maintenance, care, compatibility
Soil for the aquarium – an indispensable foundation for aquascape and biological balance. It has not only a decorative function, but also provides the soil for plants, is a biological filter that can not be replaced with something else. In a newly launched tank, aquarium soil is a breeding ground for beneficial single-celled microorganisms.
For this reason, the choice of soil for aquariums plays an important role for the harmonious functioning of all aquatic aquatic organisms.
The soil is improving the root system of plants, from it they absorb nutrients. In plants with a developed root system, there are large demands on the quality of the soil.
Aquarium primers also support organic water characteristics, for example, aquarium soil with limestone affects the hardness indicators of the aquatic environment.
Various materials can be used as primers for aquariums. A significant role is played by which substrate is suitable for plants and fish. Decorative mounds and pumps are easily made from gravel.
If you are seriously engaged in growing aquarium seedlings, first of all, you need to take care of the quality of the substrate. The size of the gravel particles should not exceed 5 mm. Do not sprinkle fine sand on the bottom of the tank, which quickly deteriorates.
Make sure that the soil does not change the organic parameters of the water, it is natural, without dyes. If you need to increase the pH and hardness, lay on the bottom of the soil for aquarium with shell or marble chips.
Regardless of whether your soil is purchased or extracted from the natural environment, it must be processed. If you have purchased sand, it should be sifted through a sieve to remove small stones and other particles.
Pebbles also had to be moved so that the entire substrate consisted of identical particles. If you buy quality soil, then the cleaning procedure is not necessary.
New soil should be washed under running water. It is poured into a large container, poured with water, stirred, then the water must be drained.
It is necessary to rinse until the pollution is removed, it will take 10-15 minutes by the time. Apart from this method, you can put the primer in the oven for 10 minutes, and there it will heat up to the temperature that it will disinfect from parasites.
See tips on how to choose a primer for an aquarium.
Which soil is better for an aquarium? Aquariums large and small: clearance
What is the best soil for the aquarium – the first question a person starting to breed fish
If you follow the recommendations of experienced aquarists, the soil should be laid in three layers. Moreover, the content and nature of the placement should correspond to a specific sequence.
The bottom layer should consist of gravel, which is enriched with laterite iron or clay. Its thickness should be from 3 to 5 cm and include balls with fertilizer.
In addition, there may be a mixture of trace elements that do not contain phosphates and nitrites, which are so destructive for plants and fish.
It is desirable to focus on the iron in the soil mixture, which is present in chelated form. Otherwise, it will simply not be available for food representatives of flora and fauna.
In addition, ferrous sulphate, usually used for feeding garden bushes, will not work, since it will significantly reduce the acidity of water.
If heating cables are used, they are also laid in this layer. They should not be located directly on the bottom, because uneven heating leads to cracking of the glass, and the house aquarium can quickly deteriorate.
In addition, sand and clay in this case will be inappropriate – they will also be heated unevenly.
The middle layer should contain land with admixtures of peat, constituting 15-25% of the total volume of bottom soil. Its thickness can be no more than 2-3 cm, since an overabundance of soil enriched with peat can provoke the process of decay.
If in the ground there is a large amount of organic matter, then it can be supplemented with sand.
In addition to everything, the middle layer can be filled with microelements and clay balls. However, for this you need to conduct thorough training of peat and earth.
Strictly speaking, such a rule holds for each layer.
The top layer should be of fine gravel mixed with sand. About 5 cm of this soil prevents the turbidity of water due to peat contact with the ground.
It is here that used stones for the aquarium, which can be purchased at the same pet store.
If in the aquarium there are snails or fish digging in the ground, then you need to grow plants in pots or increase the thickness of the upper layer. This will prevent significant damage to their root systems.
It should be noted that usually the soil in the aquarium is uneven. Although it can be distributed in such a way that it will look like a slide that rises towards the back wall.
This option of laying the bottom can visually give the aquarium a volume and a more spectacular appearance.
Most novice aquarists lay out various patterns from the ground. Since they are gradually moved by the action of water, these compositions are short-lived.
Of course, this is not so scary, but the overall appearance of the aquarium can still deteriorate.
The final procedures that will make the aquarium 200 liters perfect will be the installation of the decor, pouring water and planting plants. This should be taken care of in advance, so as not to “slow down” the overall process of arrangement.
