maintenance, care, compatibility
Do I have to filter the water in the aquarium? And if so, how, and how often?
In order to answer these and other questions concerning the state of the aquatic environment in a closed space, it is necessary to understand what processes are continuously occurring in aquarium water.
Like people in their homes, needing good order, they periodically clean up the trash, air the rooms, and residents of the water house feel the need for a clean and comfortable environment.
Small debris inevitably accumulates in the aquarium:
- feed remains
- excreta of its inhabitants,
- pieces of plants.
The obvious conclusion suggests itself: you just need to remove this garbage (or change the water), and the problem will be solved. But more often, mechanical water purification is clearly not enough to create comfortable living conditions for domestic aquatic fauna.
The remains of organic matter inside the tank rather quickly decompose in warm standing water. An excess of ammonium, nitrite, ammonia, as well as methane gas, released as a result of such decomposition, can lead to the death of living creatures.
If 2-3 fish live in the aquarium, the ammonia released during the decomposition of organic substances is processed by absorption by aquatic vegetation.
And if a lot of fish? Then chemical or biological purification of aquarium water is required.
Many aquarists believe that the aquatic environment requires complex filtration – mechanical, chemical, biological. In special cases, be sure to carry out disinfection.
This function is performed by aquarium filters (internal or external), which pump the aquatic environment through a special element (porous sponge). Relatively large particles of garbage – waste, food residues, pieces of vegetation – linger in the pores of the sponge.
Purified water flows back into the tank.
When a large amount of dirt accumulates on the sponge, it is either changed or washed. The frequency of maintenance of the filter element is prescribed in the instructions for the device.
Such filtering, its effectiveness – this is a topic for many years of disagreement in the society of aquarists and professionals.
Supporters of the mechanics believe that the decaying dirt from the sponge should be constantly removed in order to prevent the release of large amounts of accumulated waste back into the water.
Their opponents believe that the waste generated by the inhabitants of the aquarium collected on the surface of the filter element is an almost ideal material for the development of colonies of beneficial bacteria, saprophytes. These microorganisms quite successfully cope with the processing of nitrite and ammonia.
It is partially produced by saprophytes settling in the sponges of mechanical filters, as well as aquatic vegetation. There are also special bacteria that are contained in the porous ceramic element of such aquarium devices, such as biofilters.
In the standard biofilter there are 2 types of active microorganisms:
- ammonifying (Nitrosomonas, Nitrosocystis, etc.),
- nitrifying (nitrobacter, nitrospina and nitrococcus) bacteria.
How do they work?
First, one type of bacteria processes the ammonium formed in the aquarium into nitrites. Other microorganisms convert toxic nitrite into nitrate, which is then freely absorbed by aquatic flora.
Another way to reduce the content of nitrates – a partial replacement of water. The normal dose of nitrates in an aquarium medium is up to 15 mg per 1 liter of water.
You can check the dose using special tests.
The next level of cleaning in biofilters is chemical cleaning.
Disinfection, or disinfection of water in an aquarium, is carried out in cases when parasites that cause fish diseases have appeared in the aquatic environment. Some aquarists resort to it and in order to prevent disease.
There are several ways to disinfect water, including
- ultraviolet irradiation
- chemical disinfection.
Ozone treatment – expensive and time consuming. First, the water is treated with ozone in a special tank (separate from the aquarium), and then poured into the aquarium medium through an activated carbon filter.
The advantage is high disinfection efficiency.
Ultraviolet irradiation of aquarium water also destroys well
- harmful bacteria
- fungal spores,
Irradiation should not be exposed to the aquarium itself, but to water that must be pumped along a special source of ultraviolet radiation.
Recently, ready-made antiseptic, antibacterial agents have appeared on the market. These include, for example, antiseptic conditioner for aquarium water Aquacons and Malachite green.
Typically, certain doses of such conditioners are dissolved in a separate vessel in a certain proportion, and then the finished solution is poured into the aquarium. Air conditioners not only disinfect water, but also successfully treat some diseases of ornamental fish.
It is necessary to use similar means only according to the instruction.
Filtering water in an aquarium is a must. It is better if it will be carried out comprehensively.
This will provide a healthy and comfortable habitat for ornamental aquatic fauna and flora.
The best filter for aquarium: types of filtering, photo-video review
As a rule, such a question arises from a conscious aquarist before purchasing and choosing a filtration system for your water body. Of course, it is possible to let everything take its course, as many do – go and buy a filter in the pet store, which is available and offered by the sellers.
