maintenance, care, compatibility
Aquarium Aquarium: Methods and Methods of Enriching Aquarium Water with Oxygen
Everyone knows that equipment for aeration of aquarium water is paramount and vital.
However, many beginners and even already experienced aquarists do not know how it works, they do not fully understand why it is needed and what happens in an aquarium with a lack or excess of oxygen.
In this article, I would like to try in a simple narrative manner to lift the veil of aquarium aeration secrets, to bring excerpts from the already written material of Runet, and also to tell about some of the “secrets” of O2 supply to the aquarium.
I think I should start with a short story about mechanical aeration, by which I mean the process of mixing air with aquarium water using aquarium equipment (pumps and compressors).
The principles of operation of such equipment are well known and understood by everyone, so I will not focus on them. It is more interesting to tell about two misconceptions of newcomers of the aquarium craft, connected with the aeration of the aquarium water by mechanical means:
1. Usually everyone thinks that the enrichment of water with air occurs through bubbles, which the compressor will drive into the water. However, it is not! Mixing air with water occurs on the surface of the water.
The aerator creates vortices and vibrations from bubbles on the water surface, as a result of which mixing occurs. We can say that the saturation of aquarium water with air (oxygen) is not due to the bulbushes, as such, but from their intensity and water flow, which improves the absorption of oxygen from atmospheric air.
2. The second important nuance of mechanical aeration is its continuous operation. A big mistake for beginners is to turn off aeration for the night, so that it does not rustle.
Such an action can lead to fatal consequences, because overnight asphyxiation will “earn” not only fish, but also all hydrobionts, up to nitrifying bacteria, which leads to a disturbance of biobalance and, as a result, a “dead bog” is obtained from the aquarium, which is infested with disease-causing bacteria and live algae!
With that said, it should be noted that you should not save money when choosing and buying equipment for aeration of the aquarium, it must be of good quality and sufficient power. It is desirable that it had various nozzles and created a good “purge”.
A huge role in the “aeration of the aquarium” is played by live aquarium plants. Aquarium plants are perhaps the only natural source of “pure” oxygen – O2, which is released during photosynthesis.
The presence of abundant vegetation in an aquarium will have a favorable effect on its climate and, in particular, on the concentration of oxygen in the water. However, the plants are not a stable and unconditional supplier of oxygen to the aquarium.
It is worth saying that the process of photosynthesis, in which plants emit oxygen is possible only if there is sufficient illumination and the necessary amount of CO2 (carbon dioxide). As soon as the light in the aquarium turns off, the process of photosynthesis stops and the opposite happens – the plants begin to consume oxygen.
From the above, we can draw two conclusions:
– aquarium plants are not replaceable helpers “oxygen supply in the aquarium.” I generally keep quiet about their use in setting up the biobalance and their participation in the fight against NO2NO3.
– Alas, aquarium plants are not a panacea. Many people are mistaken in thinking that plants need only carbon dioxide, no!
They also “breathe” and oxygen is vital for them at night.
Well, now, before disclosing “aquarium-oxygen secrets,” let’s determine
Measure the concentration of O2 in the aquarium, you can with the help of tests that are sold in many aqua stores
Speaking about the concentration of oxygen, it is necessary to make a small reservation about overdose.
There are various opinions on this issue. Some, in the old-fashioned way, say that oversaturation of water with oxygen is dangerous. Other, more progressive comrades, on the contrary, say that the abundance of oxygen favorably affects the life of the aquarium.
The arguments of both are interesting, but are a separate topic for conversation.
I personally tend to think that a lot of “oxygen does not exist” (conditionally, of course). Oxygen is poorly soluble in water, it is ten times worse absorbed than carbon dioxide.
Therefore, in order to achieve an overabundance of O2 concentration, it is necessary to make a lot of effort, moreover, you need to be blind not to notice an overdose. Yes, the pH may drop sharply from an excess of oxygen, they say that colonies of beneficial bacteria are dying from its excess … but this is such a rare situation that 99% of aquarists have never even thought about it.
And now, the promised tricks and secrets of aquarium aeration
Secret number 1: Many people know that oxygen consumption by hydrobionts increases with increasing temperature, since the respiratory process increases with increasing temperature. On the other hand, the concentration of oxygen in water is highly dependent on temperature.
