maintenance, care, compatibility
Despite the fact that the nature of ferns has created many species, lovers of domestic fish prefer representatives of tropical latitudes. They are accustomed to the conditions of high humidity and outwardly look pretty decorative.
Among the most popular species are the following:
Indian fern water – comes from Asia. But the plant can be found in the northern regions of Australia, as well as in South America and hot Africa.
Young plants of this species should stay afloat until additional leaves appear on them, and only then they are rooted.
Fern thailand (the name itself speaks about the place of birth), is a multi-legged (and this differs from the Indian one). Subsidiaries develop on one (creeping) rhizome as independent individuals.
Fern cornea grows mainly on the island of Madagascar and in humid areas of Africa. From the fellows described above, it differs in the shape of a sheet similar to a wide feather.
Fern Bolbitis (Schitovnikovy) has on its stems and stalks wax golden scales. The stem of this plant takes a horizontal (recumbent) position in the aquarium, which distinguishes it from other species.
You can list the types of spore plants indefinitely. But to decide which one is worth buying for your aquarium, it is best to watch the plant live in one of the shops.
And having bought a gift to fish, be engaged in creating good conditions for the existence of a new inhabitant of the aquarium.
Tropical Guest from the Past – Indian Fern
Its content does not require too much effort. In general, the requirements are fairly standard:
- Temperature. It was already mentioned above that the homeland of this plant is the tropics, so it is not surprising that the optimum water temperature for it is high – from 24 to 28 degrees. However, the fern will endure a lower temperature. But we must bear in mind that the growth of the plant will slow down significantly, and the color will become dull. When the temperature drops beyond 20 degrees, the plant stops growing at all.
- Acidity. Ideal parameters for Indian fern range from 5 to 6.5 pH. With a weakly alkaline reaction, the alga will slow down growth and may die.
- Rigidity. Water in a fern tank should not be hard. The best indicator is not more than 6 ° dGH. As in the case of acidity, in hard water, the alga feels bad, growth slows down and as a result the fern dies.
- Priming. All ferns, including Indian, differ in a sufficiently developed root system. True, their roots are usually thin, soft and brittle. Accordingly, the soil for the aquarium should be chosen with small particles, and landing carefully. Coarse sand will be the best substrate. Take note that the substrate must be moderately silted – it is a source of nutrients for the plant. Pour the soil should be 4-5 centimeters thick.
- Top dressing. While maintaining the required conditions in the aquarium, the fern does not need additional mineral dressings and fertilizers. Usually, the volume of substances that it receives from the aquarium water and the soil is sufficient.
- Lighting. The Indian water fern needs it especially. Requires lamps of at least 0.5 watts per liter of water. Daylight hours are planned for at least 12 hours. Natural light will also be useful, but make sure that the direct rays of the sun on the leaves was not.
When purchasing a fern for planting in an aquarium, you should also know some information about it:
Planting Indian fern bushes is best one at a time, closer to the center. This will be useful because the plant actively absorbs various organic substances that are inevitably formed during the life of the inhabitants of the aquarium.
So, the fern becomes an assimilator of these substances, allowing you to maintain the purity of water. The fern is unique in that it does not die in the absence of frequent water changes.
On the contrary, it is for him a source of essential nutrients.
The reproduction of the plant occurs due to the appearance of daughter branches on the old leaves of the main bush. First, a few leaves are formed, then – small lobes of the roots.
They are separated from the mother bush and remain not the surface of the water, where they can easily grow as a floating species. In case you want to use it as an underwater plant, the bush is planted in the ground.
Indian fern with proper care will decorate any aquarium or water greenhouse. It is charming and simple, and thanks to its branched leaves, gives the entire body of water lightness and volume.
The conditions of its maintenance are not too troublesome, they can even be started by a beginning aquarist. With a little effort and attention, a bright representative of some of the most ancient plants will appear in your underwater corner, with a history of several hundred million years!
Thai fern or pterygoid-aquarium plant
Lighting can be strong or moderate.. The fern can withstand long-term shading, but grows well only with sufficient light. Natural diffused light has a positive effect on plant development.
Incandescent and fluorescent lamps can be used as sources of artificial light. The power of the illuminators is selected individually depending on the needs of neighboring plants and the characteristics of the aquarium.
Daylight hours should be approximately 12 hours.
Soil for Thai fern is not required. Its rhizome is always located on top of the soil, and the root system is relatively poorly developed, it is enough for it to accumulate sludge at the bottom.
Therefore, in the aquarium with the soil the nature of the particles of the substrate does not matter.
Feels comfortable Thai fern in tropical aquarium with a water temperature of 24 ° C. Even under optimal conditions it grows slowly. And at a temperature below the specified growth almost stops.
According to the parameters of the reaction and the hardness of water can be any pterygoid fern it doesn’t matter. However, mildly acidic or neutral water with a hardness not higher than 6 ° will be optimal.
These conditions are usually formed in the old water, and therefore it is not recommended to make frequent changes of it. The easiest way for a plant is to transfer 1 / 5-1 / 6 parts of the total water volume. aquarium no more than once or twice a month. For content of thai fern lighting need moderate or strong.
Withstands shading for a long time, but its growth is impaired.
Of course, the most favorable is the natural diffused light. Sources of artificial lighting can be both incandescent lamps and fluorescent lamps, the power of which is individually selected for each aquarium taking into account the needs of neighboring plants.
Light day should be at least 12 hours. Rhizomepterygoid fern poorly developed and, as a rule, located above the ground.
Therefore, the nature of the substrate, as well as its presence, does not matter at all. For such a root system, there is quite enough sludge that has accumulated at the bottomaquarium.
