
When the optimum salt balance, density and temperature of water are reached, you can fill up the ground: sand or coral chips. Further, in the system, you can place live stones, plant corals, decorate the bottom with shells. A week later, you should check the performance of nitrite and ammonium in water.
A month after the water preparation, it is possible to launch the fish in the marine aquarium.
The rapid launch of the aquarium in 99% of cases does not lead to the desired results, it is often necessary to repeat the cycle of preparation. A beginner aquarist must be patient in order for the system to stabilize and fully function.
The question of how to prepare an aquarium for launching has become very relevant lately. Many families want to get beautiful fish that will swim surrounded by vegetation.
However, the maintenance of the system requires a certain amount of effort from the owner, which is better to take into account at the stage of making the decision to install an aquarium. In addition, we must not forget about the need for fixed costs for the maintenance of the system, including the purchase of fish food, replacement filters, etc.
This device maintains a comfortable temperature for all participants in the system. Manufacturers also indicate the recommended volume on the packaging.
When starting the aquarium from scratch, the choice is usually not difficult.
A special beam spectrum is an important condition for the full existence of aquatic plants. They grow well under special-purpose lamps with intense lighting.
On average, one liter of water requires a power of 0.6 V, that is, at least 60 V per one hundred liters, and all 90 is better.
When there is a launch of the aquarium from scratch, it should be noted that the daylight should be the same. Automation perfectly copes with this (special timers).
In the daytime, carbon dioxide is necessary for all the vegetation of the system to grow, especially if there are a lot of fish there. It is recommended to pay close attention to CO2 parameters.
It is recommended to establish a saturation system after stabilization of biological equilibrium, including when there is a launch of an aquarium with plants.
The product must be durable. Weight stolitrovogo aquarium is 140 kg. You can purchase a special cabinet or adapt existing furniture.
The aquarium, the photo of which is presented below, is installed on the cabinet correctly.
First of all, it is necessary to determine if the tank is leaking. To do this, it is placed in the bath, preferably on a flat surface. The aquarium is filled with running water up to half the volume, after a day it is completely filled.
Such a test is carried out in any capacity vessels – only this way it can be understood if the glass will burst and the product will carry the first launch. After checking the water is drained, it is better to wash the tank.
The aquarium is installed on the cabinet.
When installing the aquarium, you need to follow some rules. If you are new to the aquarium business, it is necessary to study in detail all the features of the correct settlement of fish.
It is important to understand what size of the aquarium is needed, what plants will harmoniously look in the aquascape, and what parameters of the aquatic environment are suitable for all residents of the reservoir. A full life of the fish and plants will also ensure proper care and compatibility.
The first rule – prepare a place where you can put the tank. Choose a corner away from windows and doors, as well as heating appliances.
Due to direct sunlight in the water, it begins to bloom, which is detrimental to aquatic plants and fish. It is impossible for the aquarium to stand in a draft.
Put the container in a darkened corner of the room, in which there are few extraneous movements.
Also, for the convenience of servicing a home pond, there should be an outlet or several sockets next to it. They are needed to connect the filter, heater and lighting.
The smaller the volume of the aquarium, the heavier its maintenance. The biological system in it is easy to break due to small changes in water parameters.
If you are the first time to get fish, it is better to purchase a tank with a volume of 50-100 liters. For him, you need to buy a filter that will clean the reservoir, pump air.
For an aquarium of 100 liters or more, a compressor may be needed that will provide water with dissolved oxygen.
For the aquarium you need to buy a thermostat. It is required to regulate the constant temperature of the water in the tank.
Many ornamental fish hail from tropical latitudes, so the water temperature below 22 degrees Celsius can be destructive for them. To be aware of the aquarium temperature, it is better to buy a water thermometer that is mounted on the inner wall.
Watch the video, which tells how to choose a heater with a thermostat.
In modern aquariums, special lighting is supposed to provide all living things with the right amount of light. Often used fluorescent, LED and metal halide lamps.
Lack of light affects plant growth and fish health, as well as its overabundance. The allowable amount of daylight hours is 8-12 hours. Incandescent bulbs overheat, can burn the plants.
To regulate the daylight, you can buy a timer and automatic switch and switch.
When you purchased a glass container and all the instruments, found a place where you put the tank, you can begin to equip it. Before installing the aquarium, put a rubber lining under it, which will give the surface the necessary friction and remove any irregularities.
The bottom of the aquarium is under constant pressure, in the event of damage, a body of water can split the tank. After that you need to carry out such measures:
- Wash the glass container with baking soda by rinsing its walls several times under running water. Do not use detergents and chemicals. Thermostat, filter and water thermometer can be wiped with a weak solution of potassium permanganate (devices must be disconnected from the network).
