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Aquarium water filter

maintenance, care, compatibility

The best filter for aquarium: types of filtering, photo-video review

As a rule, such a question arises from a conscious aquarist before purchasing and choosing a filtration system for your water body. Of course, it is possible to let everything take its course, as many do – go and buy a filter in the pet store, which is available and offered by the sellers. But, only then do not have to complain about the sellers and regret their wasted money.

Sellers have such a job – to sell the product and it doesn’t matter your fate and the fate of your filter.

Glad you looked at this page! This means that you approach this issue correctly – first read, learn, and then make a decision.

After all, this approach to the business level almost all the risks of acquiring a not-good aquarium filter.

In this article, we will not tell you in detail and boringly the details of the various aquarium water filtration processes, but try to focus on the quality characteristics of the filter and the nuances of its choice, to give advice. To the same readers who are looking for where to buy a good filter for an aquarium, at a reasonable price, we recommend you pay attention to the time-tested aquarium shop ReefTime.ru, there is just a huge selection of filters.

From recommendations we suggest to pay attention to a line of filters from Hydor, details of which are written here!

So, before choosing a filter, you must understand, and which filter is good for your aquarium ?! For this you need to think about what fish, what plants will live in your pond, how many will be.

If the aquarium is large, there will be a large number of large fish swimming in it, there will be a lot of plants, then the filter should cope with this and most effectively remove all “sewage” from the aquarium water. But, if it is a small aquarium, and you are not going to breed “sharks” in it, then I personally do not see any reason to take a filter with a powerful filter, you can do with a “standard” filter and thus save a considerable amount of money.

I think everything is clear here, so let’s move on to the next question.

Before buying an aquarium filter, you need to find out what filtering mechanism is used in it.






Let’s briefly review the principles of each filter with a specific type of water filtration.

– These are the simplest and at the same time effective filters for an aquarium. Some “old-fashioned” call them “glasses.” The essence of their work is very simple – the filter has a pump (motor) and an absorbent sponge.

The pump pumps the aquarium water, which passes through the sponge, is cleaned. Such filtration effectively copes with the removal of large contaminants: food residues, fish excreta, residues of dead organisms, etc.

If you have a small aquarium and not very large fish swim in it, such a mechanical filter will be quite enough.

Biofilters filters and aquarium biological filtration

– these are filters that are located and installed outside the aquarium, only the tubes are lowered into the aquarium. It is difficult to give a positive or negative assessment of such a filter – someone is happy with it, some is not. Therefore, I will simply list the advantages and disadvantages:


– a large amount of filter materials, thereby achieving maximum water purification;

– combined filtration with purification rates;


– this is a huge “bucket” near the aquarium;

– there is always the likelihood of a flood (as a rule, if the assembly is incorrect);

– This is a compromise between the internal and external filter. The hybrid of both is “hanging from the outside, but working inside.”

These filters are not so popular among aquarists, because they work according to the principle “not yours is not yours,” perhaps its only distinguishing advantage is compactness and space preservation both in and under the aquarium.

So, summing up the above, we can recommend internal filters for small, medium and not very large aquariums (up to 200 liters). For large aquariums, external aquarium filters will be good.

Of course, this statement is relative, because no one has yet canceled individual aspects and wishes.

Concluding this article, I would like to note that there are other methods, mechanisms for filtering aquarium water, such as – a bottom filter or “false”. Such methods are less popular and have a number of advantages and disadvantages.

In the future, if necessary, you can make them yourself.

I want to believe that this article has helped you determine the choice of the best aquarium filter. But, remember that no even the coolest filter will not replace the banal weekly replacement of aquarium water.


Filtering devices are characterized by the features of the design position and a set of functions. Therefore, they are of the following types:

Internal filters for the aquarium – they need to be installed inside the tank. These are the most famous devices for cleaning home pond. It is better to buy those who start the aquarium business, because they are inexpensive and easy to operate.

Their main drawback is the bulkiness, which occupies a considerable area inside the aquascape.