At a temperature of 20 ° С it reaches about 9.4 mg / l, at 25 ° С – 8.6 mg / l and at 30 ° С – 8.0 mg / l.
This statement can be perfectly used in cases of fish asphyxia. In addition, this statement disciplines beginners who think that plus or minus degrees does not matter.
Secret number 2: Perhaps the most valuable advice. Few people know about the benefits of using HYDROGEN PEROXIDE in an aquarium, this is what it does:
1. Revives choked and suffocated fish;
2. Fights against undesirable living creatures in the aquarium (hydra, planarians);
3. Fights against external protozoa and parasites;
4. Effective with bacterial infections on the body of the fish and its fins;
5. Fights against blue-green algae in an aquarium;
6. Fights algae on plants;
A well-known and respected Petersburg aquarist V.Kovalev on the Living Water website tells very well about the benefits of hydrogen peroxide:
Hydrogen peroxide – This is an environmentally friendly product. In water, it breaks down into water and oxygen – harmless substances.
Therefore, if it is used correctly, then the useful microflora in the filter and the soil can be saved completely, or only slightly podzadushit (too much oxygen is released in the overdose and in the filter, which is not good for bacteria). But the microflora will quickly recover, because no harmful substances have entered the water. Fish with proper dosing peroxide does not poison.
If when applying peroxide on the sponge filters, the walls of the aquarium, fish and plants bubbles appear, then the dose was great. Only barely noticeable bubbles on mechanical filters are permissible.
Pharmaceutical 3% peroxide is used for:
1. VITALIZATION OF ASAFISHED FISH.
Addition to 40 ml on 100 l. When they begin to pour bubbles on the glasses, filters and, possibly, small fish, the water should be changed, the blow-down should be strengthened. If there is no effect in 15 minutes of exposure, then no longer fate … For resuscitation of fish affected by high doses of carbon dioxide, 25 ml per 100 l is usually sufficient.
2. STRUGGLE AGAINST UNDESIRABLE AQUARIUM LIVING (planarian, hydra).
Concentration to 40 ml in 100 l. It is necessary to make a few days in a row before a complete victory over the enemy. At the same time, plants can be frozen, but if lower concentrations are applied, then it is not possible to win, although the plants will be alive.
However, as a rule, everything turns out, the process takes a week or more. Anubias-type peristicular plants are relatively resistant to peroxide.
3. STRUGGLE AGAINST BLUE-GREEN ALGAE.
If your aquarium has your favorite plants, then you cannot exceed dosage 25 ml per 100 liters once a day. Fish usually tolerate dose without harm 30 or even 40 ml per 100 l.
The effect of daily application is noticeable on the third day. For a week, everything passes.
The dose that you can still fight algae is 20 ml per 100 l. Long-stemmed plants with feathery leaves do not tolerate peroxide, so this dosage should not be exceeded.
Stylist plants can be redeemed several times in a separately prepared peroxide solution 50-40 ml per 100 liters. Hold for half an hour, an hour.
I do not know the exact time. They say that the fouling flip flops can be reduced. It is possible that peroxide will help in the fight against Vietnamese in the aquarium (20-25 ml per 100 l).
But in this case it is still necessary to reduce the nitrate and phosphate contamination of water.
4. TREATMENT OF BACTERIAL INFECTIONS ON THE BODY AND ELIMINATORS OF FISH.
25 ml per 100 l daily or 2 times a day multiple times (7-14 days).
You can prepare a therapeutic solution of peroxide from the industrial product of perhydrol – about 30% of prekis. That is, it must be diluted 10 times to get an analogue of pharmacy peroxide. The substance is caustic and explosive!
It is possible to dilute only with water in a plastic container. Contact with metal, alkalis, organic solvents should not.
Thus, taking into account the topic of the article, it should be said that hydrogen peroxide is “unique” and plays a crucial role! With its help you can instantly enrich the aquarium water with oxygen and thus save the fish, even in the severe stage of asphyxiation.
SECRET number 3: Many people know what oxygen pills are and many often use them when transporting fish. However, few people know and come across such aquarium equipment as OXIDATORS.
Oxidators are different: for the long transportation of fish, for mini aquariums, for large aquariums, for ponds. Their essence is simple – hydrogen peroxide is placed in the vessel to which the catalyst is added, after the reaction begins, as a result of which oxygen is released.
