maintenance, care, compatibility
Before acquiring a tank for fish, it is necessary to carefully consider its design and shape so that it fits into the interior of the room as naturally as possible, does not interfere with its basic purpose and is located in a place convenient for viewing.
By design, aquariums are on a stand, on legs, suspended, angled, frame and frameless. In form, they are represented by more than a wide choice, the main of which are:
- spherical (round);
- cubic (square);
- parallelepipedal (rectangular);
- parallelepipedal with convex viewing glass (panoramic);
- prismoidal (with a regular polygon of the bottom, as a rule, high, for a floor installation);
- pyromidoidal (triangular, for closed-type aquariums).
The main parameters for choosing a tank for keeping fish in a novice aquarist are the following factors:
- correct installation, which should allow various manipulations during operation (removal or installation of the cover and backlight, feeding fish, planting plants, cleaning the filter, bottom siphon, etc.);
- the exclusion of direct sunlight on its surface;
- the number and size of the aquarium population (the required volume of the aquarium depends on this. If there is no certainty for specific fish, then take at least 1 liter of water per 1 cm of adult fish, i.e. if you want to contain 10 fish 8 cm long, you need an aquarium more than 80 liters, it will avoid overcrowding and allow it to develop well and feel comfortable for its inhabitants).
Together with the aquarium offer covers with integrated lighting and cabinets for them. If there is no specific place to install the aquarium, then you can use this offer. A lid for a backlit aquarium will prevent many species of fish from jumping out, reduce evaporation of water into the atmosphere of the room, and also provide artificial lighting for the plant and allow you to control the length of the day in a pond.
The cabinet is suitable for storing all sorts of accessories (a net, tubes, suckers, feeders, literature, etc.), feed and other things related to the aquarium.
There is a standard set of equipment for aquariums:
- Illumination (the choice of lamp power and the duration of illumination during the day depends on the inhabitants and plants);
- water heater (it is better to choose with automatic temperature control);
- Aerator and water filter can be both combined and separate (power depends on the volume of the aquarium).
The selection of soil and scenery depends on the inhabitants, but small fractional rounded gravel without sharp edges is considered universal. The thickness of the soil at the bottom should be from 5 to 7 cm, this will allow plants to root well and grow.
You can use locks, sunken ships, etc. to decorate and create a unique interior.
Before releasing beautiful fish in the aquarium, it takes about two weeks. One day can be done:
- laying soil, planting plants, installation of lighting decorations, heating, filter aerator;
- filling the aquarium with tap water;
- turning on the heater and filter aerator.
After that, you need to wait a week for chlorine to evaporate from the water during this time. It is allowed to add various normalizers to the water, which improve the water parameters.
Before using them, you should consult with competent aquarists or sellers who know the parameters of tap water in your area.
After a week, you can run the first, most enduring inhabitants – snails ampoules, tritons, frogs or shrimp. Often the first are ampulyarii.
They have a positive effect on the formation of an ecosystem in an aquarium. Water in a room pond is gaining stability in the order of a month and may become cloudy.
Over time, it will clear and be transparent. And only depending on the state of water and the state of health of the ampoule, after about a week you can run inexpensive fish.
More information about the first launch of the aquarium can be found here.
Metal halide luminaire with integrated blue lamps
Many sources point out that the best option is to use fluorescent lights. They shine well, quite economical.
They are connected via an electronic ballast, as well as a special device – a choke.
Nowadays, most lovers prefer special fluorescent lamps in combination with metal halides. At the same time they are placed on the front wall of the reservoir.
In addition, special fluorescent aquarium lamps of different power with warm or daylight white light are also used. Installation is carried out complete with special reflectors.
With properly tuned lighting, the fish will demonstrate the diversity of all their color, while corals will develop excellently.
Fluorescent lamps are economical, provide excellent lighting, last long enough. As a disadvantage, it can be noted that they must be connected using a special device – electronic ballast or choke.
Fluorescent lamps – the most popular type of lamps used in aquarium today.
These are low-pressure discharge lamps. Inside they are a mixture of inert gas and mercury vapor, which gives off ultraviolet light during electrical discharge. This glow is transformed into visible radiation, due to the phosphor layer deposited on the inner side of the bulb.
It is the various compositions of phosphors that give a different spectral range. And, for example, a three-layer phosphor and an ultraviolet protection film on a fluorescent lamp do not transmit the ultraviolet spectrum at all (anything that has a wavelength of less than 400 nm).
Fluorescent lamps are durable enough, but they need to be replaced in the biotope with the same exact lamp (so that there are no abrupt changes in the spectrum and power of illumination) before their expiration date. It is recommended to replace such lamps at least once a year. And the average life of this lamp in the aquarium is 6-7 months.
