Hello dear readers. Each aquarist strives to ensure that high-quality water filtration is organized in his aquarium.
On the blog, you have already read articles about types of filters and types of water filtration, but so far we have not yet spoken to you about what kind of fillers for aquarium filters are. In this article we consider the most basic and most frequently used.
The most popular and most common filtering material for aquarium filters are foam sponges. Foam rubber has a standing structure, which allows it to not pollute so often, in contrast to the padding polyester. In addition to mechanical filtration, foam rubber also contributes to biological filtration of aquarium water.
The sponge is colonized by colonies of beneficial bacteria that neutralize nitrates and nitrites.
This kind of sponge is used in almost every filter, whether external or internal. I recommend that you not often wash sponges, try to keep them in the filter a little longer. But there is one catch.
On the one hand, the long-term presence of the sponge in the filter favorably affects the biological environment of the aquarium. But on the other hand, the sponge can become clogged and the flow of water through the filter will decrease, respectively, this will adversely affect the quality of filtration. The best option would be once every two weeks when you have to get a filter and clean it.
It is not recommended to wash out the sponges under running water, since you will wash off all the bacteria, which completely eliminates the biofiltration process for a certain time.
Every less experienced aquarist knows about three types of filtration of aquarium water: chemical, mechanical and biological. So ceramic fillers (in the form of rings) carry out biological filtration.
The porosity of the structure of ceramic fillers allows the development of a large number of colonies of nitrifying bacteria that are involved in the nitrogen cycle of the aquarium.
Novice aquarists should not disdain this kind of fillers for their filters, since ceramics is an excellent tool for establishing biological balance in an aquarium. This filler does not need to be washed, it is enough to rinse occasionally in aquarium water.
As a rule, ceramics are used in external filters, but you can put them in the internal one, but only if its design allows it.
To date, in pet stores you can find a great variety of different fillers of different quality performance. The most popular and proven in action is the products of the German company Tetra.
It has been used for many years in both freshwater and reef aquariums. As an analogue, you can use the ceramic rings of the Italian company Hydor.
Sintepon is used to improve the mechanical water purification in the aquarium. “Vata” has a high density, which allows filtering even small particles of suspension through the filter. If a padding pad is placed in your filter, then in a couple of hours after cleaning the aquarium, this filter material is able to trap almost all the dust and cloudiness that has risen after the siphon of the aquarium soil or grass weeding.
The only significant drawback of such a filler is that it clogs extremely quickly. In just a week of work, “wool” you will stick together and turn into a dirty lump, and as a result, it will lose its absorbing properties.
You can reuse it, but only after you have thoroughly washed it under running water. Considering such a short service life of the padding material, it is best to use it only in emergency cases when you need to remove a huge amount of mechanical suspension.
In the daily life of an aquarium, such a filler can not be called practical.
Zeolite is an ion exchange resin, which performs the function of chemical purification of aquarium water. Zeolite tends to absorb all sorts of chemicals and exchange cations.
To put it in simple human language, the zeolite removes ammonia (ammonia) itself from ammonium decomposition products from the water. This filler completely neutralizes the existing poisons in the water. But when using zeolite, keep in mind that it lowers the pH in the aquarium and reduces phosphate levels.
The highest quality zeolite can be considered the products of Hydor.
The main characteristic of a biofilter material is its surface area and the ability to not be contaminated by mechanical suspensions. But heavy metals, silicates and phosphates can be found in expanded clay and volcanic lava.
Therefore, these filter media must be thoroughly washed before using in an aquarium. They become clogged extremely slowly, but during washing they can give a strong turbidity.
Due to the absorbing properties of activated carbon, various high molecular weight compounds of an organic nature can be removed from the water. But coal cannot be called a biological filtering material, since it will absorb soluble and insoluble substances.
It is never used constantly, because it has a limited lifespan. As a rule, activated carbon in external filters is used in conjunction with other fillers, when the water in the aquarium is particularly turbid, or it is necessary to filter the water well after treating the fish in the general aquarium. Unfortunately, the exact life of coal in an aquarium cannot be called, since it depends on the filtration system and the tasks assigned to it.
But on average, 2 weeks of using coal gives its fruits and water is purified during this time.
Peat in an aquarium is used for a very long time, but as a filtering material only in rare cases. We all know that peat enriches water with tannins and humic acids.
But peat water is not suitable for every hydrobiont. In addition, peat lowers the level of kH and pH, which helps to create suitable conditions for fish and plants that prefer soft water.
Sometimes it is used in spawning.