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Features of nitrifying bacteria (nitrifying)

Living organisms by type of food are divided into autotrophs and heterotrophs. The latter independently build new elements from carbon dioxide and other inorganic substances. Nitrifying bacteria are a well-known form of life often used in everyday life and households.

These species are part of the cleaning devices for aquariums.

Nitrifying bacteria are used to clean the aquarium

Energy sources that support the living conditions of organisms determine their division into photoautotrophs and chemoautotrophs, which depend on solar energy and mineral components. Depending on the chemoautotroph oxidizer, hydrogen and nitrifying bacteria, sulfur and iron bacteria are isolated.

At the beginning of the XIX century, scientists proved that nitrification is related to biology. To do this, they added chloroform to the wastewater.

Among the autotrophs that produce complex organics from simple inorganic molecules, there are organisms that use energy. These are algae, bacteria that produce organic matter from carbon dioxide and water.

The presence of autotrophs due to the presence of oxygen and low humidity.

Nitrifying bacteria are of great importance in agriculture

Organisms that take energy from oxidation and reduction (chemoautotrophs) are found among bacteria. In terms of their physiological, biological and chemical properties and significance, these microscopic organisms are of interest for individual areas of agriculture.

During the study, the process of ammonia oxidation was completed. Vinogradsky divided nitrifying agents into bacteria performing the first stage of this process (oxidation of ammonium to nitrous acid), and the second is the transition of this acid to nitric acid.

Gram-negative bacteria belong to nitrobacteria.

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Representatives of the first phase of Nitro:

  • Somonas (Somonas);
  • Socystis (Sosaistis);
  • Solobus (Solobus);
  • Sospira (Sospira).

The species of Somonas is more studied, although the creation of real cultures is difficult. Cells are oval, multiply by the formation of daughter prokaryotes from the mother cell.

As a result of the development of microorganisms in a liquid medium, there are mobile forms with several flagella and immovable zoogles.

Nitrososaistis are characterized by a round shape, up to 2 microns in size. Some representatives reach 10 microns.

They move thanks to one flagellum, form zoogles and cysts. Nitrosalobus is 1−1.5 * 1−2.5 microns.

The cells are divided into parts, and therefore the external form is irregular.

Nitrosospira cells are rod-shaped or wriggling, 0.9-1 * 1.5-2.60 microns in size, with up to 5 flagella.

Nitro Phase Two Bacteria:

The detrimental effect of organic substances on chemoautotrophic organisms has been noted in the research of scientists. They do not use exogenous organic elements and are called obligate autotrophs.

Apply individual compounds bacteria can with disabilities.

Nitrobacter growth is improved in the presence of yeast autolysate nitrite, pyridoxine, glutamate and serine, if they are introduced in a weak concentration into the medium.

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The main structure of nitrification:

  • The formed system of membranes in the form of a stack in the center of the cell, in the middle.
  • Cup-like structure, consisting of several leaves.

Nitrobacter cells look like a pear. Breed by budding.

Information about the bacteria Nitrospin and Nitrococus is limited.

The structure of the cells studied bacteria are similar to other gram-negative microorganisms. Some have formed systems of internal membranes that create a stack in the middle of the cell (Nitrososaistis), are placed parallel to the membrane of the cytoplasm (Nitrosomonas) or form a cup-like structure of layers (Vinogradsky Nitrobacter). Oxygen is important for the oxidation of ammonium to nitric acid:

The structure of the cells studied bacteria are similar to other gram-negative microorganisms.

Nitrobacter and Nitrosomonas recreate nitrites with ammonium. Along with nitrifying chemotrophs, there are heterotrophs that have similar processes. These include mushrooms from the genus Fusamm and the bacteria Alcaligenes, Sorinebakterium, Akhromoba-kter, Pseudomonas, Harfrobacter.

Nokardia oxidizes ammonium with the creation of hydroxylamine, nitrites and nitrates. As a result, hydroxamic acid is formed.

Nitrogen is an important element in the composition of nucleic acid and protein. The magnitude of heterotrophic nitrification is huge.

Products with toxic, poisonous, carcinogenic, mutagenic and chemotherapeutic effects are created. For this reason, much attention has been paid to studying the process and clarifying its significance for heterotrophic cultures.

