maintenance, care, compatibility
Run the aquarium from scratch. Preparation and proper launch of a new aquarium: step by step instructions
Starting the aquarium from scratch should start with the choice of the tank itself. If the aquarist is a beginner, it is preferable to choose medium-sized models, the volume of which varies from 80 to 200 liters.
Such a step makes it easy to maintain biological balance in comparison with small containers. The step-by-step start-up of the aquarium, described below, will help to avoid problems.
The heater-thermostat, pump with filter are brought to the aquarium. Technique remains unconnected.
Water can be used the most simple – plumbing. It must be allowed to stand in order for the chlorine to completely evaporate.
If you do not want to wait, you can buy bottled drinking water.
To prevent erosion of the soil, a saucer is placed on its bottom. The flow of incoming water should fall on him. Aquarium is full.
Then you can turn on the equipment. It is necessary to immediately check how the filters function, heating, what temperature level is established in the system.
The filter should work all the time, it can not be disabled. After a few weeks, the inside of the device creates its own bacterial environment, which becomes a biological filter.
If you turn it off, the bacteria will quickly die without oxygen and fresh water. Their place will immediately be replaced by anaerobic microorganisms that produce hydrogen sulphide and methane – from them the whole system will cease to function.
The final check should take place seven days after launch. In the first days of work, the water in the aquarium will become muddy, as part of the plants will die off, and the bacteria will begin to multiply rapidly.
The activity of microorganisms normalizes this process over time, and it will be possible to talk about the stabilization of the internal biosystem. Only then the tank is ready to receive fish. It will take about a month to complete the formation of an environment where every resident will feel well.
One fish should be about 10 liters of water.
A week after the start of the launch, it is desirable to increase the lighting time of the aquarium to 12 hours. At this time, you can run unpretentious species of fish in an amount not exceeding one third of the allowable for such a population size. It is important that with the proper launch of the fish at this time should remain hungry – it is absolutely harmless for them.
Feeding can disrupt the nitrogen cycle, resulting in the need to restart. Food fish will be able to get after four days.
A few days later, the aquarium may be populated by half of the population. During this period, you can run more capricious fish.
After seven days you can run all the fish.
If the house has soft water, you should choose those inhabitants who prefer this pH level, and vice versa. The aquarium, the photo of which is presented below, is launched absolutely correctly and delights with its beauty.
Starting a new aquarium may be difficult if it is of a marine type. All stages are similar to the previous ones, but water requires special preparation. It must be treated with reverse osmosis, and then settled for three days.
After that, the salt concentration is brought to the required level.
When the optimum salt balance, density and temperature of water are reached, you can fill up the ground: sand or coral chips. Further, in the system, you can place live stones, plant corals, decorate the bottom with shells. A week later, you should check the performance of nitrite and ammonium in water.
A month after the water preparation, it is possible to launch the fish in the marine aquarium.
The rapid launch of the aquarium in 99% of cases does not lead to the desired results, it is often necessary to repeat the cycle of preparation. A beginner aquarist must be patient in order for the system to stabilize and fully function.
The question of how to prepare an aquarium for launching has become very relevant lately. Many families want to get beautiful fish that will swim surrounded by vegetation.
However, the maintenance of the system requires a certain amount of effort from the owner, which is better to take into account at the stage of making the decision to install an aquarium. In addition, we must not forget about the need for fixed costs for the maintenance of the system, including the purchase of fish food, replacement filters, etc.
This device maintains a comfortable temperature for all participants in the system. Manufacturers also indicate the recommended volume on the packaging.
When starting the aquarium from scratch, the choice is usually not difficult.
A special beam spectrum is an important condition for the full existence of aquatic plants. They grow well under special-purpose lamps with intense lighting.
On average, one liter of water requires a power of 0.6 V, that is, at least 60 V per one hundred liters, and all 90 is better.
When there is a launch of the aquarium from scratch, it should be noted that the daylight should be the same. Automation perfectly copes with this (special timers).
In the daytime, carbon dioxide is necessary for all the vegetation of the system to grow, especially if there are a lot of fish there. It is recommended to pay close attention to CO2 parameters.
It is recommended to establish a saturation system after stabilization of biological equilibrium, including when there is a launch of an aquarium with plants.
The product must be durable. Weight stolitrovogo aquarium is 140 kg.
You can purchase a special cabinet or adapt existing furniture. The aquarium, the photo of which is presented below, is installed on the cabinet correctly.