But, only then do not have to complain about the sellers and regret their wasted money. Sellers have such a job – to sell the product and it doesn’t matter your fate and the fate of your filter.
Glad you looked at this page! This means that you approach this issue correctly – first read, learn, and then make a decision.
After all, this approach to the business level almost all the risks of acquiring a not-good aquarium filter.
In this article, we will not tell you in detail and boringly the details of the various aquarium water filtration processes, but try to focus on the quality characteristics of the filter and the nuances of its choice, to give advice. To the same readers who are looking for where to buy a good filter for an aquarium, at a reasonable price, we recommend you pay attention to the time-tested aquarium shop ReefTime.ru, there is just a huge selection of filters.
From recommendations we suggest to pay attention to a line of filters from Hydor, details of which are written here!
So, before choosing a filter, you must understand, and which filter is good for your aquarium ?! For this you need to think about what fish, what plants will live in your pond, how many will be. If the aquarium is large, there will be a large number of large fish swimming in it, there will be a lot of plants, then the filter should cope with this and most effectively remove all “sewage” from the aquarium water.
But, if it is a small aquarium, and you are not going to breed “sharks” in it, then I personally do not see any reason to take a filter with a powerful filter, you can do with a “standard” filter and thus save a considerable amount of money.
I think everything is clear here, so let’s move on to the next question.
Before buying an aquarium filter, you need to find out what filtering mechanism is used in it.
There are four MAIN TYPES OF AQUARIUM WATER FILTRATION:
– MECHANICAL FILTRATION;
– CHEMICAL FILTRATION;
– BIOLOGICAL FILTRATION;
– COMBINED FILTRATION;
Let’s briefly review the principles of each filter with a specific type of water filtration.
– These are the simplest and at the same time effective filters for an aquarium. Some “old-fashioned” call them “glasses.” The essence of their work is very simple – the filter has a pump (motor) and an absorbent sponge.
The pump pumps the aquarium water, which passes through the sponge, is cleaned. Such filtration effectively copes with the removal of large contaminants: food residues, fish excreta, residues of dead organisms, etc.
If you have a small aquarium and not very large fish swim in it, such a mechanical filter will be quite enough.
Biofilters filters and aquarium biological filtration
– these are filters that are located and installed outside the aquarium, only the tubes are lowered into the aquarium. It is difficult to give a positive or negative assessment of such a filter – someone is happy with it, some is not. Therefore, I will simply list the advantages and disadvantages:
– a large amount of filter materials, thereby achieving maximum water purification;
– combined filtration with purification rates;
– this is a huge “bucket” near the aquarium;
– there is always the likelihood of a flood (as a rule, if the assembly is incorrect);
– This is a compromise between the internal and external filter. The hybrid of both is “hanging from the outside, but working inside.”
These filters are not so popular among aquarists, because they work according to the principle “not yours is not yours,” perhaps its only distinguishing advantage is compactness and space preservation both in and under the aquarium.
So, summing up the above, we can recommend internal filters for small, medium and not very large aquariums (up to 200 liters). For large aquariums, external aquarium filters will be good.
Of course, this statement is relative, because no one has yet canceled individual aspects and wishes.
Concluding this article, I would like to note that there are other methods, mechanisms for filtering aquarium water, such as – a bottom filter or “false”. Such methods are less popular and have a number of advantages and disadvantages.
In the future, if necessary, you can make them yourself.
I want to believe that this article has helped you determine the choice of the best aquarium filter. But, remember that no even the coolest filter will not replace the banal weekly replacement of aquarium water.
AQUARIUM WATER SUBSTITUTE IS THE BEST FILTRATION
The aquatic environment in the home water is always required to filter. This is an axiom that does not require proof.
If in nature, running water is filtered naturally, then a fixed aquarium environment must be cleaned forcibly.
On this depends the normal existence of ornamental fish and aquarium plants. Ideally, an aquarium cleaner should:
- be small;
- have high reliability, ease of maintenance;
- and the efficiency of its work should correspond to the volume of water being purified.
Each such device works on the same principle: water intake — purification — water outlet.
This is a compromise when the device is attached to the wall of the aquarium, and the filter element is located in the water. However, such devices are not very popular.
A very interesting type of filters for the aquarium. Another name for the bottom filter is counterfeit. In this device, a flat filter element (plate) is laid on the bottom of the aquarium and is covered with soil on top.
Water purification goes from the bottom up, and the water passes a double purification: not only through the filter element, but also through a layer of soil. The disadvantages of such devices is their low productivity and complexity in maintenance.
In large aquariums, they are usually not used.