Which soil to choose for the aquarium :: how to choose the right soil for the aquarium :: Aquarium fish
You can not treat aquarium soil as a simple bottom coating. Its tasks are more diverse: it creates a natural natural landscape, and also helps to form biological balance in an aquarium.
It is advisable to take a closer look at his selection.
The question “opened a pet store. Business is not going. What to do? “- 2 answers
1. Grounds for the aquarium are divided into three groups. They can be natural, artificial and nutritious.
The constituents of natural soil are pebbles, sand, and other substrate variants found in nature. Artificial primer, which is far from the best choice, is a processed colored glass and pieces of plastic. Nutritious soil is a substrate which is specially prepared and saturated with the substances improving growth of aquarian plants.
Use it as a substrate, and above lay a layer of natural soil.
2. Pick up the ground in size. It differs by faction. Too small it will be bad to pass water, and also gases which are dissolved in it.
In such a soil, the roots may rot or develop very poorly, as a result, the plant stops growing or dies. Too coarse soil will pass through various dirt and organic matter, and this leads to a deterioration in the quality of water in the aquarium. Therefore, the size of the soil, choose medium.
In this case, consider what kind of population will be in the aquarium, and this is a guide in the selection of the faction.
3. Decide on the color of the soil. Wet it and check how it looks – most often wet ground is much brighter than dry.
The colors can be completely different, and since they do not carry the functional load, you can choose what you like. In terms of color, the ground at the bottom of the aquarium should first of all meet the aesthetic preferences of the owners. Keep in mind that on the background of darker ground shrimp and fish will look much brighter.
When choosing, imagine what kind of lighting the aquarium will have and how it will affect the color of the ground.
4. The composition of the soil affects the characteristics of the water in the aquarium. This is especially reflected in its bottom layer. Before you make a purchase, find out exactly how the soil will affect the water, because some varieties can make it harder than you need, or acidify.
This is not bad and not good – pick up the soil, taking into account what water is used in the aquarium and how fish and other inhabitants of the aquarium transfer it. Taking into account their preferences and make a choice.
The problem with the choice of soil will be solved by itself if it is planned to recreate a certain corner of wildlife in the aquarium. Then the composition and type of soil must be selected in full accordance with the natural. In other cases, when choosing it, simply be guided by the preferences of plants and inhabitants.
Following your design ideas is better reserved for an empty aquarium that will perform only a decorative function.
You can simply choose a neutral soil that does not affect the water. But if water requires, for example, acidification, get peat-containing.
When choosing the first thing, consider the tastes of the residents of the aquarium. If it is impossible to fully meet their needs, look for a reasonable compromise.
If you want the inhabitants of your aquarium to be healthy, choose the right soil for it in a specialized store or prepare it yourself, guided by certain rules.
The question “Why are cats not a commodity, when there are already reviews about them?” – 1 reply
1. Purchase priming in the shop. It is better that it is dark in color and, accordingly, does not reflect the light and warms up well. If you buy too light priming, then the fish will behave restlessly, and some of them may turn pale color.
In addition, the roots of plants will be stunted, as they need warmth.
2. If you decide to prepare priming for aquarium on your own, choose dark gravel or gray alluvial sand of transparent rivers and streams. Both basalt crushed stone and gravel of volcanic rocks, which gradually give up microelements useful for plant growth, will be suitable.
3. Please note: the size of grains plays an important role primingbut. Since in the space between them fall waste fish, priming should provide free circulation of water between its particles (their diameter is from 2 to 5 mm).
4. Rinse the gray river sand (the grain should be 2-4 mm in diameter) so that the water eventually becomes clear. Lay them bottom aquarium a layer of at least 5 cm.
If possible, put pieces of peat and clay near the roots of plants to feed them.
5. For aquarium with soft water, rinse the sand in 30-40% hydrochloric acid, preheating it. Stir this composition until the release of gas bubbles temporarily stops.
After that, lightly rinse with water. Lay out the resulting way priming in the aquarium.
6. Wash the river sand (diameter 1.5-2 mm) or gravel (diameter 3-4 mm). Wait until the water becomes clear. After that, boil the mixture for 15 minutes, stirring continuously.
Rinse in warm water again. Layer thickness primingand in this case will depend on the plant species and size aquarium, but usually no more than 3-7 cm.
7. Since gradually in the aquarium primingFish waste is not accumulated and can gradually rot the roots of plants, it should be renewed every 2-5 years. The frequency of replacement depends on the volume of plants, the number of fish and its composition.