- Before laying the bottom of the aquarium with primer, it should be rinsed under running water and boiled.
- The water in which the fish and plants will live must be clean and infused. Do not pour water directly from the tap. She must insist 3-4 days to evaporate chlorine. Measure the water parameters with indicators, measure its temperature. Everything must meet the necessary standards. After that, the water can be poured.
- Before planting, they need to be processed in a weak solution of the drug bicillin-5, or in a weak solution of potassium permanganate. Dip the seedlings in the solution for 10-20 minutes. Then they need to be washed, planted in the ground. Very long roots can be cut.
Fish and plants should be kept carefully, providing them with the necessary care in a timely manner. The main rule of the settlement is that everyone should have enough space for free swimming.
Small fish need 10-20 liters per individual, medium – 30-50 liters, large – 100 liters or more.
It is necessary to take into account the compatibility of fish – according to the way of feeding there are herbivorous, predatory and omnivorous species. You can not settle large and small fish together, fish with different eating habits. An aquarium is a closed space, so weak fish cannot swim far from predators.
Beginners can make danios, guppies, mollies, catfish corridors, gourami, labo, cockerels, goldfish. There are schooling fish, and there are loners, so you need to take into account the peculiarities of behavior during the settlement.
Aquarium breeding is not difficult, if you do not take very demanding types of fish. There are many nuances that need to know an experienced aquarist, but you still get to them.
And what should a beginner do? You say to yourself: I want an aquarium!
Where to begin? We have prepared for you 10 golden rules that will help you to do everything right in the aquarium from the very beginning. The main thing is not to overfeed the fish. In the new aquarium it is better to feed the fish once a day, but after a while you can increase the quantity, following the rule – a little and often.
Maintaining order in the aquarium seems like a no-brainer. For some reason it is considered that you need to change all the water in the aquarium.
But the main things are a partial replacement of water, removing dirt from the ground, removing algae, and cleaning the filter. All this is enough to do once a week. And for the new aquarium water replacement is not needed!
Only after a few months you need to start regularly changing up to 30% of water.
It is decided that we will have an aquarium! He has already been selected and purchased, the equipment is waiting for the coolest next to him in beautiful boxes, the bottom is already filled with bright red brilliant, terribly spectacular soil, and there is a ceramic crocodile on it that will blow bubbles. Now we pour water and, while she stands up for an hour or two, let’s go to the pet shop and buy the best fish there – those with long fins, and other yellow ones with red dots (whatever they are called? However, it doesn’t matter, the main thing is beautiful) …
Stop! No matter how commendable is the desire to join the fascinating world of aquarism, this process should not be forced, otherwise the first experience may be so deplorable that one does not want to continue.
Let’s tolerate a little more and see what should happen to a glass jar full of water in order for it to become an aquarium.
Aquarium is a balanced biological system in which many living organisms coexist. These are not only fish and plants planted by the host, but also self-inhabited small invertebrates, protozoa, algae, bacteria.
And in order for the aquarium to be beautiful and comfortable for life, the whole system must be in balance. Substances entering it from the outside should be processed without deteriorating the vital indicators of water and not causing death or, on the contrary, uncontrolled outbreak of the number of any inhabitants, and then removed from the system during water changes and cleaning the aquarium.
Above, we wrote that for the reproduction of beneficial bacteria need nutrition and substrate. And, of course, the initial number of the bacterial colony matters.
Thus, in order to accelerate the maturation of the biofilter and, accordingly, the launch of the aquarium, you can immediately add a significant amount of bacteria to the artificial reservoir and prepare a large area substrate for them (there is enough nutrition for the bacteria in the starting aquarium).
Bacteria are introduced with the help of industrial starter culture (we also mentioned about them above) or with water, soil, filter filler from the existing, safe aquarium. To ensure a sufficient area of the substrate for bacteria, it is recommended to use filters with fillers made of porous ceramics or filters of considerable volume with other fillers, plant plants with narrow, feathery leaves, and use fine gravel of even size as the soil.
All these surfaces will inhabit nitrifying bacteria.
Startup control of the aquarium greatly facilitates the use of tests for aquarium water for ammonia and nitrite. These tests are produced by different manufacturers and are not uncommon in pet stores.
With their help, you can track the level of these toxic compounds in the water and adjust the population of fish in the running aquarium.
As you can see, the correct launch of the aquarium takes not so much time – it is quite possible to suffer two or three weeks. It does not require a colossal amount of strength and special academic knowledge.
But it helps to avoid many problems in the future, preserves the life and health of the fish, and therefore, the nerves and good mood to their owner.