Water in the aquarium should be constantly filtered. This is known to all owners of home decorative fish. In pet stores there is a fairly large selection of aquarium filters of various designs.
However, such a device can be made independently of the available material.
Some aquarists believe that it is not worth saving on the fish and the food for them, but you can find a replacement for expensive equipment for the aquarium. Some accessories and accessories, including a water purifier, are quite capable of making with your own hands.
Of course, for this you need to know the basic principles of filtration of water, as well as have some skills as a home craftsman.
Every aquarium owner is interested in his device working stably and efficiently, and the fish lived for a long time. An important role in achieving these goals is played by good water filtration.
What is the best filter for the aquarium and what rules to consider when choosing it? Let’s try to figure it out.
The choice of filter should be made taking into account who lives in the aquarium, what plants are in it and how many are there. If the aquarium is large, there are many plants and living creatures in it, then the filter should be powerful, effectively remove all contaminants from the water. Today, there are several types of filtration of water in an aquarium:
What is the best filter for the aquarium? Consider the main features of each filtering system.
The best and most reliable filtration for an aquarium is based on a biological filter. This method of water purification implies the presence of a special compartment in the filter itself, which is necessary for the cultivation of beneficial bacteria. For their reproduction, a special substrate is used.
Bacteria play an important role, as they saturate water with useful substances and decompose harmful substances: ammonia, nitrites and nitrates – to a gaseous state. They are the most serious and dangerous enemy for aquarium inhabitants, leading to diseases and the death of fish.
If you still doubt which filter is better for the aquarium to choose, consider the biological options.
These varieties are mounted directly inside the aquarium and may have a variety of filtering mechanisms. These filters are the most popular because of their affordable cost, ease of operation and cleaning.
On the other hand, users note that they eat up the usable space of the aquarium, but for large devices it is not so critical. Which inner filter for aquarium is better? Consider the most popular models:
- Aqua Szut Super Mini. This internal filter is suitable for aquariums of 10-80 liters, is distinguished by high-quality purification and aeration of water. Among the advantages of this filter, users note the ease of maintenance, compact size, low noise, the ability to position vertically or horizontally, a combination of mechanical and biological methods of water purification. Sophisticated aeration part of the structure contributes to the saturation of water with oxygen.
- Aquael Turbo Filter Professional. This internal filter pumps, purifies the water in the aquarium and performs its aeration. The difference from similar models is in high-quality water saturation with oxygen even at great depth.
- ASAP 500. Aquarium filters of this brand are distinguished by high performance and functionality, as well as an original design that keeps maintenance time to a minimum. So if you are not sure which internal filter for the aquarium is better to choose, and are looking for a truly modern and profitable option, the ASAP 500 deserves your attention. Its design is a combination of an energy-efficient motor with a high-quality filter sponge. The case is easy to clean or replace with a new one; in addition, this filter is ideal for use in shallow water.
- ALEAS IPF-6200L. Even more efficient and sophisticated, but expensive filter model. The increased level of cleaning is provided by two cartridges, and the model performs three functions at once – it filters the water, ensures its circulation and aeration. The biological filtration system is multi-level, and the filtering material is voluminous. As a result, the larger inner surface of the aquarium is cleaned, which is kept clean for much longer.
These models are considered among the best and most productive and will be of interest to those who are looking for information about which filter for the aquarium is better to choose.
External filtering mechanisms are mounted outside the aquarium, and only tubes are placed inside it. About this variety reviews are very different. Some say that due to the large volume of filter materials, maximum water purification is provided, others note that a lot of space is needed near the aquarium to accommodate the filter, which is also expensive.
Which external filter for the aquarium is better to choose?
We offer a review of popular models:
- Tetratec EX 400. This powerful filter is suitable for an aquarium of 10-80 liters and is distinguished by the comfort of installation and maintenance. Thanks to the integrated system of automatic start during installation and cleaning, the filter does not drain the water. With power, the mechanism works quietly. It is completed with five filtering mechanisms that provides high-quality and effective water purification. These are universal filters for aquariums. Which is better at 50l? The manufacturer offers a range of models, among which you can find the best option.
- Eheim. Products of this brand are mainly represented by canister filters that work reliably, stably and for a long time. The special design is protected from leakage, high-quality filtering materials are used, due to which the water is cleaned quickly and permanently. One of the most popular models is the Eheim Classic 2213, which includes sponges and gaskets, pipes and double taps. For large aquariums, Eheim Professional 3 2073 is useful – its volume will be enough for a model of 180-350 liters. Advantage – the presence of pre-filter, which increases the service life of all fillers.
