Every amateur aquarist needs to learn how to manage the biological and chemical processes that occur in an aquarium, and then his aquarium will be beautiful and clean, and aquarium plants and fish will develop and grow properly. Moreover, biological balance will seriously reduce your efforts to clean and maintain the aquarium. How to create and maintain biological balance in your tank will tell in this article
So where do you start? First of all, let’s stop on the water. To create the desired mode is very important the correct composition of the water.
In many cases, simple tap water is suitable for the aquarium. However, it must be prepared in advance.
First of all, you need to let the water settle (7-15 days). An excess of chlorine and other gases during this time goes into the air, a certain gas composition begins to form and microorganisms appear – water begins to “come to life”.
In the water should not be a lot of salts of magnesium and calcium. Stiffness can vary from 4 to 10 °.
It is necessary to soften hard tap water by adding well-settled rainwater, cationic or distilled water.
The acidity of the water varies slightly depending on the type of aquarium fish. Usually, water should have a neutral or slightly acidic reaction of water (pH 6.8 – 7), it should contain a certain amount of plant extracts and tannins. For acidification, a certain amount of phosphoric or hydrochloric acids, not containing other chemical impurities, is added to it.
Basically, they are sold in a concentrated form, so it is necessary to dilute it before use to a low concentration with water (no more than 10%) and then add to the water drop by drop. Water, after making a portion of the acid, you need to mix well and allow it to stand, then determine the pH value, which should not be more than the specified value, otherwise plants and aquarium fish will die.
You can also use another method for acidifying water: an acidic reaction is obtained by adding high-moor peat and its extract. In such cases, in addition to humic acids, plant extracts and tannins fall into the water.
It is good to combine both methods of lowering the pH.
The temperature of the water is of great importance, in an aquarium with very warm or cold water it is quite difficult to create biological balance. Water temperature should be at least 22 and not more than 26 ° C.
Very low temperature (15-18 ° C) has a negative effect on plants and fish. Fishes become lethargic, develop slowly and eat poorly.
The worst thing is that in such conditions they are highly susceptible to diseases.
At low temperatures, plants also grow poorly and die after a while.
If the water temperature is high (28-32 ° C), the metabolism of the fish increases, which is why they age and die prematurely. Fish in such conditions often can not be bred.
All chemical and biological processes begin to increase in water, and this quite often becomes the cause of unfortunate consequences: there is a disturbance of gas exchange, an increase in carbon dioxide, which causes oxygen starvation in fish, and then death.
In the aquarium, the ground must be selected so that aquarium plants can grow well in it. That is why it is necessary to take washed coarse-grained (3-5 mm) dark river sand.
Fine quartz yellow or white sand is not suitable, because it lies in a dense layer and does not allow nutrients and oxygen to penetrate to the roots of plants. In such cases, the lower layers of sand gradually begin to darken, the formation of hydrogen sulfide.
The roots of plants turn black, the root system rots and the plants die.
It is advisable to put a small amount of well-boiled peat, gray clay or river sludge under the river sand. In such a soil, most aquarium plants grow and develop well. However, before planting it is necessary to pick them up by species so that they are well acclimatized to each other.
You can combine all types of cryptocoryne with echinodorus; all types of aponogeton with vallisneria, myriophyllum, ludvigiya and kabomboy.
For good plant growth, it is necessary to properly light the aquarium for ten to twelve hours. There must be overhead lighting. The power of several incandescent bulbs is 80-120 W per 9-15 bucket aquarium.
With insufficient lighting of the aquarium, a lot of brown algae are developed, which are painted in yellow-brown color. They form a brown coating on the walls of your aquarium and on the leaves of the plants, causing the plants to die.
Aquarium should not be placed on bright sunlight, because in such cases green algae develop more intensively. The leaves of plants and the walls of the aquarium begin to overgrow very quickly, there is a violation of chemical and biological processes, the water begins to “bloom”, the plants die.
Examples of biological imbalances caused by improper lighting are listed below. On the left – “brown algae”, on the right – “green algae”
The tank must be tightly closed in order to prevent bacteria and dust from entering it. It is advisable to arrange aeration of water in it and install a filter.
In the aquarium should not be present surplus is not eaten feed, because it rots.
In a properly and well-equipped aquarium, when it is not overpopulated (the number of fish per liter of volume depends on the size and nature of the fish), a normal full cycle of gases and nutrients occurs, and biological balance always saved.