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How to install the internal filter in the aquarium

The main element of the aquarium equipment is a filter that is responsible for the mechanical and biological treatment of water. The most popular in recent years are the external models that are very effective and are equally suitable for aquariums of various sizes.

Having correctly installed the filter in the aquarium, it is possible not only to contain various demanding tropical fish, but also to create optimal conditions for aquatic organisms.

If in the recent past, most filters only carried out mechanical purification of water from suspended matter and other contaminants, today equipment of this type can solve problems with nitrates, nitrites and ammonia, providing optimal conditions for even the most demanding tropical fish.

The design of the aquarium filter is simple and consists of the following components:

  • water pump;
  • case with filter cassettes;
  • compartment with sponges and filler for biofiltration;
  • faucets with inlet and outlet water.

The principle of operation of such equipment is extremely simple. Used water pump creates a vacuum in the suction tube, which is immersed in water.

From the nozzle into the filter housing water is supplied, which passes through the sponges and compartments filled with biofiltration, then under pressure is sent to the aquarium through the appropriate hose.

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To date, two main types of aquarium filters have gained popularity:

To the internal also include bottom filter installations that can be placed under the ground, which allows to solve problems with detritus and various contaminants that accumulate in the sand and small pebbles at the bottom.

The external filters are classic versions with baskets and so-called backpacks, which are intended mainly for aquariums of small capacity and are mounted on the back wall, providing high-quality mechanical water purification and aeration.

Internal filters are characterized by simplicity of their design, have a water pump of small capacity and are designed for aquariums up to 100 liters. The main purpose of such equipment is the purification of aquarium water from suspensions and other mechanical impurities.

Most models do not even have a compartment for biochemical treatment, respectively, they are intended for aquariums, where water changes are carried out on a regular basis.

Such a device is located inside the aquarium and has a compact size. Used pump usually has a performance indicator of 300−500 liters per hour.

Separate modifications have a special air valve for simultaneous aeration and dissolution of oxygen in water required for fish and other aquatic organisms.

The advantages of internal filters include their minimum energy consumption, water purification efficiency in a small-sized aquarium, affordable cost and ease of installation. The disadvantages include the absence of biochemical purification, as well as the impossibility of using such devices in large-sized aquariums.

Installing an internal filter is easy. It is necessary to determine the place where the cleaning pump will be located. Usually internal filters are sold unassembled, so it will need to be assembled in accordance with the instructions, while complying with some recommendations:

  1. Attach the filter to the suction cup, setting it so that the upper part is located approximately 3 centimeters deeper than the surface.
  2. You can immerse the pump in water only by disconnecting it from electricity.
  3. The air intake tube is brought out and additionally fixed so that it does not end up under water.
  4. Turn on the pump into the outlet and check for the presence of flow, which indicates the correctness of the assembly and installation of the device.

It is possible to regulate the pump power, and, consequently, the filtration efficiency with the help of a small valve on the outlet nozzle. This setting is best done by turning off the power supply.

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The aquarist will not only need to properly connect and install the internal filter, but also to ensure that he has the right care. Such equipment maintenance is performed at least once a week.

It is necessary to regularly clean the filter sponge from dirt by washing it under running water. Turn off the electricity at night should not be, as this can lead to the death of fish. Before you put your hands in water, you must turn off the pump.

The filter should work only when fully immersed in water.

If you follow these simple rules for caring for equipment, it will last for many years, effectively cleaning the water and not causing any trouble during its operation.

Appeared a few decades ago, external filters began to enjoy excellent popularity among aquarists. Due to the increased size of the compartment with filter elements, it is possible to provide high-quality mechanical and biochemical water purification. Inside this filter is a filler, on the surface of which colonies of nitrifying bacteria settle.

They perform biochemical purification, removing nitrates, nitrites, ammonia and other dangerous contaminants from the water that can be harmful to tropical fish.

Today, on sale you can find various models of external filters, which differ in the volume of filler, pump power and a number of other characteristics. Accordingly, based on the performance of the pump and the volume of the filler, you should choose a filter for a particular aquarium.

Having correctly selected the parameters of such equipment, it will be possible to ensure the maintenance of a stable biosystem in the aquarium, providing the optimal conditions for keeping tropical fish.

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The most popular products on the domestic market are the following manufacturers:

Of the disadvantages of external filters, it is customary to note their high cost, bulkiness and the need to solve problems with equipment noise. The latter will be particularly critical if you choose a technique for an aquarium, which is located in the bedroom near the bed.

The most silent, reliable and effective filters are from the German manufacturer Eheim.

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Installing the filter in the aquarium is not particularly difficult, you only need to think about where the equipment will be located. Usually it is placed in the cabinet under the aquarium, for which holes for the laying of hoses are drilled in the back wall of the furniture.

The filter will need to be assembled in full accordance with the instructions. Inside the filter lay all sponges and a special substrate for biochemical water purification. In the aquarium have tubes on the inlet and outlet, which must be under water.

Correctly put the filter in the aquarium is necessary, having such equipment below the bottom, which will ensure maximum efficiency of the pump.

The filter should be put on its permanent place, then with the help of a mechanical hand pump to pump the system, trying to remove the maximum air from the housing and tubes. It will be enough a few clicks of the hand pump, after which the water will flow by gravity through the inlet tube, squeezing the air out of the filter. As soon as the casing is completely filled with water, the air will stop coming out of the discharge tube.

After that, you can turn on the equipment in the network and check its performance.

If the filter does not start or runs at minimum power, this indicates that the system is airing, respectively, it will be necessary to remove air from the housing and the tubes. To do this, the filter of a hand pump is pressed several times already on the filter, which allows you to expel air from the system.

A small amount of air may remain inside the case, which will gurgle and make noise. To completely get rid of such small bubbles, you should carefully lift the filter and tilt it from side to side.

Coming to its full capacity, the device immediately begins to perform mechanical water purification. But biochemical filtration, when nitrates and nitrites are removed, begins about a month after the equipment is started. During this time, colonies of nitrifying bacteria, which are responsible for chemical treatment of water, will settle on the substrate used.

That is why, when it is possible to colonize fish, especially demanding tropical species, it should be a few weeks after the installation of an external filter in the aquarium.

During operation, the external filters do not cause any trouble to their owners. Aquarist should only remember that disconnecting equipment at night is strictly prohibited. If for any reason the electricity in the house was turned off for 12 hours or more, then the nitrifying bacteria on the substrate will die, and the aquarium will need to be restarted.

Such equipment should work around the clock, which will ensure high-quality purification of aquarium water.

Care of the external filter is not difficult. Once a month, the housing should be opened and the sponges cleaned from existing contaminants.

This work is done as quickly as possible and takes 5−10 minutes. After flushing the jaws, you also need to pump the system from the air, for which purpose a hand pump is used, which expels the unwanted air out of the tubes.

Approximately once a year, a major flushing of the system is performed. For this kind of work, 10–15 liters of water should be drained from a tank in a small volume.

The filter is disconnected from the power supply, disassembled, all fillers are washed in a basin of water, after which the cleaning equipment is assembled in reverse order. Such work usually is not difficult and takes about 20-30 minutes.

Installing an internal or external aquarium filter is quite simple. It is only necessary to determine the location, observe the accuracy of performing the assembly, turn on the device in the network only after the complete installation of the equipment.

In the future it will be necessary to properly maintain the equipment., regularly flushing it, and not allowing a long power outage, which subsequently leads to the need to re-run the filter and the entire aquarium.

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