maintenance, care, compatibility
What to do to breed fish? Where to begin? How to make the first launch of the aquarium at home?
What are the most unpretentious fish? Do I need seashells in the aquarium?
What kind of ground to choose? These and many other questions arise for beginning aquarists when they decide to buy a home aquarium and breed fish.
Of course, experienced aquarists already know many secrets and nuances in this difficult hobby of fish. And what should newcomers do in this case?
And in today’s article we will dwell in detail not only on what aquarium for beginners is, but also on what to do in order to create a real work of art at home.
Aquaria – a very delicate matter. If you buy aquariums for beginners, it is best to focus on their equipment and only then think about starting.
After all, everything requires maintenance and care, and the aquarium is no exception to the rules. In the new aquarium, the water needs to be changed not immediately, but only after several months.
And the basic rules for the care of an artificial reservoir – is the replacement of water, but partial. You also need to look for algae. Do not forget to change the filter, clean the soil.
Do not forget to also check the readings of the thermometer. And remember, you need to disturb the aquatic inhabitants as little as possible.
Fish do not like it.
The third rule – conditions for fish: what should they be?
The fourth condition is the right equipment.
Remember the main rule. First you need:
- Aquarium and minimal equipment for it.
And only after the acquisition of all of the above, you can think about choosing the fish. Artificial pond need to choose not very small.
What is necessary from the equipment? So it refers to:
- heater with thermostat;
And when all this is acquired, you can do the installation of the vessel in your room. It is best to do this on a flat surface, before laying the tourist mat under the bottom of the aquarium.
You also need to wash the soil and sand, pour it into the aquarium and fill it with cold tap water. Install a filter and heater (especially important to monitor the temperature of the water in the winter).
Because from the cold fish can die.
Next, heat the water to 20 degrees and begin to plant the plants. Planting a home aquarium should be live plants.
They are simply necessary. Even if there are fish in the aquarium that like to feed on plants, it is better to simply feed them more.
Water will be muddy at first. And it is here that you should not hurry. It is best to wait about 7 days.
And already after the water becomes clear, you can launch fish.
Important! Buying fish, do not forget to clarify whether they will get along together.
The fifth rule – the filter must be washed in the aquarium water
The seventh rule – the launch of a new fish spend slowly!
The tenth rule – aquarism is my hobby!
The most important thing in aquarism is to fish with great enthusiasm, but without forcing yourself. Make it so that it brings pleasure and enjoyment.
After all, this is a real vacation at home. Near the artificial reservoir can spend a lot of time watching the behavior of fish.
In addition, scientists have proven that running and monitoring fish leads to normal blood pressure and calms the nervous system. And if there are small children at home, then this is also a very good educational moment. After all, since childhood, caring for fish will teach them to care and attention.
After all, probably, very few people want to see that the first experience with the aquarium is bitter and ends with the death of the fish. After all, it often happens that novice aquarists, who have not coped with the problems, put an end to their dream.
Do not leave immediately, and after a while there will come a period when an experienced aquarist grows from an inexperienced beginner who will help the same beginners, like him, who buy aquariums for beginners himself just a few weeks or months ago. Believe it is not difficult!
During cleaning it is necessary to turn off electrical equipment. Only an external canister filter can be left on if its water intake hose is low enough and remains below the water level. As for the internal filter, if the cleaning is ordinary and does not take long, it can be left in the aquarium in the off state.
If the cleaning is large, general, cleaning all the decorations, weeding and transplanting plants, draining a significant part of the water, the internal filter is placed in the drained aquarium water and turned on so that the bacteria colony does not die.
At the time of cleaning the fish are usually not evicted from the aquarium.
First proceed to clean the glass. To do this, you can use different devices, each of which has its advantages and disadvantages:
- Long-handled scraper with permanent or replaceable metal razor blades. A very effective thing, but not suitable for cleaning Plexiglas aquariums, as it can scratch them. When choosing such a scraper, you need to pay attention to the strength of the handle (if it is too flexible, you will not succeed with the necessary force and at the right angle to press on the glass). In addition, the metal blade should not be longer than the plastic cover and stick out of it on the sides, as in this case, when cleaning around the corners, you can damage the silicone joints of the aquarium.