But it is impossible to change all the lamps at once: abrupt changes in the power of lighting can adversely affect hydrophytes.
The power of fluorescent lamps varies from 8 to 56 watts. A certain power of the lamp usually corresponds to a certain power: on average, 20 to 120 cm.
The color of the lamp is indicated by two or three numbers: / 43 or / CW.
GROWTH FOR THE AQUARIUM BY OWN HANDS, FROM A STONE FROM A TREE FROM CLAY FROM COCONUT
HEATER FOR AQUARIUM AND EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT IT.
The most important condition for the favorable life of your aquarium is to maintain a certain temperature, optimal for a particular type of fish. Usually the fish need a temperature of 22 to 32 degrees, depending on their species.
Until recently, aquarists actively used simple
heaters. In some specialized stores, heaters are sold now, but it is not recommended to purchase them.
Now came the blessed era of thermostats. Power thermostats depends on how large the aquarium.
Experts recommend a power of 1.5 watts per 1 liter of water. For example: an aquarium of 100 liters will require a 150 watt heater.
Fish owners should also be aware that the colder it is in the room, the faster the water in the aquarium cools, and the greatest cooling threatens aquariums with a large area of its walls. Therefore, it is best to purchase heaters “with a stock”, ie, more powerful.
Such heaters easily and quickly cope with a decrease in temperature, operate smoothly, without overheating, and last much longer. But powerful heaters must be of high quality.
It will not be out of place to know also that the cost of a heater is not particularly dependent on its capacity, and energy consumption, too. The whole question is about the reliability of the device, i.e., the thermostat and the heating element. When the thermostat of a powerful heater breaks, the inhabitants of the aquarium have two not very encouraging options – to die either from cold or from the unusually high temperature of the water.
Some, in order to avoid such sad consequences, acquire 2 heaters of average power. If one thermostat fails, the other will support the optimal habitat. If one of the thermostats breaks, the water will not reach the critical temperature, and the fish will eventually be fine.
But, as you know, good cheap does not happen. A couple of high-quality heaters will cost you twice as much as one simple.
The right to choose is yours.
LIGHTING FOR AQUARIUM PLANTS, LEDS AND LED MASSIFES.
INSTALLATION AND STARTING OF THE AQUARIUM CARE CONTENTS CLEANING REGISTRATION.
SOIL FOR AQUARIUM- SPECIES NATURAL NEUTRAL ARTIFICIAL
Marine Aquarium – we launch a competently photo video step-by-step description.
EQUIPMENT FOR THE MARINE AQUARIUM
The first important purchase will of course be the tank itself. Its shape can be different, most often it is a container with a base in the form of a square, a rectangle, less often forms with a convex front (viewing) wall occur. Displacement matters – it will take at least 200 liters, preferably 400 and more.
Do not be tempted by 50 and 100-liters – sea animals in them get sick and die.
Most probably the main purchase will be an external canister filter. Experienced aquarists recommend the Eheim 2260 or 2250 and Fluval 403 or 303.
You will also need special filler materials – it is ceramic chips, coal and sponge.
Purchase a thermostat, a skimmer (a device for removing foam), as well as a pump or pump filter – this is a device for saturating water with oxygen, and in combination with a filter there is also a waste disposal mechanism. Be sure to arrange the grounding of the aquarium: buy a RCD (residual current device) and call an electrician who will correctly bring it out and connect it.
The next purchase is a stock of coal and salt, bacterial preparations, acidity tests, a simple hydrometer (a float that shows how dense the water is) and a siphon for cleaning the bottom.
If funds allow, take another UV lamp with a capacity of 15 watts and a large canister (about 50 liters) to dilute the salt in it. The first month of caring for the aquarium will require significant costs and effort, and then everything will become much easier – daily feeding and about an hour a week for the maintenance of equipment.
marine aquarium photo
Select the desired volume
It goes without saying that the larger the volume of the aquarium, the more expensive its equipment. Although the best volume for the “sea” is considered a capacity of 200 – 250 liters. (it is easiest to maintain a balanced ecosystem), you can start with a smaller displacement aquariums – the best option would be 50 – 80 liters.
A very small aquarium (for example, 20 liters) can also be made “sea” if desired, but it is rather difficult to maintain constant water parameters in it. In this case, the rectangular shape of the container is preferable to the cubic one, and this is due to the possibility of organizing the proper lighting, as well as the placement of stones.
STONES FOR SEA AQUARIUM
Such stones are also called living, since they are genuine fragments of coral reefs from the ocean, and numerous colonies of beneficial bacteria live in their cavities. Some specimens have real thickets of polyps (anemones) on their surface, and inside – small crustaceans, crabs and sea worms.
