maintenance, care, compatibility
The self-made external filter is constructed on the basis of aerolifting: air bubbles that come from the compressor, rise to the tube, from which they come to the top, and lower with them the water flow from the filter. Clean and oxygenated water enters the upper compartment of the glass, and passes through the gravel. Then the water enters the bowl through the hole, goes down the tube, and enters the tank.
Synthon here functions as a mechanical filter. This material prevents the silting of the gravel substrate.
External filters chemically and mechanically purify water. It is better to install such structures in a large aquarium with a volume of 200-400 liters.
For more spacious aquariums with a capacity of 500-1000 liters will need several such devices. Branded external water treatment systems are expensive, so it’s best to do it yourself.
Materials are inexpensive and accessible to everyone.
Filter for aquarium do it yourself. How to build a filter for the aquarium: schemes, tips
Before you get the fish, you need to take care of the presence of not only the suitable aquarium, soil, vegetation, some kind of decorative elements, but also a filter. You should understand that this is not only a water purifier, but also an item that is essential for the vital activity of your home aquatic inhabitants.
And if you do not have the opportunity to purchase one or another model in the store, you can consider how to make a filter for the aquarium with your own hands.
No matter how clean the water in the aquarium you do not fill, it will eventually become dirty. This is due to the appearance of dead algae particles, waste and other small debris in it.
In order to get rid of all this and maintain cleanliness in the aquatic environment, it is necessary to install a water filter in the aquarium.
This mechanism has the following functions:
- purifies water from inorganic particles;
- removes all sorts of solutes from water (for example, tablets or other drugs after treating aquarium inhabitants);
- fills water with oxygen, without which no fish can survive;
- creates water circulation.
Undoubtedly, no fish or other aquatic animals can be launched into any aquarium without a pre-installed filter. But, considering all of the above, it’s still worth remembering, but if you know how to install a filter in an aquarium and have already decided which model to buy, it will not create natural running water for you anyway.
After all, each filter pumps the same fluid.
Before you install the filter in the aquarium, you need to decide on its appearance, installation location and functionality. Indeed, in every specialized store you will encounter a large selection of these devices.
All of them differ in design features and applications.
Some do not want to face such a choice and prefer to make a filter for the aquarium with their own hands, simply by examining all the features of the purchased structures and finding out which model is suitable for a particular situation.
According to the principle of operation, modern aquarium filters of the following types are distinguished:
- Mechanical able to clean the water in the aquarium from the turbidity and floating particles that were raised from the bottom by the movement of fish and compressor. Without installing such a device is not enough. After all, the dirt in the aquarium gradually accumulates and, as a result, decomposes, making the water turbid. Such a filter should be washed as it is contaminated. The first sign of clogging will be a reduced flow of water through this device.
- Chemical filters to a greater degree purify aquarium water from organic matter. They remove phosphates and nitrates. For excellent results, these filters must be periodically changed.
- Absorption-chemical filters contribute to the purification of water from the waste of fish and other “animals” of the aquarium. As a rule, such a device includes a constantly circulating pump, a special sponge and a substrate (usually gravel) located directly next to it. It can be installed both inside and outside the aquarium. It should be noted that the main component of each biological filter are nitrifying bacteria, whose vital activity must be maintained without fail. This means that such an external filter for the aquarium should be washed only under running water. And in no case can it be dried.
A good filtering device will never be cheap. What to do? How to save?
In this case, we advise you to make the simplest filter for the aquarium with your own hands. To make it you will need: a sponge (you choose its size depending on the capacity of the aquarium), a nebulizer, a suction cup, a rubber tube, two 20 ml syringes, a small compressor.
Take one syringe. In one part of it, in which the medicine should be taken, make holes with a heated awl. You need to connect the second syringe with the first one.
This can be done with spikes. To do this, hold the widest ends on the hot plate for a bit, quickly connect them and hold for 5-7 seconds.
Cut from both ends the part into which the needle should be inserted. You should have a long plastic pipe.
Take a sponge, make in one of its sides not a wide, but deep incision, insert into it a part of a syringe with holes. Get into the resulting “tube” rubber tube, connect it to the compressor. Attach a suction cup to one side of the syringe.
It will be attached to your filter to the wall of the aquarium.
Is it possible to make a run for the filter aquarium?
How to install a filter in an aquarium?