First of all, it is necessary to determine if the tank is leaking. To do this, it is placed in the bath, preferably on a flat surface. The aquarium is filled with running water up to half the volume, after a day it is completely filled.
Such a test is carried out in any capacity vessels – only this way it can be understood if the glass will burst and the product will carry the first launch. After checking the water is drained, it is better to wash the tank.
The aquarium is installed on the cabinet.
When the aquarium is already installed, it is filled with water and fish are running into it, it is very difficult and problematic to rearrange it. Therefore, it must be properly installed from the start. Make sure that the place and stand where you are going to put it – will hold the weight of the aquarium, do not forget, the mass can reach large values.
Be sure to check the distortions using the level, even if you think that everything is smooth. Do not place the aquarium so that the edges hang from the stand. It is fraught with the fact that it just crumbles.
The aquarium should stand on a stand all the bottom surface.
Glue the background before installing the aquarium; the easiest way to do this is to put a thin layer of glycerin on the background. Glycerin is sold in a pharmacy.
Do not forget that the aquarium should be free space for maintenance and pipe filter. Finally, when the place is chosen and it is reliable, do not forget the substrate under the aquarium, which will smooth out the irregularities and help to more evenly distribute the load on the bottom of the aquarium.
As a rule, it comes complete with an aquarium, do not forget to check with the seller.
Running aquarium – a detailed video in several parts:
HOW IT IS CORRECT TO NEED TO START THE AQUARIUM FIRST TIME.
Run the aquarium correctly – The first task of the aquarist Many reference books and manuals tell you how to run an aquarium. But in order to apply this knowledge gained in practice, it is not enough to increase the number of all the components necessary for the livelihood of an aquarium in proportion to its size, area and the number of its future inhabitants.
And even, at first glance, a successful launch can turn into frustration and death of the inhabitants of the aquarium.
This happens because the created aqua-system is not supported properly and its initial parameters are lost. To avoid this, the aquarist should understand the processes of this small ecosystem. It is worth noting that the larger the ecosystem, the easier it is to maintain balance in it.
Of course, the number of fish and other organisms living in it plays an important role in its sustainability, but often for the sake of diversity it is necessary to manage to maintain rather fragile ecosystems.
Even before the launch procedure, it is necessary to solve a number of critical issues and take some necessary steps:
- Decide what kind of fish or aquatic animals you want to have. Find out what conditions they need. Be sure to find out if they are compatible with each other!
- Depending on the decisions on the first item, choose the volume and model of the aquarium, as well as a list of necessary equipment and design items. Based on the species and number of future inhabitants, decide whether you need a heater with a thermostat, for example, how powerful the filter should be, whether an additional compressor is needed, how to decorate an aquarium: stones or driftwood, which plants to plant and so on.
- Choose a place for the aquarium – not in the draft and not in the sun. It is also important that access to the aquarium was convenient, and there were a sufficient number of outlets nearby.
- Buy and install an aquarium (necessarily on a flat surface, so that its edges do not hang from the shelf or pedestal even per centimeter). Pre-aquarium washed without the use of chemical detergents.
- Place the equipment in the aquarium: filter, compressor, heater and thermometer, lighting. Fill the soil with a layer of 3-4 cm. Depending on the type of soil and its source of origin, it may be necessary to pre-heat it, boil it or rinse it. The same applies to stones and snags.Ground and scenery.
As a rule, the entire future ecosystem of your aquarium depends on the purity of the soil and scenery. Therefore, it is necessary to treat its processing especially carefully: rinse well with soda or sea salt, boil the soil, and ruthlessly refuse it, if the water suddenly becomes colored – this can further harm the fish. The most optimal soil size -3-5-8 mm.
- All that is smaller – caking and sour very quickly, larger – it is harder to clean and rinse. Yes, and plants on coarse soil will be a little more difficult to root. As a rule, if live plants are planned in your aquarium, it is advisable to place a nutrient composition for future vegetation under the ground, and the ground itself should be dispersed on a slope from the back wall to the front.
- This is done taking into account certain optical properties of aquarium glasses, because through the thickness of glass and water the aquarium landscape looks somewhat different. When decorating and setting up housing for your future pets, do not get carried away with sea shells and pieces of limestone – the entire chemical composition will gradually be washed out and excessively alkaline the water, which also may not well affect the health of future fish. and other decoration elements are installed,
it’s time to fill your pond with water. If an aquarium is planned to be in the form of an air wall in the aquarium, it is also worthwhile to think in advance whether it will lie on the ground or whether it should be fixed under the ground at the bottom. Water is poured in a small trickle, so as not to destroy the landscape that you conceived. For example, you can put a small tank in an aquarium into which water will flow, and it will merge gradually over the edge. Plants.