From such guests need to get rid of, moreover, to do it on time. We do not want to frighten you, but in saltwater aquariums, without your control, life can flow like in a real ocean – some eat others, others parasitize everything alive.
Learn how to install live rock, namely, how to get rid of carnivorous sea anemones, poisonous snails, cones and murex, crayfish, predatory shrimps and all kinds of worms.
Having brought home the purchased stones, they should be treated – washed under running hot water, be sure to wear durable gloves, as these types of unwanted inhabitants leave painful and dangerous burns and bites. Having installed the stones, observe life in it in the dark time – the hungry and active passengers will soon find themselves.
At the stage of dealing with them, use special medications or remove animals with tweezers.
A few words about the second favorite element of the decor – it is seashells in the aquarium. Decorating the seabed, they are absolutely not suitable for our purposes, but beginners often want to use them – it’s beautiful!
The main reason to abandon the shells is the hardness of the water, which invariably grows due to these sources of calcium carbonate (in fact, chalk). Not all aquarium fish will hurt and die, their possible proximity to the sink depends on the species, but they certainly can not reproduce.
marine aquarium photo
Filtration and water recovery systems
The most important and complex point in equipping a marine aquarium, because the water in it must be perfectly clean and contain a minimum amount of nitrates. If in nature the nature itself takes care of this, and the sea currents constantly bring fresh and clean water, then in an aquarium the problem of water purity can be managed only with the help of special equipment.
Samp is a container made of organic glass, divided by partitions into compartments in which various aquarium equipment is installed.
The sump is usually equipped in an aquarium cabinet, but has direct communication with the aquarium. It can be purchased (there is now a large selection of sumps with all the necessary equipment on the market) or it can be made by itself, in this case the aquarist has the opportunity for a unique selection of the aquarium equipment that is most suitable for him.
The basic principle of operation of a sump is a closed loop.
With the help of a return pump, water flows from the sump to the aquarium, and then, exceeding a certain level, it enters the overflow box and then flows by gravity back to the sump. What should be in the sump? Foam separator (skimmer).
With the help of this device organic matter, constantly present there, is removed from the water, even before its disintegration begins. Even invisible to the naked eye, the dirt is quickly collected on the bubbles, which creates a skimmer and accumulates in a special compartment, from which it is then easily removed.
Biological filter. For these purposes, a separate sump compartment is usually filled with filter material.
marine aquarium photo
This may be coral chips, as well as special bio-balls or other porous organic material. The larger the surface of the biological filter, the more bacteria are there, and accordingly the quality of biological filtration improves. We must not forget about the required amount of oxygen for the process, as well as the rate of flow of water through the filter.
Together, these three factors create the biological stability of the entire system. Algae (refujium).
Algae are capable of very effectively eliminating nitrates from water, and microplankton propagates in the alga, which serves as food for many inhabitants of the marine aquarium. To organize an algae above one of the compartments of the sump with running water, lighting is provided, and the lamp must be sufficiently powerful (70-100 W). Algae (hetamorph) are placed at the bottom of the compartment, which grow well and multiply in conditions of high nitrate content and bright light.
Their number must be kept under control, since with excessive growth of algae absorb too many trace elements from the water, and this is harmful for corals.
The flow of water in the alga should be slower than in the entire aquarium. Return pump.
It is usually installed in a special compartment of the sump with a variable water level. At the same time, the compartment is made sufficiently bulky so that in the event of an emergency power outage or breakdown of the pump to accommodate the entire volume of water that will merge from the aquarium.
To reduce the amount of water that is draining when a similar situation arises, holes are made near the end of the return tube, which is lowered into the aquarium at a distance of 1.5 cm.
When the level falls, air enters the holes and stops draining. We must pay attention to the power of the return pump. The best solution would be a pump that can pump about 10 volumes of an aquarium per hour.
In this case, decomposition products will be removed from the aquarium in time, and the water will be sufficiently saturated with oxygen. Avtodoliv.
The system of compensation for water evaporated from an aquarium, which makes life easier for its owner, since daily level tracking is quite tedious.
The pump (in specialty stores at the moment their large selection is presented) is installed in a separate sump compartment according to the instructions. Additional compartments. It is recommended to purchase or manufacture your own samp, providing for the availability of spare compartments.
Methods of water purification in the marine aquarium are constantly being improved and, perhaps, to install any innovations will require the presence of additional compartments. In addition, a water heater can be installed in the sump, which in this case does not spoil the appearance created by the aquarist of the “sea” landscape.