Video how oxidizers work for aquarium
Below is a line of oxidizers, which will reveal the whole point. OXIDATOR A
Dimensions: diameter 9 cm, height 18 cm
Container Content: for aquariums up to 400 l. – 250 ml of 3% hydrogen peroxide solution, for 600 l – 250 ml of 6% solution.
Duration of work: at a temperature of 25 ° C from two to eight weeks, depending on the concentration of the solution and the number of used catalysts.
The absence of bubbles coming from the device indicates the need for recharge of the OXIDATOR.
1 liter of peroxide is enough for 1 month for 20 large fish.
You can also use it in a larger aquarium, but the duration of the instrument is reduced.
If your aquarium has a capacity of up to 400 liters and the two-week OXIDATOR operation time is too small for you (for example, you are going on vacation), you can use two OXIDATORS A by placing one catalyst in their containers. As a result, the duration of their work before recharging will increase to four weeks.
Dimensions: diameter 4 cm, height 6 cm
Container contents: – 20 ml of hydrogen peroxide solution.
Includes two 50 ml bottles with 4.9% hydrogen peroxide solution.
Duration of work: at a temperature of 25 ° C 2 – 4 weeks depending on the number of catalysts and the volume of the aquarium.
You can install up to four MINI OXIDATORS in an aquarium, or replace its catalysts with more powerful ones (from W, D or A OXIDATORS).
MINI OXIDATOR – DOESN’T REPLACE the compressor or filter, it is a universal oxidizer and works in the absence of electricity, long-term transportation of fish, increased demands on the oxygen content of the fish or summer increase in water temperature. Kills harmful bacteria and treats outdoor fish diseases.
Dimensions: diameter 8.5 cm, height 8.5 cm
Container Content: for aquariums from 60 to 150l. – 125 ml of 3-6% solution of hydrogen peroxide.
Duration of work: at a temperature of 25 ° C, 1 liter of peroxide is enough for 2 months of work in an aquarium with 10 large fish.
The first safe and self-regulating device that can be year-round supply ponds with oxygen without the use of hoses and electrical wires, even in a fierce winter.
It is designed for garden ponds, as well as large aquariums in excess of 700 liters.
Dimensions: diameter 15 cm, height 18 cm
Container contents: 1 liter of 6-30% hydrogen peroxide solution.
In the summer with a single refueling – 1-2 months.
In winter, under ice – for 4 months.
The annual need for a solution, depending on the temperature, is 3-5 liters.
Floats in the shipping container due to the ring float.
The device allows you to transport or contain a large number of fish (up to 25 goldfish with a body length of 8 cm in 20 liters of water) in a small container (can, thermo bag, bag, etc.) with a volume of 2-20 liters for a long time without an additional compressor or filling the bag with oxygen.
Duration of work – from 144 hours (at 9 ° C) to 36 hours (at 25 ° C).
The FTC OXIDATOR compact device allows you to transport or contain fish in a small container (bucket, plastic bag, etc.) volume of 2-20 liters for a long time without an additional compressor.
Increased oxygen consumption by fish with increasing temperature (within reasonable limits) is automatically compensated by the device.
One OXIDATOR FTc contains 1000 mg of pure oxygen.
The working time at a temperature of 20 ° C is approximately 12 hours. As the temperature rises, the operation time decreases, but the amount of oxygen released increases.
When the temperature decreases, the duration of work increases.
It is worth noting that oxidizers are very rarely used by aquaquimists in the post-Soviet space. They cost relatively not expensive – OXIDATOR A costs about $ 100, plus they save energy … but alas, there is not even anyone to ask anyone about the practice.
Most often they are used only for long shipments of fish.
AERATION – THE SOURCE OF LIFE OF OUR AQUARIUMS
Aeration, enrichment of aquarium with oxygen interesting video
The filter in the aquarium is the most important part of the equipment, the life support system for your fish, which removes toxic waste, chemistry, and if it works correctly, it saturates the water in the aquarium with oxygen.
For the filter to work properly, it is necessary that useful bacteria be divorced inside it, and improper care kills them, as a result creating problems with balance.
Unfortunately, most of the filters lack simple and clear instructions for the user to understand.
All filters are different, small ones need to be washed weekly, and large ones can work without problems even for two months. The only correct way is to observe how quickly your filter becomes clogged with dirt.