So, you bought or made a filter for the aquarium with your own hands. Now what? How to install it?
What rules should be followed?
First of all, everyone should understand that in no case should a filter be installed in an empty aquarium. The container should be at least half filled with water. It is also worth noting that before you assemble the filter for the aquarium, all the details of this device must be carefully dried.
And only after that, proceed to install it. The filter is usually attached to the wall with suction cups at a distance of 3 cm from the surface and in such a way that it does not touch the bottom.
First, it must be submerged in the water off.
The tube that takes in air must be brought out. It is very convenient if a fastening is provided for this tube.
In a fixed state, it will not move and fall into the water.
If you understand how to install the filter in the aquarium, and did it correctly, then only now it can be plugged into an outlet. If the filter began to circulate and saturate the water with oxygen, then you should have no doubt that you did something wrong.
There are two types of filters: external and internal. How to choose the one that fits exactly in your case?
First of all, pay attention to the size of your aquarium. If it is large enough, then there is not much difference.
But usually we have only limited areas on which you can place either a small or medium aquarium. In this case, it will be appropriate to use an external filter.
Unlike the internal one, the external filter is not installed directly in the tank, but outside it. This helps to save space.
The external filter does not take place in the aquarium and does not spoil its overall appearance.
The work of such a device is as follows: water from the aquarium enters the device, passes through the filter elements, and then returns to the fish.
The external filter has the following advantages:
- it does not occupy a useful place inside the aquarium;
- the contents of the aquarium looks more aesthetic without such devices;
- filtering fillers better purify water.
Of course, among the huge range of such devices, you can choose the right one in all respects for you. But their prices are too high. So why not take the opportunity to make an external filter with your own hands?
This project is easy to implement. It turns out that everything you need can be easily purchased in stores and on the market, and the assembly and installation work itself is simple enough for even a novice to cope with it.
Being a lover of aquarium with a small experience, I came to the conclusion that the internal filter in my aquarium does not cope with its task. And from the frequent maintenance of the filter, only the inhabitants of my aquarium suffered.
After examining the information on the filters, I came to the conclusion that the unambiguous correct solution is to use an external filter. Biofiltration is extremely effective, and none of the methods of water purification can even partially replace it.
The composition of water purified by an external filter is approximately similar to water in slow-flowing natural water bodies. With a weekly refreshment of one third of the volume of the main aquarium, it can be assumed that the ichthyofauna and hydroflora are contained practically in flowing natural water – hence all the successes achieved in systems with biofiltration.
The news was not pleasant for me that the cost of the external filter turned out to be comparable with the cost of the aquarium itself.
After reviewing the design of externalists, I decided to make with my own hands an analogue of the external filter Eheim.
For the manufacture of homemade external filter were purchased:
– Pump (fountain pump), the company RESUN Chinese production 30 W., 2000 l / h.
– PVC coupling for sewer pipe d = 200 mm. + 2 plugs to it,
– cranes, corners, sgony, etc.,
– PVC pipe d = 20 mm. for receiving and supplying water to the aquarium 4 m.
– a flask from the household filter,
– Fillers for the filter.
For inserts in the plugs used fittings of the following design.
My choice on this pump was due to the fact that the filter has many bends in the tubes and the final performance eventually fell by half.
Drilled holes in the upper and lower cap for the supply and pumping of water. When installing fittings, I used rubber gaskets with an additional use of silicone-ion sealant.
I tried to insert the plugs into the clutch with sealing rubber bands and I did not succeed, it worked out too tightly. Understanding that if I succeed in inserting a stub, I will not pull it out from there. Proceeding from this, I cut the edges of the coupling in order to disassemble the filter, if anything, then it was possible to remove the gum and thereby depressurize the filter.
At the bottom of the coupling made the seat under the inlet fitting.
A cut of the coupling edge will later be installed inside the coupling and will hold the grid.
In the lower cap installed grid above the level of the nozzle. For this it was necessary to pull the box for vegetables.
After that, with a clear conscience, we can install the bottom cap in the coupling. Since the sealing gum will not be used here, it is necessary to coat the entire area of the plug with silicone.
And after installing the plug, we additionally coat the joints inside and outside with sealant.
In the lid additionally drilled a hole for the mains wire and air release. It was not necessary to fasten the pump to the plug, and even without this it is reliably fixed by the length of the hose and the mains wire.