The best soil for an aquarium can be selected, starting from your own capabilities, aesthetic views, as well as what types of fish you plan to breed. In general, all varieties of soil by origin are divided into three groups: from natural material, soils obtained by chemical or mechanical processing of natural material, and those that are completely composed of artificial elements.
The easiest and most accessible way to get natural types of soil, as they can be collected independently. These can be pebbles, small gravel, fragments of rocks, shells, which are not difficult to find on the bank of the river or in ravines and quarries.
A major role in the use of such a soil is its thorough cleansing. It is recommended to first hold the natural soil in an acid solution (for example, table vinegar) for 30 minutes, and then rinse under running water.
Some aquarium owners also use soil boiling. The choice of natural soil depends on your ability to collect and purchase, but it is worth noting that deciding which soil for an aquarium is better for plants, you should pay attention to soils consisting of gravel of volcanic origin, which release a large amount of mineral substances into the water. growth and strengthening of the root system.
With other soils it will be necessary to use special baits at first.
Chemically processed and synthetic primers created from synthetic compounds can be easily purchased at the pet store. They benefit from the natural soil with its various colors and the fact that such a soil will not release harmful substances into the water, however, the useful properties of this soil are zero, so all the additional minerals needed to create an aquarium ecosystem will have to be added .
In addition to the origin, the soils also differ in size. If the soil particles do not exceed 1 mm in diameter, then there is sand in front of you.
Such a soil looks uniform and very aesthetically pleasing, but at the bottom it lies in a dense layer, which can lead to the formation of oxygen-free areas and potentially harmful gases for fish. Soil more than 5 mm in diameter is called pebbles. Such a ground passes water well, as well as food particles, as well as fish waste, which leads to rapid deterioration of water.
The most optimal soil particle size for most aquariums is 5–7 mm. It is pebbles of this size that allow water to circulate freely and, at the same time, lay down tight enough so that the overwhelming amount of food and fish waste is deposited on the surface of the soil layer.
It is also worth paying attention to the appearance of the soil, its color. Now you can buy soils of almost any color, which allows you to create unusual design solutions for aquariums. However, it is worth noting that too light, white, gray and beige, Soils adversely affect the color of fish: over time, they fade.
Too dark colors can create a strong and not very aesthetic contrast with the aquarium setting.
The optimum thickness of the soil layer for an aquarium is 5–7 cm. A layer of greater thickness will create strong pressure on the glass walls and bottom, while the thinner layer will not be tight enough.
The soil can be laid in a dense even layer, but if you wish, you can create an interesting bottom relief using larger stones, snags and special clay decorations for the aquarium, so-called terraces. If you plan to breed fish that feed from the bottom, then it is worthwhile to arrange the soil at a slightly angled angle: a thicker layer at the back wall, a thinner one at the front.
Soil and nutritional substrate for aquarium plants: selection, preparation, laying
Substrates, nutritious soil for aquarium plants
Aquarium soil is an important substrate that maintains an artificial reservoir in the correct condition. In the soil there are many beneficial bacteria that play an important role in the ecosystem. They decompose toxic substances and waste products of fish.
You can prepare a quality ground for the aquarium with your own hands, if you read some of the recommendations.
How to choose a primer for an aquarium – some useful tips
Quote of the message Milionersha Read your entire quote book or community!
Soil is an integral part of any aquarium.
He participates in the aquarium in picking and planning your underwater garden. Aquarium soil, as well as lighting, background, other various decorations create a certain personality and charm in your aquarium.
The use of soils of various colors radically changes the appearance of any aquarium.
In addition to the above, soil is a substrate for plants and on its surface it creates all the necessary conditions for the emergence of many different bacteria, bryozoans, fungi and other microorganisms. Aquarium soil actively processes waste products of aquarium fish. Moreover, the soil in the aquarium plays the role of a filter, in which various suspended matter and microparticles are deposited, which can contaminate the aquarium water.
If I ponder over what I said, then the aquarium soil is not only an ornament, but it also participates in maintaining biological balance, and without it, the aquarium is not a tenant roughly!
It is clear that the soil fulfilled all the functions that I have listed, it must first be properly selected. If you start picking your filter often and clean it very often, it will eventually be covered with a copper basin.
Similar care requires aquarium soil. Now became very popular hygienic type aquariums, in which there is no ground at all.
In such aquariums only all the necessary equipment and substrates for spawning, unless of course they are needed.