Watch the video story about the internal filter.

External filters for the aquarium – they are preferred by experienced aquarists. This type of device is installed on the outside near the tank, and 2 tubes are placed in the water.

The first one pumps out stale water, the second one pumps clean after the cleaning process. The advantage of an external device is a high level of efficiency, ergonomics.

Such equipment is more expensive and takes up a large space behind the aquarium.

Mounted filters for aquarium – this type of device is installed near the wall of the tank, and the mechanism with the filter is lowered into the water. While he gained wide popularity among fans.

Bottom filters for the aquarium (false) – the filter plate of the device is laid out on the bottom of the tank, and on top is lined with a soil substrate. Cleans the soil and water from harmful impurities that remain after uneaten feed.

The filtration process starts from the bottom, and goes up, as a result, the water is purified twice – through the filter and through the soil. The disadvantage of such installations is a low degree of performance, a complex operation scheme.

They are not installed in spacious tanks.

Types of elements for filtering aquarium environment

The process of filtration inside the aquarium is of these types:

  • Mechanical (grains of small debris are separated);
  • Biochemical (harmful substances and impurities are neutralized).

These functions are performed by filtering elements that are present in the device. They remove a certain amount of accumulated dirt, freeing water space from harmful substances.

Sponge filter – inside the mechanism there is a sponge filter element, of a large-porous or fine-pore structure. Dirty water is absorbed by pressure, it passes through the pores of the spongy material, and leaves mechanical debris on it (uneaten food, plants, extraneous fragments).

After a week of continuous work, colonies of beneficial bacteria will appear on the sponge, which will function as a biological “filter”, freeing water from accumulated nitrates and methane. Spongy tissue needs cleaning every 14 days.

The permissible terms of cleaning the sponge are given in the instruction manual of the device.

Activated carbon is a filler for an aquarium filter that purifies water qualitatively thanks to its pronounced chemical properties. However, when using activated carbon, you need to be careful: the full saturation of the sorbent with harmful impurities, can give a backlash. Harmful substances with excessive accumulation in the coal, will be thrown back into the water, which is fraught with negative consequences for all inhabitants of the aquarium.

Better use other types of cleaners.

Biological fillers from multi-pore ceramics are popular in modern aquariums. These are ceramic balls, the surface layer of which quickly accumulates in beneficial microorganisms that create millions of colonies.

Biological treatment in this case increases several times. Ceramic cleaning devices are used simultaneously with mechanical filters.

Watch the video about the external aquarium filter.

This function is performed by aquarium filters (internal or external), which pump the aquatic environment through a special element (porous sponge). Relatively large particles of garbage – waste, food residues, pieces of vegetation – linger in the pores of the sponge.

Purified water flows back into the tank.

When a large amount of dirt accumulates on the sponge, it is either changed or washed. The frequency of maintenance of the filter element is prescribed in the instructions for the device.

Such filtering, its effectiveness – this is a topic for many years of disagreement in the society of aquarists and professionals.

Supporters of the mechanics believe that the decaying dirt from the sponge should be constantly removed in order to prevent the release of large amounts of accumulated waste back into the water.

Their opponents believe that the waste generated by the inhabitants of the aquarium collected on the surface of the filter element is an almost ideal material for the development of colonies of beneficial bacteria, saprophytes. These microorganisms quite successfully cope with the processing of nitrite and ammonia.

It is partially produced by saprophytes settling in the sponges of mechanical filters, as well as aquatic vegetation. There are also special bacteria that are contained in the porous ceramic element of such aquarium devices, such as biofilters.

In the standard biofilter there are 2 types of active microorganisms:

  • ammonifying (Nitrosomonas, Nitrosocystis, etc.),
  • nitrifying (nitrobacter, nitrospina and nitrococcus) bacteria.

How do they work?

First, one type of bacteria processes the ammonium formed in the aquarium into nitrites. Other microorganisms convert toxic nitrite into nitrate, which is then freely absorbed by aquatic flora.