FISHING FOR THE SEA AQUARIUM To make your home sea enjoy not only bright beauty, but also a peaceful atmosphere, populate the reservoir with small and non-aggressive views. As new species are added, study the literature to find out which ones easily get along and which ones conflict.
If you decide on the maintenance of exotic predator fish, you will have to confine yourself to one species in order not to turn your aquarium into a torture chamber.
But do not be embarrassed, the choice of fish without exaggeration is great. Rate the diversity of marine aquarium dwellers: parrot fish; backspins; hedgehog fish (without neighbors); fish soldiers; angels: centropig, diakantus and about 20 subspecies; moray eels (without neighbors); fox fish; a wide family of butterfly fish; zebrasome and other surgeon fish; pseudochromisms; clown fish; grams; dogs (without neighbors); tangerines; argus; bullies and many others.
The life expectancy of all is different, but with good care, successful acclimatization and timely treatment, most species live 3-4 or about 10 years, and angelfish are all twenty. Naturally, from the first days you will need to take care of feeding for the fish, given that different species feed in different ways: there are herbivores, carnivores and omnivores, and some, for example, squirrel fish, eat exclusively living food.
Choose the inhabitants so that it is easier to put together a diet for most or all at once. Do not flatter yourself that you can dig up worms, feed house flies or get along with bread crumbs.
For sea fish, branded food is not a whim, but a necessity, so be aware of your responsibility to animals and be ready to constantly buy good food of a certain type.
Organization of the correct flow in the marine aquarium
Current is a vital factor for marine life. It purifies water, brings food and oxygen, and determines all the natural cycles of marine animals. In the marine aquarium, the flow is especially important for “live” stones.
Only with intensive water movement, they are able to fully perform the function of a biological filter.
Under natural habitat conditions, marine animals become accustomed to fairly strong currents, which sometimes give way to calm. Therefore, in the marine aquarium, some pumps can be turned off at night.
The minimum volume pumped by the pump for an hour for the “sea” should be 10-15 volumes of the aquarium, although the best figure would be 50 volumes. The flow of water should not fall directly on invertebrates.
It is better to direct it to the stones so that they are washed as intensely as possible. For these purposes, usually use two pumps installed opposite each other.
In this case, the minimum number of stagnant zones remains in the aquarium, in which the microfloat can die due to the absence of oxygen.
STARTING THE SYSTEM
Before you start such a hobby, it will be correct to read as much literature on this topic as possible, so as to avoid common mistakes at first. Well, the main points of the plan, how to make a marine aquarium yourself, will be provided by our step-by-step guide: assemble the tank, install the main decorative elements, attach the switched off filters, pour the fillers into them, conduct grounding; fill the tank with water from the tap, stand for 24 hours, drain; fill three-quarters of the volume of water from the tap, turn on the filters, heating (25-26 ° C)
and pump, uphold the system for seven days; turn off the apparatuses, clean the carbon filler filter and lay a new portion, add sea salt to the water (37 grams of salt for 1 l of water); turn on the pump so that the salt mixes and dissolves, then turn off; when the water settles, clean the bottom with a siphon – there will be a muddy sediment, it must be removed; lay the soil and make all your algae and decorations (stones, houses, shells);
measure the water density with a hydrometer, bring the indicator up to 1’022-1’024 g / l, pouring either fresh water or saline solution, at the same time fill the tank almost to the edges (space from the top edge is 4-5 cm); wait a week for the water to settle, but after about three days turn on the filters, pump, skimmer and heating, add the drug with bacteria or live rocks (reefs); a week passed, the bacteria had time to decompose the dead organics,
and filters cleaned the water; check the test content of ammonium, nitrite and phosphorus, as well as acid-base balance (the rate of the first not more than 0.5 mg per liter, the second – not less than 8.0); if the indices deviate, it means that the decay has not yet ended, to put it simply, something is rotting in the water – this needs to be found and removed (remove and clean all the stones and scenery);
when all indicators are normal, you can run the first settlers – fish, 2-3 small individuals; At this stage, you need to check the indicators daily and make water changes until the bacteria colonize the contents of the aquarium and can not completely process the waste of fish; when the process is established, launch new fish, 1-2 per week, carefully checking the indicators with tests, changing the water; everything gradually enters the rut, and in three months you will have a reliable biosystem!
The usual temperature for a saltwater aquarium is 25-26 degrees. If its lower limit is easily regulated with the help of a water heater, then in case of strong heat very often there is a problem with cooling the water to the desired parameters.
An aquarium refrigerator is not a cheap pleasure, but when you consider that in a particularly hot season, all aquarium inhabitants can die due to overheating, installing it is worth it.
VIDEO OF THE MARINE AQUARIUM