A few days later, when the water settles, it’s time to plant the plants. Of course, if you are in a hurry, water can be prepared with the help of special tools, now there is an excellent choice and variety in pet stores. But it is quite possible to do without chemistry, allowing the ecosystem to develop naturally and independently. But then it will take time. Before planting, all new plants that you have brought from the store or another aquarium should be sanitized. To do this, it is enough to hold the plants for 10-15 minutes in a pale pink solution of potassium permanganate at room temperature. Tall plants, densely growing, are best planted closer to the rear window of the aquarium, and in the future they will partially hide the equipment. Small plants are planted near the front glass so that they do not obscure the view. Not all plants root well. Some of them, in order not to emerge, have to be weighed down with special “weights”, or they must be fastened with fishing line on snags.
It is not necessary to load your future aqua-system with a large amount of equipment, but the main points must still be observed:
Filter pump. Its main function is the purification of water from dirt, turbidity and all that floats in water. The filter can be internal, as a very primitive, consisting of a piece of sponge, and more complex – with carbon filtration, and external – with a complex multi-stage water purification system.
The main thing is that it should be correctly selected for the volume of your aquarium, and cope with the task of cleaning.
Initially, the water is always quite turbid. This is a normal process, and if the filter is chosen correctly in terms of volume, it will cope with this within a few hours.
But soon after planting in your tank, complex biological processes will begin, and the water will again lose transparency: bacteria will begin to develop on the dying parts of the plants, ciliates will follow them … In general, as in Cosmos, Life begins to emerge in the aquarium. That is why experienced aquarists are not in a hurry to start running the fish right away – biological balance must be established in the water.
The rapid growth of microorganisms will stop, and the water will again become transparent.
Sometimes experienced aquarists are advised to take some water from old aquariums, or “squeeze” out of their filters. But even if the old aquarium fish are not sick, it does not mean that the water is free from pathogens.
Most likely in this system everything is already settled, and the fish have developed a certain stability. But in the new conditions, pathogens can start to develop very actively.
Therefore, do not do this.
Aerator, or compressor. His task is to saturate the water with oxygen. In essence, a compressor is a pump that pumps air and delivers it to the water through the nozzles.
But at the same time, it also has a decorative function. Therefore, it is decided in advance whether it will be a thin stream of bubbles, decorated additionally or a whole air curtain.
The choice of sprayers and compressors is now huge!
Lighting will depend on which direction of the aquarium you have chosen. If you plan to fish with artificial plants – the quantity and quality of light is not important, everything will depend on your taste.
If you have live plants, there is no way to do without additional lighting. Most often, aquariums are already sold with fluorescent lamps when sold, but for plants the most optimal will be lamps with a pink spectrum.
As a rule, if there is enough light, the plants quickly take root and actively start growing.
If the light is not enough, the glass and the ground are covered with brown bloom, if there is an excess of light, the water turns green.
You can put the lighting with a timer. Then you won’t have a headache – did you remember to turn the lights on or off …
Heater with thermostat. As a rule, aquarium fish, like other aquarium animals, live in nature in warm lands, and are not adapted to the climate of our (not always well heated) apartments.
The optimum temperature is mostly 22-24 degrees, and in some species and higher. Therefore, a heater with a thermostat is very convenient – just set the required temperature.
Without a heater is still not enough if the fish suddenly fall ill. With an increase in temperature in the aquarium to 28-30 degrees, treatment with drugs is faster and more efficient, and in a shorter time.
The aquarium is equipped, the plants are planted and are actively growing, the water has settled in a week and has become clear … It’s time to think about the fish.
But first check the water.
Water hardness test. Different groups of fish prefer different hardness.
Based on the test results, you can pick up fish that you will feel comfortable with, or vice versa, change the water hardness for those fish that you have chosen.
There are also other tests. All of them are important in order to find your way in time, what is the state of water in your tank, and what needs to be changed to make the fish feel good.
With the parameters of the water coped, finally you can run the first batch of fish. Initially, they should not be many: 3-5 fish, depending on the size of the aquarium.
Each new portion of fish necessarily breaks the existing balance, and the aquarium, as a complete biosystem, is easier to cope with the arrival of a small number of residents than to rebuild under a big surge of guests. But between the launch of the next portion of fish should take at least a week. So, with intervals between batches, we gradually settle the aquarium, without forgetting
before releasing the fish adapt.