Another way to reduce the content of nitrates – a partial replacement of water. The normal dose of nitrates in an aquarium medium is up to 15 mg per 1 liter of water.

You can check the dose using special tests.

The next level of cleaning in biofilters is chemical cleaning.

Disinfection, or disinfection of water in an aquarium, is carried out in cases when parasites that cause fish diseases have appeared in the aquatic environment. Some aquarists resort to it and in order to prevent disease.

There are several ways to disinfect water, including

  • ozonation
  • ultraviolet irradiation
  • chemical disinfection.

Ozone treatment – expensive and time consuming. First, the water is treated with ozone in a special tank (separate from the aquarium), and then poured into the aquarium medium through an activated carbon filter.

The advantage is high disinfection efficiency.

Ultraviolet irradiation of aquarium water also destroys well

  • harmful bacteria
  • fungal spores,
  • viruses.

Irradiation should not be exposed to the aquarium itself, but to water that must be pumped along a special source of ultraviolet radiation.

Recently, ready-made antiseptic, antibacterial agents have appeared on the market. These include, for example, antiseptic conditioner for aquarium water Aquacons and Malachite green.

Typically, certain doses of such conditioners are dissolved in a separate vessel in a certain proportion, and then the finished solution is poured into the aquarium. Air conditioners not only disinfect water, but also successfully treat some diseases of ornamental fish.

It is necessary to use similar means only according to the instruction.

Filtering water in an aquarium is a must. It is better if it will be carried out comprehensively.

This will provide a healthy and comfortable habitat for ornamental aquatic fauna and flora.

Going to buy a filter for cleaning aquarium water, you need to imagine which device is more suitable in each specific case: external or internal, with high capacity or low, expensive or cheap. A large number of aquarists stop in their choice on internal cleaners.

There are a lot of models of such filters, and often the question arises, which of them should be chosen.

Internal water filters are very popular in the aquarists society. They have:

  • small dimensions;
  • installed directly in the tank;
  • quite easy to operate and maintain.

There are a lot of similar devices on the pet supplies market, and there is clearly not enough time for a careful reading of the instructions for each sample. In order to immediately make the right choice, you need to have an idea of ​​what filters manufacturers offer, what are their differences, advantages and disadvantages.

Perhaps no one aquarist can give a clear answer to this question. There are quite a few models on the market that have been successfully operated for a long period.

The internal filtering devices of the Eheim brand can be called the elite of this type of devices. Designers of the German company Eheim GmbH Co meticulously and with fiction approached the problem of creating a unified filter.

For example, the model Eheim 2212 AquaBall has the original device of the outlet. Like a joystick, it can be rotated to either side with a ball design.

This is very convenient, since the flow of water and air bubbles can even be directed downwards.

The devices are virtually silent, the filter sections in the glass can be swapped, regular bio-fillers do an excellent job with their biological cleaning function.

The considered devices, which are the most expensive in their class, have only one drawback – the axis of the pump impeller is ceramic (in all other models it is metal). Therefore, special care must be taken when disassembling and maintaining such a filter.

A variety of filters for aqua, working inside the aquarium, great. Which one is better?

Perhaps one that satisfies the requirements of reliability, functionality, efficiency and is suitable for an aquarium of a particular tank.

How to install and use aquarium filters

Internal filters are installed inside the aquarium. The most popular – internal pump filters and airlift.

They are inexpensive, they are easy to install yourself, they are convenient to use during operation. However, these mechanisms have their drawbacks – they must be cleaned of dirt almost every day, they are overall and noisy.

Before purchasing such a water purifier, determine whether it fits in your tank.

Will it be possible to install the internal filter correctly the first time? Completely if you carefully read the instructions.

The device must be placed in the tank when it is half filled with water, when there are plants planted in the soil. Before turning on the filter in the network, it should be assembled in parts, and mounted on the wall or above the aquarium.

Water purification devices such as internal filters should be completely immersed in the aquatic environment. Above the filter should be another 3 cm of water. The device itself should not touch the bottom.