For sealing the network wire used a fitting similar to that used in street lamps. In place of the wire break set the switch.
Under the inlet pipe set bracket for mounting the bulb of the household filter, which will serve as a preliminary filter for coarse cleaning. It would have been possible to do without it, but then I would have to install a sponge on the inlet pipe directly in the aquarium, or wash the canister every month (in my plans, washing the canister will take place at least once every 6 months).
For the manufacture of pre. filter needed PVC sewer pipe d = 32 mm. In which many holes were drilled.
It would be possible to use, additionally, in pre. filter activated carbon or zeolite, but first decided to do a foam sponge.
When all the details of the filter assembly proceed to filling with fillers.
1 layer. At the bottom in the first place we settle the material for coarse filtration. For these purposes, the most suitable foam with a large cell.
But unfortunately I did not manage to find sheet foam rubber for aquariums of a suitable size. And instead he used something like a ball of fishing line.
2 layer. Fill with ceramic rings.
The purpose of their use in the filter,, is to branch the flow of water and evenly distribute its current over the entire transverse area of the filtering material.
3 layer. We put a layer of foam rubber with a small cell.
In my case the synthetic winterizer was used.
4 layer. We fill the substrate for colonies of nitrifying bacteria with “bio-balls”.
In this section all the mysteries of the nitrogen cycle take place. Here heterotrophs, nitrifiers, and denitrifiers peacefully coexist, regularly performing the duties assigned to them; the working volume of the chamber should be 4/5 of the biofilter body capacity.
As a substrate for bacteria, claydite (preferably crushed) can be used because it has a porous structure.
5 layer. It is not necessary, but I decided to add the substrate FLUVAL.
Externally, it looks like ceramic rings, only the material has a porous structure. If you take a ring into your hand, ring, plug a hole on one side with your finger, and blow it into the other on the other, then all the air will escape through the micropores.
6 layer. The final layer, directly in front of the exit intake hole (ie, in front of the filter pump, should be positioned sintepon.
It will protect the rotor from dirt particles entering it.
Homemade external filter for the aquarium is ready, the assembly was successful. Testing showed a very good pump performance, although the pump performance was 2 times less. The top cover is not fully installed, due to the strong tight fixation of the sealing gum.
If you close the lid to the end, it is possible that the filter will no longer open.
Filter maintenance is reduced to cleaning the pre-filter as it gets dirty. Opening and washing the cans in half a year.
I want to note that it is necessary to wash in the filter only ceramics and foam rubber and always aquarium water. The extract is washed only as needed.
The first time after launching a homemade external filter actually works only as a mechanical one. Beneficial bacteria have not yet colonized the substrate. Dirt fills the filter, which causes a decrease in its performance.
The water pressure gradually decreases. But there is a reverse process. Dirt is food for bacteria.
They break down the organic matter that accumulates here and is processed into nitrate, i.e. begins biological self-cleaning filter.
Full colonization of the substrate by colonies of beneficial bacteria occurs within 2-4 weeks. And then it all depends on what process will take up – pollution or self-cleaning. If the first, the filter will continue to be contaminated.
Not as intense as the first two weeks, but inevitable. When the filter performance drops below 30% of the maximum, it needs to be cleaned and restarted, otherwise a so-called can occur. “Tilting” is a violation of biological processes, as a result of which poisonous substances are produced and released into the aquarium.
If self-cleaning gains the upper hand, the filter on the contrary is gradually freed from dirt and the performance that falls to 50-70% of the maximum is restored. Theoretically, after that the filter should work forever.
In practice, productivity is not fully restored, and inside the canister, from time to time, stagnant zones are formed. Therefore, I recommend cleaning it from time to time, even if the water pressure is strong.
In addition, I want to note that all metal parts should be free from lubrication. Because a drop of oil can spoil a ton of water and thereby destroy all of your inhabitants.
Therefore, it is desirable to use plastic parts (fittings, angles, taps), which in turn are much cheaper than metal parts.
P.S. Later, I replaced the hoses with corrugated ones (which are used to drain the washing machine), since PVC hoses easily crumpled and thus blocked the access of water.
The lid will need to be pulled off with pins, otherwise, if the light is turned off, it may be torn out.
Metal taps and fittings replaced by plastic which are used for irrigation.