How to properly adapt?
Many people advise you to put a tank with new fish “swim” into your aquarium so that the temperature and pressure level up, and gradually the water mixes with the aquarium. Yes, for fish so stress is reduced to a minimum, but then you risk on a package with beginners to bring pathogenic bacteria into your tank. Much more correct, although it will be somewhat longer in time if you place a tank with a new fish near your aquarium.
Having installed the compressor, within two hours it is necessary to add 20% of water from your aquarium into it every 10-15 minutes. So the water will gradually be completely replaced by the desired composition. After that, it will be enough just to transplant fish with a net.
Finally, the planned number of fish settled, the balance of water restored, life enters a quiet course. Do not forget to make them fasting days, as the plants are not yet ready to fully process organic food residues.
And in the future, such discharge once a week will only benefit. It is always better to underfeed than to overfeed.
Water changes are advisable to do regularly, every week about 20% of the total.
So, if your fish is active, the color does not become paler, and the appetite does not suffer – it means you did everything right. We congratulate you!
You have created a piece of nature with your own hands and patience, which will give you a lot of pleasant moments, give beauty, comfort and peace.
The aquarium is an open-loop system, where various substances come in from the outside. This is mainly fish food, which the fish eat, while releasing waste. In chemical terms, ammonia is the most significant and toxic part of this waste; even in low concentrations, it can cause poisoning and subsequent death of fish and other aquatic animals.
However, in nature there are bacteria (they are called nitrifying) that consume ammonia, oxidizing it to nitrite. Nitrite for fish is not much better than ammonia, but there are other types of nitrifying bacteria, which in turn bind them, turning them into relatively harmless nitrates.
This whole system of bacterial colonies, which makes water with nitrates from poisonous ammonia water, quite suitable for fish, is called a biofilter. Since the efficiency of the biofilter directly depends on the number of its constituent bacteria in the aquarium (it is clear that two or three microscopic nitrosomonas cannot convert ammonia, selected by a dozen large goldfish, into safe compounds), these bacteria must be allowed to multiply to the desired number. For this they need three things:
- nutrition (ammonia and nitrite);
- substrate (surface to which they can attach);
- and for some time, as bacteria multiply rapidly, but still not lightning
- .Nitrogen cycle The decomposition products of fish and other macro-organisms living in an aquarium, when decomposed, are converted into ammonia, which is dangerous for them at even low concentrations. This is such a toxic compound that its concentration at the level of 0.2-0.5 mg / l is fatal for the inhabitants of the reservoir, and when the content of ammonia in the water in a proportion of 0.01-0.02 mg / l in fish, immunity is significantly reduced. As a result, they become very vulnerable to all sorts of diseases and parasites. Proper start-up of the aquarium is aimed at ensuring that microorganisms inhabiting the water could process the entire volume of ammonia. Then it practically will not be in the aquarium, which can be verified with the help of special tests.
- The role of bacteria in the nitrogen cycle The preparation of the aquarium for start-up must be carried out primarily because in the new aquarium the volume of ammonia grows very quickly and the fish, getting into such conditions in most cases either die immediately or start to hurt. In this case, only the restart of the aquarium can help. The process of reproduction of beneficial bacteria can be accelerated in several ways. Traditional: add water and dirt from the old one to the new aquarium. Along with them will be made a significant number of bacteria, which then inhabit all of its volume. If there is no other aquarium, the bacteria can be bought at a regular pet store. The process of their reproduction is accompanied by the appearance of the effect of turbid water. Launching a new aquarium for the first time, at this time you can make a big mistake: change the water. This is not necessary. The water will become clear again in a couple of days. The initial stage of the aquarium start-up cycle averages two weeks, during which the number of bacteria increases, but not as rapidly as in the first days. The overgrown population of bacteria successfully processes ammonia into nitrites, which are also toxic, but to a much lesser extent. Other beneficial bacteria recycle nitrites and they are converted to nitrates, which are also toxic. Both nitrites and nitrates can reach a critical volume when they adversely affect fish. To avoid further restarting the aquarium, which is also associated with significant inconveniences, it is better to carry out a slow launch of the aquarium from the first time and not rush to populate it with fish
- .The role of filters in the nitrogen cycle filter for cleaning External and internal filters are installed in aquariums. They are divided into those that carry out mechanical purification of water from protein suspensions, and there are biofilters. The main function performed by biofilters is to create conditions for the successful reproduction of bacteria, which should always be in water in large quantities.