In general, for the internal filter, the frequency is approximately once every two weeks, and for the external one from two weeks for very polluted aquariums, up to two months for cleaner ones.
Keep an eye on the flow of water from the filter, if it is weakened it is a signal that it is time to wash it.
Just wash the filter may not be the most successful idea, since you can destroy a colony of good bacteria in it. Therefore, it is important not to wash the filter when you make any global changes in the aquarium — a big water change, change the type of feed or frequency of feeding the fish, or launch a new fish.
At such times it is very important that the balance is stable, and the filter is a large part of the stable balance in the aquarium.
All aquarium filters contain impeller. The impeller is a cylindrical magnet with an impeller, which serves to create a flow of water, and is mounted on a metal or ceramic pin.
After a time, algae, bacteria and other debris accumulate on the impeller and make it difficult to work.
It is very easy to clean the impeller – remove it from the pin, rinse it with water pressure, and wipe the pin itself with a rag. The most common mistake is when people just forget about it.
And pollution significantly reduces the impeller’s lifespan and the most common cause of filter breaks is impeller contamination.
Develop your own filter maintenance schedule in the aquarium, record when you last did it, and regularly check the levels of ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate in your water.
The best filter for aquarium: types of filtering, photo-video review
– These are the simplest and at the same time effective filters for an aquarium. Some “old-fashioned” call them “glasses.”
The essence of their work is very simple – the filter has a pump (motor) and an absorbent sponge. The pump pumps the aquarium water, which passes through the sponge, is cleaned.
Such filtration effectively copes with the removal of large contaminants: food residues, fish excreta, residues of dead organisms, etc.
If you have a small aquarium and not very large fish swim in it, such a mechanical filter will be quite enough.
– These are filters that provide filtering through various absorbents. The most common absorbent is aquarium coal.
Also in the aquarium used and other absorbents – ion exchange resins, for example, zeolite. Filters that provide for the possibility of such filtering are more practical than mechanical ones.
Since the pores of absorbent materials are able to absorb smaller particles of pollution of aquarium water, and ion exchange resins can effectively fight even the most harmful poisons – ammonia, nitrite and nitrate, which are formed and gradually accumulate in the aquarium.
Biofilters filters and aquarium biological filtration
– These are filters that combine the possibility of using various types of filtration of aquarium water. Some filters have all three of the above filtering types.
But it is worth noting that even the simplest mechanical filter can be used as a combined one. That is, use in it and absorbent sponge, and for example aquarium coal.
Perhaps these are the most popular and best-selling filters. Their price is much cheaper than external filters, easy to operate and clean. As a drawback, some aquarists point out that they occupy space in the aquarium – thereby eating up precious volumes.
However, this is a controversial point, because the filter does not occupy 1/3 of the aquarium. Well, yes, it takes 2-3 liters of volume, hanging quietly in the corner.
It seems to me that this is not a very significant drawback, especially for medium and large aquariums.
– these are filters that are located and installed outside the aquarium, only the tubes are lowered into the aquarium. It is difficult to give a positive or negative assessment of such a filter – someone is happy with it, some is not. Therefore, I will simply list the advantages and disadvantages:
– a large amount of filter materials, thereby achieving maximum water purification;
– combined filtration with purification rates;
– this is a huge “bucket” near the aquarium;
– there is always the likelihood of a flood (as a rule, if the assembly is incorrect);
– This is a compromise between the internal and external filter. The hybrid of both is “hanging from the outside, but working inside.”
These filters are not so popular among aquarists, because they work according to the principle “not yours is not yours,” perhaps its only distinguishing advantage is compactness and space preservation both in and under the aquarium.
So, summing up the above, we can recommend internal filters for small, medium and not very large aquariums (up to 200 liters). For large aquariums, external aquarium filters will be good.
Of course, this statement is relative, because no one has yet canceled individual aspects and wishes.
Concluding this article, I would like to note that there are other methods, mechanisms for filtering aquarium water, such as – a bottom filter or “false”. Such methods are less popular and have a number of advantages and disadvantages.
In the future, if necessary, you can make them yourself.
I want to believe that this article has helped you determine the choice of the best aquarium filter. But, remember that no even the coolest filter will not replace the banal weekly replacement of aquarium water.
AQUARIUM WATER SUBSTITUTE IS THE BEST FILTRATION