To improve growth performance fern It is recommended periodically, about 1-2 times a month, to make a mineral fertilizer.
Special attention should also be paid to the addition of nitrogen fertilizers and trace elements, the doses of which should be minimized. Of the number of nitrogen fertilizers, urea is the most suitable, adding 1-2 granules per 100 liters of water two or three times a week.
Plant tolerates anxiety.
Mineral supplements applied to water improve fern growth. Particular attention should be paid to the addition of trace elements and nitrogen fertilizers.
For the pterygoid fern, the minimum doses of trace elements added to the water 1-2 times per month are enough. From nitrogen fertilizers, it is best to use urea 2-3 times a week, 1-2 granules per 100 liters of water.
In the aquarium, Thai fern breeds only vegetatively. The rhizome of the plant is divided into parts with 2-3 leaves.
From each part a new plant is formed. This species of fern has one more method of vegetative reproduction: on the edges of old crumbling leaves, growth buds are formed, from which young plants develop.
After the death of the old leaf daughter plants come off and float to the surface. A floating young plant gradually develops a rhizome, under the weight of which it falls to the ground.
When growing Thai fern it is necessary to take into account that it completely does not tolerate anxiety and the presence of suspended organic particles in water. In an aquarium where it grows, it is necessary to transplant plants and catch fish as seldom as possible.
Intensive purging of the aquarium, a strong flow of water and the presence of fish digging in the aquarium significantly impair the growth of this fern.
The Polypodiaceae or Polypodiaceae family.Aquarium plants This family is represented by terrestrial or epiphytic ferns.
The rhizome of these representatives may be prostrate or erect, thick or thin, bare or scaly.
The leaves are usually alternate, but can be found bundled. The leaves are grassy, thin, evergreen and hibernating.
In young plants, leaf blades are coiled, and in adults, pubescent or bare from pinomish to simple.
Sporiferous leaves of these aquarium plants from vegetative may not differ or differ in shape and size. Small, collected in sori, sporangia are located on the lower side or along the edges of the leaf.
Can be with covers and without them. Plants can serve as decoration for an aquarium or a wet greenhouse.
The Millipede family is cultivated in these places by several species, mostly marsh.
Thai pteriform fern or Microsoriumpteropus (Blume) Ching.
These aquarium plants in nature are often found in the tropical part of Southeast Asia (from Indonesia to India). Under natural conditions it grows up to 45 cm in height.
Plants grown for an aquarium are, of course, much smaller in height. The rhizome is formed very branched, hard, creeping.
Usually colored dark green. From the rhizome vertically upwards stretch the next single leaflets.
Adventitious roots are covered with small villi and have a dark brown color. The leaves are located on small stalks, stiff to the touch, lanceolate, simple, bright green.
very easily, baby-cuttings, which are formed on the old leaves on top. It can also be propagated using spores that appear on the underside of the leaf or on the edges, in rare cases, on adventitious roots. For good growth and reproduction need soft waterand full immersion.
These aquarium plants swim along the surface of the water.
If it is necessary to lower it to the bottom, the cuttings are heated. The property of the root system of Thai fern attached to the pebbles of the soil, which are located at the bottom of the aquarium.
It is recommended to put sour boiled peat pieces under the roots of the plant.
Thai fern – the ideal plant for the aquarium
Thai fern, belonging to the multi-stem family, is a rather interesting and popular plant consisting of a long rhizome and lanceolate bright green leaves, reaching a height of thirty centimeters. Its central vein is whitish at the base and slightly convex.
It can often be found in amateur aquariums, where it bushes heavily, clinging to the side walls or spreading in the center.
The homeland of this plant is Southeast Asia, where it grows in large quantities in water bodies. It is interesting that there it can grow on the ground.
This is explained by the large number of seasonal rains, which periodically flood the lowlands of the rivers.
Thai fern develops all year. The minimum temperature for its normal development is twenty-four degrees.
Otherwise, its growth slows down or stops altogether.
For this plant it is very important that the water in the aquarium is soft, with a hardness not higher than six. It should be slightly acidic (pH within five).
These indicators are peculiar to old water, which means that its frequent change will not benefit the plant.
Thai fern not bad transfers and strong, and moderate lighting. The length of the day must be at least twelve hours.
Therefore, in case of problems with light, a fluorescent lamp is perfect.
The soil of this plant is not necessary, because its root system refers to the underdeveloped. Fern is bred by a vegetative Thai method.
Its rhizome can be divided into two or three parts so that each of them would have leaves. Some varieties of this plant, for example, Thai-leaved fern, multiply by buds that form on old leaves.
From them grow young plants. At the same time, the leaf itself dies, and the new sprout floats to the surface, where it remains until a normal rhizome develops.
After that, due to its gravity, it descends to the bottom and grows to the ground.
Another type of this plant – Thai winged fern – does not tolerate the presence of suspended particles in water. In addition, he reacts poorly to transplants.
And on the bottom fish, which, digging the ground, slow down its growth.
Thailand fern is different from other aquarium plants. Besides the fact that he is very unpretentious, he is also very beautiful.
It is easy enough to grow it even in an aquarium with not very strong illumination. In addition, this plant does not need regular fertilizing and enrichment of the aquatic environment with carbon dioxide.
Thai fern is ideal for the design of aquariums in which plant-eating fish swim. They never hurt him.
In addition, it does not require ground rooting: simply fasten it to snags or stones, leaving the roots free. In the future, the plant itself finds for itself the optimal place to take root.
Many owners of aquariums create thick side thickets of fern or interesting central compositions.