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The formation of chemical compounds to create energy is a chemosynthesis, through which cells grow and develop. Chemoautotrophic types are common in nature and are observed in the soil and water bodies.

The processes they produce are carried out on a huge scale and have the most important meaning in the nitrogen cycle.

Scientists of the last century believed that the productivity of nitrifying agents enriches the soil, because they transform ammonium into nitrates, which are easily absorbed by plants, and also increase the absorption of minerals. Plants, assimilating ammonium nitrogen and ammonium ions, are better stored in the soil than nitrates.

Formed nitrates acidify the habitat, deplete the soil composition by the amount of nitrogen.

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Bacteria nitrifying agents are autotrophs, since they do not use exogenous organic substances. The base with yeast autolysate, serine and glutamate in low concentration affects the growth of bacteria.

This is due to nitrite being in a nutrient medium. The oxidation of acetate is reduced, but the addition of its carbon to protein, amino acids and other components is increasing.

As a result of the research, information was obtained that bacteria are switching to heterotrophic nutrition.

Nitrifying bacteria are common in the environment. They are present in the soil, various substrates and reservoirs.

The process of their functioning makes a significant contribution to the general stage of the movement of nitrogen in nature.

Nitrificators live in a simple mineral medium containing an oxidizable substrate in the form of ammonium, nitrite and carbon dioxide.

Nitrifying bacteria are quite common in the environment.

In the outside world, microorganisms process inorganic substances and create conditions for nourishing plants in the soil. The source of energy for animals is flora. Man eats plants and animals.

The remains of the life of flora and fauna is food for bacteria. The cycle is closed.

Such a microorganism as Nitrososistis, isolated from the waters of the Atlantic. It belongs to obligate galliphils and lives in a salty environment.

The pH level (hydrogen reaction) for bacterial growth is 8.7, and the optimal value is 7.5.

Among the species of Somonas, there are common types that have a temperature regime at 26 or about 40 ° C, and strains that grow rapidly at 4 ° C. Favorable climate is habitat (water) 24−27 degrees.

There must be a steady supply of oxygen and the presence of aquatic vegetation.

The simplest bacteria are referred to as obligate aerobes. For the oxidation of ammonium to nitrous acid, and nitrous acid to nitric acid they need oxygen. Habitat should not contain organic compounds.

The studies confirmed the destructive effect of glucose, herbicides, urea, peptone, glycerin and other organic matter on bacteria.

The simplest bacteria are classified as obligate aerobes, they need oxygen for ammonium processing.

Some strains of nitrobacteria in the presence of the organic component oxidize ammonium, creating hydroxylamine, nitrites and nitrates. Hydroxamic acids appear as a result of such reactions.

Bacteria carry out the process of nitrification of various compounds, which include nitrogen.

Volumes of heterotrophic nitrification can be disastrous under special circumstances. The danger is that toxins, mutagens and carcinogens are formed.

The use of nitrifying bacteria in various areas brings its own advantages and disadvantages. Microorganisms create favorable conditions for fish habitat in the aquarium, soil enrichment, as well as agricultural processes.

Nitrobacteria play an important role in the conversion of toxic ammonia into nitrates. This is important when starting a new aquarium.

These microorganisms make up a small proportion of bacteria and are a biofilter. They multiply on any surface (filter filler, soil or plants). If there is a large amount of algae in the aquarium, then the aquarium is completely considered a biofilter.

It is important to create a favorable environment for the reproduction of beneficial bacteria.

Nitrobacteria convert toxic ammonia into nitrates

To reduce the population of bacteria in the aquarium can lack of oxygen, excess carbon dioxide, lower pH and the use of disinfectants. Plant nitrifying bacteria deprive algae.

Live aquarium bacteria are used during tank preparation for use.

The importance of microorganisms is great, because they purify water from pollution, biological and organic residues, sediments and feces. Therefore, the microflora in the reservoirs where they live is ideal.

Nitrifying bacteria are the main cleaners of habitable premises with fish and mollusks. They actively reproduce in an environment saturated with ammonium, nitrite, nitrogen and ammonia.

To start the aquarium, products of the “Sulfur” brand are used, containing in the composition live nitrifying agents and volcanic dust – an impeccable environment for early reproduction and growth. This substrate settles to the bottom and becomes part of the soil.

Several bacteria are colonized at once in the aquarium.

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