- Magnetic scraper is extremely handy when cleaning large and deep containers. Suitable for cleaning plexiglass. When choosing, it is necessary to take into account what thickness of glass the scraper is designed for, otherwise the power of the magnet may be insufficient and the scraper simply will not attract. Using this device, you must be very careful when cleaning the glass near the bottom, so that there is no pebble or grain of sand between the scraper and the glass. They will leave deep and visible scratches on the glass. Usual household sponge washcloth. Many aquarists use just such, but they are made from materials of different stiffness, and some are completely capable of leaving scratches on aquarium glass, which individually are almost invisible, but over time make the glass all the more cloudy.
- The usual bank plastic card has perfectly proved as a scraper. It does not spoil the glass, and its only drawback is the lack of a handle and, accordingly, some inconvenience of use.
Green algae, torn off from the surface by a scraper, if there are not too many of them, can be left out of the aquarium, and left in the water, the fish usually eat them instantly and with great pleasure.
Some aquarists recommend that the rear window of an aquarium should not be cleaned of algae, as it is usually almost completely hidden by decorations and plants, and the algal plaque usually does not spoil the appearance of the pond, and nitrates and nitrites from the water slowly consume. And if you lead several algae fish, then the raid will not remain either on the rear window or on the viewing window.
Now, when our glass is clean, it is the turn of the ground.
The frequency and intensity of water changes depend on the biological load, that is, on the quantity, size and voracity of the aquarium inhabitants, as well as on their requirements for water quality: it is clear that the concepts of cleanliness differ from the discus and, for example, spore frogs.
With the average population of the reservoir and the fastidiousness of its inhabitants, substitution is usually carried out on a third, quarter or fifth of the volume every week. Ideally, to establish a substitution schedule, it is necessary to test the water in the aquarium and determine the nitrate content in it. It should be at the level of no more than 10-30 mg / l.
Accordingly, if the concentration of nitrates in water is higher, then water must be changed more often.
To carry out a substitution, it is necessary to prepare water with the same or very close parameters (temperature, acidity) as in the aquarium. Most aquatic animals prefer water that settled for at least 24 hours.
If you can not defend the water, you can use air conditioners, for example, Tetra Aqua Safe or Dennerle Avera.
Part of the water from the aquarium is drained using a siphon or hose, the end of which must be placed near the bottom. In order to easily navigate how much water you need to drain, it is convenient to make a mark on the glass.
Fresh water is poured with a hose, bucket or other container, while the jet is directed not to the ground, which is thus easily eroded, but, for example, to the grotto or placed on the bottom of the saucer.
The aquarium filter has several functions. The most important: it must trap particles of dirt and turbidity (dead organic matter, food residues, mineral turbidity from the substrate) and be home to biofilter bacteria. The accumulated dirt in the cleaning process should be removed, while the colony of bacteria should be left as safe as possible.
These conditions determine the rules for cleaning the filter.
First question: when is it time to clean the filter? It is easy to determine by the power of its jet. Having bought a new filter or having its next general cleaning, notice or remove on video what kind of power the jet has, you can see it, for example, by the vibrations of nearby plants.
If the jet is weakened, it’s time to wash the filter.
Usually, internal sponge filters are washed once a week, as are often sponges of internal filters, where there are compartments with porous fillers (these compartments themselves often do not need to bother!). External canister filters are cleaned less often, once in 6-10 weeks, in some models the prefilter sponges, parts of which perform preliminary mechanical filtration, are washed weekly.
In any case, the filtering materials are carefully washed and rinsed in water drained from the aquarium in order to minimally damage the colony of nitrifying bacteria. The same rotor head is washed and cleaned with the same water with a cotton swab or toothbrush – the engine compartment of the filter.
After cleaning, the filter is placed in the aquarium as soon as possible and turned on.
Caring for fish in an aquarium is a must for every aquarist. Keeping fish requires a responsible approach, and with proper treatment of their pets, they will bring many benefits. It is believed that the aquarium is useful for the home, helps to cope with stress.
Small fishes have a beneficial effect on the emotions of adults and children, cultivate a sense of responsibility in a person. How to properly maintain the fish, and care for them?