- They populate the filling filter, as a rule, porous materials. Together with water, they receive oxygen and food in the form of protein deposits. The launch of a new aquarium is accompanied by another event: the connection of the biofilter. When you turn on the filter in the first few weeks (up to a month) the amount of nitrite and nitrate in the water increases. This factor during the first start of the aquarium in inexperienced aquarists often causes the death of fish, which is simply poisoned by toxic substances.
Many, wanting to get an aquarium, believe that the fish – those pets that bring the least trouble. And only experienced aquarists know that this is far from true. Many people are convinced by their own experience that launching an aquarium is a complex process that is built up depending on a large number of factors.
However, those who start, making the first launch of the aquarium, do not even suspect about all the stages that should precede such a joyful event as the launch of fish.
Start the aquarium correctly – the first task of the aquarist
Many reference books and manuals tell you how to run an aquarium. But in order to apply this knowledge gained in practice, it is not enough to increase the number of all the components necessary for the livelihood of an aquarium in proportion to its size, area and the number of its future inhabitants.
And even, at first glance, a successful launch can turn into frustration and death of the inhabitants of the aquarium. This happens because the created aqua-system is not supported properly and its initial parameters are lost.
To avoid this, the aquarist should understand the processes of this small ecosystem. It is worth noting that the larger the ecosystem, the easier it is to maintain balance in it.
Of course, the number of fish and other organisms living in it plays an important role in its sustainability, but often for the sake of diversity it is necessary to manage to maintain rather fragile ecosystems.
Preparation of the aquarium for launch begins with the introduction of soil into it
The added tap water for some time should just be left in the aquarium so that it will settle. The duration of this period for supporters of traditional methods is several days.
At the same time, there are special modern tools, adding which you can shorten this period to one day and carry out a quick launch of the aquarium.
Then the water is inhabited by microorganisms that are involved in the processes occurring in the water. To make this process faster, it is recommended to turn on the filter and saturate the water with air.
After the water is saturated with the simplest life, unpretentious plants are planted in the ground. And although some types of plants are quite acceptable to transfer the landing before filling the aquarium with water, it is better to do it after.
Plants should not be much.
Together with the planting of plants, you can begin to turn on the light for a short time: 4-6 hours.
A day later it will be possible to launch snails into the aquarium. Thanks to the products of their vital activity, the number of bacteria will increase, which will help establish equilibrium in the nitrogen cycle.
Only in 3 weeks from the moment of launch it will be possible to land half of the total planned “green spaces”. At this time, there will already be enough light for them, and they can no longer upset the balance.
Launching the aquarium, each owner is looking forward to the moment when it will be possible to run fish into it. After a few days from the very beginning of the process, it is possible to increase the lighting time of the aquarium to 9 or even 12 hours.
At the same time, unpretentious types of fish are launched. Their number should not exceed one third of the population allowed for the selected aquarium volume.
With the proper start of the aquarium, it is very important not to feed the fish at this time. It will not suffer from such a forced starvation diet, but it is easy to break the forming nitrogen cycle by feeding, which will lead to the need to restart the aquarium.
It will be possible to organize food for the fish only 4 days after their stay in the emerging ecosystem.
A few days after the launch of the first fish, you can populate the aquarium with fish in half of their estimated number. At this time, it is already possible to release more capricious species of fish – the threat to them is minimal.
At the same time, it is already worth replacing one-fifth of the water, and at the same time siphoning the primer. It is also time to rinse the filter.
A week later, all the fish will be planted, the same amount of water will be replaced again, the filter cleaned and the soil cleaned.
The decomposition products of fish and other macro-organisms living in an aquarium, when decomposed, are converted into ammonia, which is dangerous for them at even low concentrations. This is such a toxic compound that its concentration at the level of 0.2-0.5 mg / l is fatal for the inhabitants of the reservoir, and when the content of ammonia in the water in a proportion of 0.01-0.02 mg / l in fish, immunity is significantly reduced.
As a result, they become very vulnerable to all sorts of diseases and parasites.
Proper start-up of the aquarium is aimed at ensuring that microorganisms inhabiting the water could process the entire volume of ammonia. Then it practically will not be in the aquarium, which can be verified with the help of special tests.
Snags in the aquarium look beautiful and natural, if properly prepared. All that is required is to find a natural branch or root of a tree in a natural pond, process them and put them in water.
This decoration has useful properties that will lead to the balance of the aquatic environment inhabited by fish. Snags for an aquarium maintain a healthy equilibrium of the ecosystem, they develop beneficial microorganisms.