Water in nature undergoes purification through natural filters. The closed environment of the aquarium requires a person to participate in this process. Over time, the water becomes unsuitable for life and requires replacement.
The biofilter for the aquarium is designed to clean the environment for fish and remove ammonia. The latter is formed due to the decomposition of food residues, fish waste products and the activity of pathogenic bacteria.
The biofilter is needed to clean the water in the aquarium from ammonia
Special bacteria act as a biofilter. Their mission – to process ammonia into nitrates. Only with a filler, without useful microflora, filters for purifying aquarium water are useless.
Mechanical elements can only hold up the dirt, but do not disinfect it.
There are 2 types of bacteria that are used for water purification:
- nitrifying – are engaged in the oxidation of ammonia to hydroxylamine, which is processed into nitrite and nitrate;
- nitrobacteria – they process nitrites into nitrates, which have a significantly less harmful effect on fish.
Beneficial bacteria are present by themselves in the aquarium, but in small quantities. They do not resemble a separate substance that can be collected and poured. The task of the owners is to provide a comfortable place for bacteria to breed.
If there is adequate nutrition, then this happens quickly.
Special bacteria take part in biofiltration – nitrobacteria
The ideal place for the maintenance of the vital activity of beneficial bacteria creates a biological filter for the aquarium. In the design of the device there is a special filler. It increases the contact surface with water, thanks to its porous structure.
This gives a lot of space for beneficial microflora, which guarantees its active reproduction.
- foam rubber or synthetic winterizer – the most common options that also allow to get rid of dirt;
- bioceramics, gravel or pebbles – spray water, enriching it with air;
- plastic fillers – also increase the oxygen content in the water;
- cellular glass.
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