For a start, think carefully about where you put your home aquarium, where the fish will live. The choice of the shape and size of the tank depends on the location.
It is considered that the maintenance of a spacious aquarium does not take long to clean. Caring for him is much easier than small.
A large tank can contain a large number of different fish that are compatible with each other. Also do not forget about the devices, without which the functioning of a modern reservoir is impossible.
Compressors, filters, lighting devices, decorations will provide the highest quality care.
Another issue that bothers aquarists – the choice of pets. For beginners, small and unpretentious fish are suitable that can survive the host’s small errors.
Contrary to popular belief, goldfish and cockerels are not easy-to-keep fish. They will have to spend more time with them. Goldfish leave behind a lot of waste, and you have to clean up more often in the aquarium.
Males are sensitive to changes in water parameters and infections.
Guppies – one of the most unpretentious fish, belong to the family Petsiliye. They have a bright tail, like the whole color of the body. The size of the females is 6 cm in length, the males are 3-4 cm.
This herbivorous aquarium fish, which need to be eaten more greens. They love clean, oxygenated water.
Another unpretentious fish – it’s cichlids. There are African and South American species.
For the beginner, omnivorous and herbivorous tsikhlovye fish are suitable. Predatory species are incompatible with other fish, and are quite dangerous.
Other types are very friendly and quick-witted, they can live alone or in pairs.
See how to maintain and care for black-tipped cyclose.
Feeding is an important aspect, without which fish care is impossible. Feed pets should be 1-2 times a day, and once a week arrange a fasting day without food.
Malkov need to feed more often – 4-5 times a day. The amount of feed depends on the type.
Big fish should get more feed, small – less. For 2-3 minutes, pets should eat all the amount of feed received.
Overfeeding is harmful to the digestive system.
See how to properly feed dry fish aquarium fish.
What feeds do aquarium fish prefer? Freshwater species unpretentious.
To provide them with timely care, do not give a lot of food, otherwise there will be a lot of waste too. Live food in frozen form, dry can be given in certain proportions. Dry feeds are made on the basis of daphnia crustaceans.
Live food is usually caught in natural water bodies – it is a bloodworm, a tubule, a corret. Make sure that the fish living in the upper layers of the water, do not take all the food from those who swim at the bottom.
Lighting – another necessary detail, which provides full care for the fish. Many aquatic organisms do not need additional lighting, they need enough daylight and indoor light.
However, some need and night lights from LB lamps. The optimal backlight power is 0.5 watts per liter of water.
Also consider the depth of the tank, its area, the nature of fish and plants. Residents of the depths are not very fond of a large amount of diffused light.
When the water evaporates and becomes polluted, periodically it has to be refilled. Usually one third of the total volume of water is added.
Water parameters should be similar to the water in the aquarium. Changes in the composition of the detrimental effect on the health of pets (it is important to know the water temperature, salt composition, gas composition).
Full replacement of water is made in extreme cases – if all the fish in the aquarium died from an outbreak of the disease, if fungal mucus appeared in the aquarium, water flourishes rapidly, the soil is heavily polluted. But the plants are quickly damaged by the complete replacement of water – they become discolored, the leaves fall off. If you maintain a constant biological balance within the mini-ecosystem, then all aquarium inhabitants will be healthy.
Properly selected appliances and living conditions will ensure quality life and care.
When choosing an aquarium, be sure to pay attention to its tightness, and the presence of a warranty card. Even a minor scratch can lead to the most unexpected consequences, since a certain amount of water mass, or the quality of sizing, will put pressure on it. Keeping fish in such a tank is dangerous for their lives.
There are basic rules on how to maintain an aquarium with fish at home.
In order for the fish to please their owners and to reveal the amazing underwater world to the aquarist, they need to provide comfortable conditions of detention. At the same time, they should feel safe and not be constrained in their movements.
Preliminary preparation before the acquisition of small fish
If you have never had an aquarium and no experience of keeping fish, then it is best to start fish that need minimal care and are not very demanding to the conditions of existence. This will avoid the death of your fish, as well as gain experience and knowledge in the content of the aquarium.