Understandably, such aquariums can exist perfectly, in most cases during spawning, growing fry and lifting of larvae in the soil is not necessary, it can even be harmful. But when breeding manufacturers, professionals are forced to recognize the benefits and the need for aquarium soil. As a rule, aquarium soil is also a substrate for spawning of some species of fish.
Something I started talking about the fish, it is necessary to switch to the ground. By the way, if you have not read my post how to care for aquarium fish, I advise you to study it.
In it, I set out detailed information on how to do this business. So, go on the ground!)
Let’s first consider what types of soil exist and what can be obtained. To begin with, let’s break all the soils into three groups: pebbles, natural sand, rubble and gravel; soils that result from the chemical or mechanical processing of natural or natural materials; soil of artificial origin. Aquarium soils from the first group usually consist of basalt, feldspar, dolomite, quartzite or granite.
In nature, you can often see a mixture of various minerals of various sizes, or there is dust, or huge cobblestones.
If the soil is smaller than 1 millimeter, it can be safely called sand. River sand, which mostly falls to the bottom of the aquarium through a thick layer, is very popular with aquarists.
The water in its thickness does not penetrate, the soil begins to simply rot. If you accidentally shake up this ground, a huge amount of harmful hydrogen sulfide gas will spill out into the water, as well as methane, ammonia, which is very dangerous for all the inhabitants of your aquarium, including plants.
By the way, if you do not know how to care for aquarium plants, be sure to read the post on my blog, it will be very useful to you.
If the grain size of your soil will be more than 5 millimeters, then this soil is called pebbles. With pebbles, the situation is exactly the opposite.
Such a soil is too permeable not only for aquarium water, but also for food. When feeding, particles of food penetrate between the particles of soil and the inhabitants of the aquarium can not pull it out.
The little fish is small and it is very difficult for her to roll a large fraction. Yes, and pebbled soil does not look very uniform.
In general, whatever the crushed stone is fine, it loses gravel anyway, as it can cause harm to small fish due to sharp edges.
Perhaps the best soil for an aquarium can be considered rounded gravel with round grains up to 5 millimeters in diameter. It can be collected either on the river slopes, or go into the ravine and gather it there.
The grains are larger and heavier, and therefore they roll down, where they are then harvested and sifted from the sand. In the gravel should not be any substances that can dissolve in the aquarium water. I want to warn you if you suddenly decide to use shell rock, marble and coral sand as gravel.
Yes, it is beautiful, yes, it is stylish, but then you can regret it. I’ll explain why. All the grounds just listed contain calcium carbonates, which gradually begin to dissolve in soft and acidic water, as a result of which the aquarium water hardness increases.
If you find such a primer, splash a little acid on it, table vinegar will work fine. If bubbles or foam begin to form on the surface of the soil, then calcium carbonates dissolve with acid, and of course, this kind of soil is not suitable for an aquarium.
If you decide to grow Malawian cichlids in your aquarium, then you can safely throw such soil, because the water hardness is approximately equal to 12 dH in the lake where these fish live (Malawi). There are few higher plants there, and if they are, then cichlids are not averse to feasting on them.
In addition, in the aquarium soil should not contain minerals that are part of the compound of metals, such as magnetite or pyrite. If such substances fall into the aquarium water, then most likely they will poison everyone there. It is best to use a soil of quartz or feldspar – in relation to the aquarium water, they will be neutral.
If, however, impurities of various rocks in which calcium is present with the soil have got into the soil, dissolve them with acid. Hydrochloric acid, which is filled with soil, is best suited. Pour the soil into the plastic basin and pour acid there and let it stand for a couple of hours.
After this time has elapsed, rinse the soil under running water for 30 minutes to wash off any acid residues. When treating the soil with acid, do not forget about your safety.
Acid corrodes the skin, so before this procedure, buy rubber gloves and work only in them.
Even if you did not process the aquarium soil with acid, it should be washed in any case. You take the soil in a bucket, and in turn put the bucket in a basin.
If you wash your grooves this way, all small particles under the stream of water should remain in the pelvis and not in your sewage system. If you just put the bucket with the soil in the bathroom, then all the filth will fall into the sewer, and you need it?
Wash the soil should be warm water, gently stirring it, so that we washed the particles of clay and earth. The better you wash the soil, the less time will pass until the water in your tank is clear. There is a twofold opinion about the boiling of the soil and the treatment of it with disinfectants.
Some boil, others do not advise. Do not advise why?
