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Euglena green: habitat, features of structure and reproduction

Living organisms are very diverse. Along with species familiar to everyone, there are little-known, but no less interesting organisms.

One of these species is euglena viridis, a unicellular organism that combines both the signs of animals and the signs of plants.

Euglena green is an organism that combines the cells of both animals and plants.

Evglena green – the simplest single-celled organism, having a rather complex structure for the simplest. It has an elongated body with a sharp back.

In length, euglena can reach a maximum of 60 micrometers, and in width – 18 micrometers. The cell has:

  • core;
  • shell;
  • cytoplasm;
  • photosensitive eye;
  • contractile vacuole;
  • flagellum;
  • photoreceptor;
  • chloroplasts;
  • other organelles.

The structure is green. Euglena green single-celled organism with a complex structure

Shell (pellicle) protects the cell from external influence. The cytoplasm is dense but plastic, which allows the body to slightly change shape, grow and shrink if necessary.

Thanks to the light-sensitive eye, which has a red color, euglena responds to the slightest changes in illumination. This allows her to navigate a little in space – she is moving in the direction of the light.

To move the body uses flagellum (protoplasmic growth), located on the front of the cell. Flagellum makes a spiral motion, moreover, the speed of euglena exceeds the speed of many other protozoa, which gives it an advantage.

In addition, the euglena can move without the participation of the harness just cutting.

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Breathing euglena, absorbing oxygen all over the body through the cell membrane, out of them comes a byproduct of respiration — carbon dioxide.. A common symptom with plants is the presence of chlorophyll, which determines the possibility of photosynthesis.

In addition, due to chlorophyll, the body has a bright green color.

Most often, Euglena’s green habitat is polluted water bodies — swamps, ditches, etc. But these protozoa can settle in clean water, but this environment is less comfortable for them. If the water begins to “bloom”, that is, it becomes green, then this is a sign of the appearance of these unicellular cells in water.

As for food, euglena refers to mixotrophs, that is, it is able to use two types of energy for energy. Under ordinary conditions, the simplest behaves like a plant, namely, it feeds by an autotrophic method — it receives energy from light using chlorophyll.

In this case, the euglena is inactive, moves only to the light source.

Euglena Green lives in polluted water, such as a swamp.

If a single-cell remains in the dark for a long period, it switches to a heterotrophic way of feeding – it absorbs organic matter from water. In this case, in order to find microelements, Euglene has to move more.

External changes occur with the cell – it loses its green color, it becomes almost transparent.

Although for most euglen the main way of obtaining energy is photosynthesis, there are specimens who prefer to eat organic food from birth. It should be noted that the unicellular has a peculiar mouth for such nutrition.

Although the food is swallowed by a microorganism not only by this mouth, but also by the whole envelope.

Euglena Green feeds on organic matter, she even has a mouth for it

Because of this feeding habits, biologists do not have a single point of view about whether they are euglena algae or animals. Scientists explain that such dual production of energy confirms that plants and animals have a common origin.

Caught in the dark in clean water, devoid of organic matter, the cell dies. When the reservoir dries or freezes, it turns into a cyst. During this period she does not eat and does not breathe.

Her flagellum disappears and a dense protective sheath appears. In this form, it will be until the conditions again become acceptable to life.

The method of reproduction is green. Under favorable conditions, protozoa can very quickly share.

In this case, you can observe how the water becomes turbid and becomes green.

The division occurs in a longitudinal way. First, the nucleus of the mother cell is divided, and then the remaining parts of it.

A longitudinal groove runs along the body, along which the mother cell is divided into two daughter cells.

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