- Tetra. This brand offers to buy a high-quality and reliable external filter for the aquarium. Which is better? Manufacturers offer a wide range of models that will provide the optimal balance of water in the aquarium.
Mounted filters – a compromise between the models described above. Structurally, the models are pumps, which themselves are located outside, and work inside.
They are compact, but despite this, they are not very popular with aquarists.
Another popular type of filter is bottom. The so-called false is a simple structure in the form of a plastic plate with holes – it is through them that the water passes. The filter itself is located at a height of 2 cm from the bottom of the aquarium, the ground is laid on the plate.
Water passes through the soil, the bacteria in it contribute to biological filtration, so toxic ammonia is removed from the liquid. So there are a huge number of pump varieties. Which filter is the best for an aquarium?
Based on the characteristics of the container and its contents.
A canister aquarium filter is called this way because its shape really resembles a canister. Due to the fact that it works outside the aquarium, it is classified as an external filter. The device performs a full cycle of water purification, which provides for the presence of all levels of filtration:
The principal device of the device has not changed for several decades. It consists
- from the tank where the filter material is placed,
- a pump that pumps water
- inlet and outlet hose.
Nothing complicated. All other elements of the device are only the results of technical progress in the field of aquaristics, designed to provide ease of operation of the equipment and give it greater functionality.
One of the main parts of such a device is, of course, the filter element itself. It usually consists of
- sponges (rough mechanical cleaning),
- fine pore syntepon for fine cleaning,
- biological substrate filler (water biofiltration).
- In some models, a chemical filter is also installed, the role of which can be played either by activated carbon or special resins.
Outwardly, it looks like this: hoses are attached to the body of the device, they are lowered into the aquarium water. The power wire is plugged into the household outlet, the power button is pressed, the device is working. Everything is very simple.
However, it is necessary to imagine what happens at this time inside the device.
At the moment of switching on, the water pump starts to work, and the liquid enters the upper part of the canister through the retractor hose, into the cassette filter, the first level of which is the sponge. Large parts of the garbage settle on it.
Then the water passes the fine filter and enters the biofilter. There is its purification from ammonia and nitrite.
Fully purified water through a one-way valve enters the cavity between the canister body and the filter cartridge, and then under pressure is fed into the exhaust hose.
There are canister devices and with the reverse flow of water – from the bottom up. In this case, the arrangement of the filter cassettes also changes, but there are no fundamental differences in the work.
You should know that the external filters of the German brand Eheim have the highest cost. Accordingly, their quality and reliability is also at altitude.
The average price position is occupied by products of the brands Aquael (Poland), Sera, JBL, Tetra and Hagen (Germany), Ferplast (Italy). True, almost all the products of these brands are collected in China.
The budget option – models of Chinese brands Atman, Resun and some others. By the way, Atman canisters are quite decent and reliable products, the design of which was developed by American engineers, and released by the Chinese company Chuangxing Electrical Appliances Co.
And, therefore, the performance of the necessary filter, which is measured in liters per hour. An annotation for each equipment sample indicates which aquarium it is suitable for.
For example, the Polish product Aquael MiniKani 120, designed for an aquarium with a capacity of up to 120 liters, has a pumping capacity of 350 liters per hour. Of course, the power consumption of such a device is much lower than that of a filter with increased performance.
Each aquarium should have a filtration system that will purify the water, ensuring the health of the fish and plants. As it is known, wastes that are left behind by the inhabitants of the reservoir, as well as the remnants of food, suspended particles of soil are very harmful for fish. Not eaten feed is oxidized, turning into toxic ammonia.
In order for the water to pass through all the steps of cleaning in a timely manner, it is better to make an external filter for the aquarium with your own hands. It will prevent the appearance of harmful substances that can poison living beings.
The self-made external filter is constructed on the basis of aerolifting: air bubbles that come from the compressor, rise to the tube, from which they come to the top, and lower with them the water flow from the filter. Clean and oxygenated water enters the upper compartment of the glass, and passes through the gravel.
Then the water enters the bowl through the hole, goes down the tube, and enters the tank. Synthon here functions as a mechanical filter.
This material prevents the silting of the gravel substrate.
External filters chemically and mechanically purify water. It is better to install such structures in a large aquarium with a volume of 200-400 liters. For more spacious aquariums with a capacity of 500-1000 liters will need several such devices.
Branded external water treatment systems are expensive, so it’s best to do it yourself. Materials are inexpensive and accessible to everyone.