Remember that the purity of the pond is maintained with saprotofitnyh microorganisms. If there are sterile conditions in the aquarium, clean water cannot always be achieved thanks to chemical methods.
For example, I boiled the soil for my tank and nothing terrible happened. All the same, you will not put any living creatures in the newly launched aquarium. This is generally a separate topic and I plan to write a post on how to run an aquarium.
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Tax, soil washed and processed. let’s lay it in the aquarium. Pour the aquarium soil into your jar with a layer of 5-7 centimeters. Such a thickness of the soil will be enough for the root system of your plants to begin to develop normally.
There are such aquarists that lay out the soil with a 10-centimeter layer. However, remember that the load on the glass will greatly increase and the soil will not be washed out with fresh water.
In such a soil is not uncommon formation of oxygen-free areas.
As a rule, the soil is laid in an even layer. If you do not plan to keep in your aquarium fish that are actively digging around in the ground, then in such an aquarium the ground can be laid at an angle – the layer gradually decreases from the back wall to the front. If you want to recreate a relief in your tank, make a terrace.
In general, this is an interesting topic, I will not disclose it in this article, read the post about aqua design and you will understand everything. To create a terrace, you must install at the bottom of the aquarium partitions of different levels, which are subsequently filled with soil.
Glue terraces with silicone glue. Stones or snags can be used as terraces material. You can even bungle something from plastic, but I do not recommend it.
Plastic is a dangerous thing.
In the washed ground there are no compounds that could be useful for aquarium plants as food. They will appear only then, as the saprotofits will occupy all the cavities in your soil and will begin the process of decomposition of waste products. That is why, plants using roots for food, in the newly launched aquarium in the first weeks 2-3 will be without food.
To prevent this from happening, fine-grained substances are used in the soil, which serve as plant bait. For these purposes, very often I use laterite – tropical soil. At least the lovers of the Cryptocoren family use it regularly.
Fertilizers begin to slowly dissolve and feed the roots of aquarium plants.
I want to mention the excellent qualities of gravel of volcanic origin. It has a lot of trace elements that contribute to excellent plant growth. As a rule, this soil is black in color and is imported into Ukraine from abroad.
We haven’t seen such a thing here, most likely because it is expensive and in our city hardly anyone will buy it)) Crisis, do you know … On such a ground, plants develop beautifully – they grow large and healthy, unlike quartz sand. Such phenomena can be observed in nature, in Rwanda or Kamchatka.
Strange, but in some literature there are still tips on how to use garden soil in an aquarium. Similar advice appeared about a century ago, when no one really knew about the biological processes occurring in aquarium water.
Aquarists believed that garden land is perfect for aquatic plants, because land plants grow, such as aquatic plants will grow. Now this is complete nonsense, and if someone has said this to you, then spit in his face, seriously. If you suddenly throw earthlings into your tank with the ground, then after a couple of days everything will rot there, and all this filth will quickly dissolve in the water.
I think you have already imagined what will happen next. No, but I’ll tell you now.
At first, the water will be brown in color, then green, since unicellular algae will begin to multiply massively. In such an environment, aquarium fish and plants will be very, very bad.
It seems that I considered all the issues related to the chemistry and practical use of gravel in aquariums. Well, if that missed, please do not be angry at me and unsubscribe in the comments. I will take note of everything you said and in the future I will try not to make such blunders :))
Let’s talk about the aesthetic side of using aquarium soil. To a greater extent, the ground serves as a backdrop for fish and plants.
In one case, he was picked up very well, in the other not very. Very often aquarists use either gray or yellowish gravel. Such a decision is in principle universal, as plants and fish look great against such a background.
If you decide to use a light primer, then you will greatly regret it. The fishes will lose their coloring, they will be very shy and very pale.
Well, if you use black soil, then in such an aquarium the contrast will be strongly striking.
In the sale of soil in large quantities, so buy aquarium soil you will not be difficult. Varieties of mass, use in practice what I told you, it will be a great help.
There is even an artificial ground for sale, but as to my account, it loses much to the natural one. If you are planning to get yourself a simple aquarium with one goldfish, then please.
But if you want a large beautiful aquarium, so that the eye does not tear, use in this case, natural soil definitely.
Well, perhaps this will finish my story, write your point of view in the comments, we will be happy to discuss everything. See you again and subscribe to blog updates.
In the appendix to the article, here is an interesting video from the Tetra company. Bye everyone!)