Many tropical fish require the maintenance of a certain water quality (hardness, acidity, temperature, etc.), the presence or absence of plants, a certain brightness of the light or its absence.
For unpretentious fish, the range of comfortable conditions is much wider, which allows them to be kept in a lower quality environment. They are also less susceptible to negative factors (improper feeding, delayed water changes, etc.).
There are several determining factors when choosing a fish:
- aquarium size;
- selection and compatibility of different types of fish;
- the size and temperament of the fish.
If you already have an aquarium, you need to determine what and how many fish you can fit into it. This will avoid overpopulation, which leads to unnecessary fights, oxygen starvation, eating predators of peace-loving fish.
If you have enough space and money to install an aquarium of any acceptable size, as well as the necessary equipment to ensure the life of the fish, you can proceed to the next heading of this article.
If you are cramped in something, then you need to define your desires, given that small aquariums are much more difficult to maintain than large ones, but the latter require more time for maintenance. For example, a 100-liter aquarium will suit a novice aquarist better than a 50-liter aquarium.
A large aquarium is simpler and better kept for several reasons:
1. Water temperature and quality are more stable.
2. The impact of adverse factors on the fish takes longer, which gives the novice aquarist the opportunity to influence them in a timely manner. For example, in winter time, the water heater broke, the cooling process is slower and you can manage to get off and buy a new one before the fish get cold. Or ampularia died from old age in the thickets of a small aquarium, the water became dull, the smell appeared, fish began to die.
In a large aquarium, this process will occur many times slower and you can remove the dead snail from the can without harming the fish.
3. In small aquariums there is little space for free swimming, and, accordingly, not every favorite decor can be placed in it.
4. Ample opportunities for design and decoration.
5. A large aquarium can hold a lot of large fish or a large number of small ones, it allows you to contain various types of fish.
With all the advantages of large aquariums, it is sometimes not possible to install it. Small aquariums are great for apartments, country houses or hostels, as well as for the second floors of private houses.
Large aquariums weigh a lot, they are difficult to transport, take up more space, and in unforeseen circumstances cause more damage.
The biggest advantage of a small aquarium is a financial issue. Aquarium, equipment, scenery, soil, plants, the cost of electricity, the treatment of fish cost much less.
Before acquiring you need to properly assess the benefits of both large and small aquariums. Answer yourself to the question: “What volume of aquarium would you like and is there an opportunity to contain such a volume?” If finances are not important and you do not often move, then the choice is obvious.
And if you do not want or can not afford a large aquarium, then a small aquarium is what you need for you. In any case, the main thing – comfortable conditions for the maintenance of fish.
In order to determine which fish you like, just read the literature, watch videos, go to a pet shop or to the bird market. Make a list of the types you like most.
This list should be a little more than you will purchase. Subsequently, it turns out that not all fish are suitable for your aquarium, some are incompatible with each other, parameters or temperature conditions will not work for others.
But the abundance of species in the fish market will allow you to finally form a list of the inhabitants of your aquarium.
To understand how roomy a settled aquarium is, you need to carry out simple calculations. In various information sources they vary.
Some are based on the oxygen demand of adult fish, given the surface area of the water. Some cold-loving freshwater fish require 192 cm2 and tropical ones 64 cm2.
Other calculations averaged justify – one liter of water is needed per cm of body length of an adult individual (for example, you can run five fish of 4 cm each in a 20 l aquarium)
For a marine aquarium, for each fish 2.5 cm long at least six months old, 18 liters of water are needed, and for later age 9 liters.
Some fish species share the size of the aquarium geographically and protect their habitat from other representatives. This leads to a decrease in the number of inhabitants in it.
At the simultaneous maintenance of different species need to pay attention to even the acquisition of fish. The key to a good selection of pets for an aquarium is the following conditions:
- similarity of climatic conditions (it is impossible to combine freshwater and saltwater fish, freshwater and brackish water bodies);
- about the same hardness and acidity of water;
- the same temperature;
- similar conditions on the speed of flow, soil quality, the presence of thickets and shelters, lighting.
Fish are doing well in conditions as close as possible to their natural habitat.
When settling an aquarium, it is necessary to take into account the preferences of species with respect to their location in the layers of the water column, and try to evenly distribute them.