Главная 7 Aquarium 7 Do-it-yourself mini-UZV drawing from available materials

Do-it-yourself mini-UZV drawing from available materials

Humanity’s need for seafood is growing along with the population, and valuable fish species are at the limit of the maximum possible catch. Traditional fish farming requires an excess of water resources.

The growing pollution of the world’s oceans affects the quality of seafood. All this contributes to the popularity of UZV (closed water supply installations), allowing to grow environmentally friendly fish in a small amount of water.

UZV, allowing to grow organic fish, are gaining increasing popularity

As a life-support system for aquatic organisms in recirculating aquacultures, closed-circuit water supply systems are indispensable, making it possible to use at least 90% of the water recovered after fish’s life every day.

As a rule, UZV are intended for intensive aquacultures with high productivity per unit volume of water.

The upper limit of the density of fish in a RAS-based atmospheric air is about 50 grams per liter of water. In installations using liquid oxygen, this figure may be higher.

The maintenance of such a quantity of live fish in such a limited amount of water requires high-quality design and execution of the RAS. As a rule, the fish die from overpopulation because:

  • choked;
  • poisoned with nitrogenous waste of their own life.

UZV intended for active aquaculture

Accordingly, a properly functioning circulation system should sufficiently aerate the water, add oxygen to it, and, conversely, remove carbon dioxide and ammonia.

The latter fish releases protein as a product of catabolism. In order for these processes to be carried out efficiently, it is necessary to preliminarily separate solid excrement and residual feed.

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  1. Removal of solid waste.
  2. Gas exchange.
  3. Denitrification.

The latter two can be conducted simultaneously or in any sequence. Water restoration cannot be effectively carried out in the aquarium itself.

Fluid must be removed for cleaning and returned by moving it with pumps.

The UZV device may differ in details from the one shown in the diagram.

The device of the ultrasonic scanner from that shown in the diagram may differ by the presence of additional modules: filters, pumps, disinfectants, acidity control unit, heaters, oxygen generator, grinders, automation, sumps, etc. Large farms are increased by multiplying the same type of blocks. The main advantages of recirculating aquaculture systems over artificial ponds and reservoirs:

  • do not damage the environment;
  • provide the ability to fully manage production processes;
  • allow year-round fish to grow;
  • do not depend on natural factors;
  • help to carry out full control of diseases;
  • work in zones of extreme climatic conditions.

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In the current system, all components must work smoothly, otherwise its productivity will be limited by the performance of the weakest unit.

For example, there is no point in a powerful nitrificator if the gas exchange module does not have time for its work. The load forecast for each node is the only correct way to design components.

The correct starting point will be the amount of fish planned for rearing. This indicator will help to deal with the required amount of food, which, in turn, will allow you to calculate how much oxygen is needed for the metabolism of this feed.

Other calculations will give the capacity of the aeration plant, etc. Indirect and direct calculations continue until a system design is developed that theoretically maintains the intended load without the excess capacity of each of the units.

The starting point in the assembly of the RAS is the planned number of fish.

Non-industrial UZV for growing fish with their own hands for households can be designed on the basis of other initial conditions. Availability of materials and the availability of free space in this case is more important than performance. Components for such systems can be made of a wide variety of materials, but must be necessarily inert and not react with water.

Galvanized and copper pipes are not suitable for installation in this case., as can be toxic to the inhabitants of the system. Installing a closed water supply for growing fish, made of plastic containers, pipes and fittings is ideal.

Fiberglass or polyethylene tanks are chemically neutral, easy to clean and sterilize. Round containers have an advantage in comparison with square ones.

It consists in the ability of such vessels to self-cleaning: if water is forced to flow into the radial aquarium at an angle, then a circular motion will be established.

Drain, organized in the center, allows waste and residues of feed to go independently into the hole.

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Of the items available at any hardware store, and using the tools of a home wizard, you can make a mini-UZV with your own hands in a few hours. Installation drawing from inexpensive components:

UZV can be collected from inexpensive materials with their own hands

The basis of the system is two barrels, preferably intended for food purposes.. One of them serves as an aquarium for fish, from the bottom of which, using a pump, water moves into a plastic bucket built into the top of the second barrel. It is a tank for a mechanical filter that separates feed residues and solid faeces.

The mechanically purified liquid through the riser enters the bottom of the biofilter for processing nitrogenous waste, and then re-enters the aquarium through the return pipe.

The selection of plumbing components depends on the maximum power of the pump, the performance of which can be adjusted by a ball valve on the distillation pipe.

Mechanical filters can be made from household sponges or furniture foam rubber. As a denitrifier, it is better to use a special floating bioload for UZV.

A low pressure air compressor that forces air to the bottom of the aquarium will serve as an aerator.

The technical and biological bases of recirculating aquacultures are well studied. The accumulated experience allows us to design and manufacture UZV of any complexity and scale.

The only limiting factor hindering the rapid development of closed fish farming systems is the economy. Fish from UZV more expensive caught in an open reservoir. The most successful recirculating aquacultures produce expensive seafood for niche markets or are located in extreme climatic zones.

This technology does not yet allow feeding the whole world, but its contribution to the improvement of the ecology of water basins is difficult to overestimate.

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