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Canister filter for aquarium

maintenance, care, compatibility

There is a wide variety of water purification devices on the aquarium accessories market, and the canister filter is one of the most common technical devices in this segment. Deciding which filter to buy, it will not be superfluous to know its design, advantages and principle of operation.

And, therefore, the performance of the necessary filter, which is measured in liters per hour. An annotation for each equipment sample indicates which aquarium it is suitable for.

For example, the Polish product Aquael MiniKani 120, designed for an aquarium with a capacity of up to 120 liters, has a pumping capacity of 350 liters per hour. Of course, the power consumption of such a device is much lower than that of a filter with increased performance.

Water in the aquarium should be constantly filtered. This is known to all owners of home decorative fish. In pet stores there is a fairly large selection of aquarium filters of various designs.

However, such a device can be made independently of the available material.

Some aquarists believe that it is not worth saving on the fish and the food for them, but you can find a replacement for expensive equipment for the aquarium. Some accessories and accessories, including a water purifier, are quite capable of making with your own hands.

Of course, for this you need to know the basic principles of filtration of water, as well as have some skills as a home craftsman.

Materials for the simplest internal aquarium filter are commercially available at regular hardware stores. The exception, perhaps, is only a compact electric pump.

However, it can be bought in the building hypermarket or in the electrical goods store.

So, for work will be required:

  • plastic container with a tight lid (suitable container for storing bulk products);
  • thick porous material or sponge;
  • hermetic water pump with a fitting for attachment to the lid of the container;
  • ceramic granules or rings for biological filtration (for fine cleaning, simple cotton wool can be used as a filtering element);
  • 2-3 suction cups, adhesive resin.
  • On the lower edges of the container, thin cuts are made along the entire perimeter. They will serve to absorb the water.
  • Then a sponge for tight cleaning fits tightly into the container, and from above – a material for fine cleaning (cotton wool or biofilter elements).
  • In the lid of the container a hole is cut through the diameter of the pump fitting.
  • The fitting is inserted into the hole and sealed around the circumference of the resin or silicone.
  • It is screwed on the pump itself, which creates a compression inside the container.
  • At the top of the wide side of the container, 2 or 3 household suckers are attached.

Basically, the internal filter is ready. The suction cups will securely hold the self-made device on the wall of the container.

Such a filter can also be put directly on the ground. The latter will serve as an additional level of filtering.

If you attach a plastic nozzle with a long tube that goes outside to the outlet of the pump, then it will also be aerated along with water purification.

First stage

  • In the lower part of the canister a hole is cut into which a metal or plastic fitting with a one-way inlet valve is screwed tightly.
  • There are 2 holes in the cover: for fixing the water outlet valve and the electropump.
  • The pump itself through the fitting is attached to the inside of the cover.

Second phase

Now you need to make cassettes, or cartridges, with filter elements. They can be made from plastic flower pots, smoothly cutting off the top wide part.

The diameter of such self-made cassettes should be slightly less than the internal diameter of the canister.

At the bottom of each cassette burned holes for the passage of water.

The first cartridge, where the sponge is placed, is inserted into the canister so that its bottom is slightly above the adapter with the inlet valve.

A second cartridge is installed, where the filtering material can be fiber, synthetic winterizer or cotton wool. A filter cartridge with biomaterial is mounted on top so that it is below the pump canister attached to the lid.

If the body of the external filter is made by itself, then its bottom and lid are sealed with silicone or resin.

Third stage

Tubes or hoses are connected to the inlet and outlet adapters with valves. Their length is adjustable depending on the depth of the aquarium and the distance to the filter.

External aquarium water purifier ready.

As in the first case, the working pump creates pressure, under the influence of which the water is first sucked into the canister, passes all filtration stages and then flows back into the aquarium. Before using it is necessary to check the canister for 24 hours for tightness by filling it with water.

The main element of the cleaner is the pump. When choosing it, you should consider the volume of the aquarium.

For example: for a 70-liter aquarium, a pump with a capacity of 300 liters per hour is suitable, and for a 200-liter one – 1000 liters per hour.

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