If you bought an internal filter, or made it yourself, then attach it correctly using suction cups to the glass wall.

See how to disassemble, assemble and install the internal filter.

Included with the branded filter is a hose for air supply. In the homemade device, it should also be present, however, the principle of attachment is the same.

Take one end of the tube and attach it to the special opening of the filter, the other end of it out above the water and fix it with the help of the fastened material to the upper edge of the tank wall. The tube must be above the water level, otherwise the air will not be properly sucked.

On the tube or directly on the filter should be an air supply regulator. Its location affects the flow of water in the aquarium. After installing the water purification device, the regulator should be correctly set to the middle position.

Then watch the behavior of the fish – some will love the flow of water, others will avoid it. Adjust the water flow level so that the fish feel comfortable.

Internal cleaners should be installed after they are completely immersed in water. Before you get it out of the water for cleaning, the device must be disconnected from the power supply.

Also, do not leave the mechanism turned off in the water, and turn it on after a long period of stagnation (if you did not have time to clean it).

So, in the specialized shop with the help of a consultant, the necessary internal water purifier was selected. Before this, you should carefully check its completeness and read the tips on installing and running into work.

First, the device must be assembled according to the recommendations set forth in the instructions for use. Can’t wait to check it at work?

You should not hurry, because the filter must first be properly fixed in an aquarium filled with water. And, beginners, as a rule, have some questions.

How deep should the glass be dipped? What is plastic flexible transparent tube for?

The vast majority of internal water purifiers are attached to the wall of the aquarium in a vacuum way using special suction cups. These suction cups are included in the package.

Prerequisite: the filter must be completely submerged in water, the height of the water level above the top of the device must be from 2 to 5 cm.

A transparent flexible tube serves to supply air to the device and is attached to its “nose”. The other end of the tube should be outside the aquarium, outdoors.

It would seem that you can already run the “glass” in the work. However, experts recommend making the first inclusion, removing all living creatures from the aquarium.

You never know what! What if the device has a manufacturing defect?

It is better not to risk and move all the fish for a short time in a small sump. If the first inclusion showed the normal operation of the technical device, pets can immediately run into their water house.

After the first power up, it is recommended to set the power regulator, which is available on each filter, to the middle position. It takes some time to observe the condition of your pets and then empirically determine the optimum power of the filtering device.

Already from the name of this cleaner it is clear that it is installed on the bottom of a water house for fish. But the choice of this type of filter is resorted to only when there is very little or no decorative bottom aquatic vegetation in the aquarium.

Such a device is a relatively thin plate with an internal filter material and a multitude of holes through which water flows. Some believe that such a plate with tubes attached to it can be simply put on the ground and that will be enough.

This is a misconception – the bottom cleaner should be installed, not just put.

First, remove the soil from the bottom of the aquarium (or from a separate section) and put a plastic frame that will raise the false-bottom by 2-3 mm. Only then can the technical device be closed with a primer, and then put it into operation.

Not only the purity and high-quality chemical and biological composition of water, but also the degree of air saturation depend on the proper installation of any aquarium filter. In addition, it determines the reliability of the device itself.

In any case: before the water purifier is put into operation, you need to carefully read the instructions attached to it and strictly follow the rules specified in it.

How to install the internal filter in the aquarium, see the video:

The self-made external filter is constructed on the basis of aerolifting: air bubbles that come from the compressor, rise to the tube, from which they come to the top, and lower with them the water flow from the filter. Clean and oxygenated water enters the upper compartment of the glass, and passes through the gravel.

Then the water enters the bowl through the hole, goes down the tube, and enters the tank. Synthon here functions as a mechanical filter.

This material prevents the silting of the gravel substrate.

External filters chemically and mechanically purify water. It is better to install such structures in a large aquarium with a volume of 200-400 liters. For more spacious aquariums with a capacity of 500-1000 liters will need several such devices.

Branded external water treatment systems are expensive, so it’s best to do it yourself. Materials are inexpensive and accessible to everyone.

Water purification in the aquarium. How to clean the water in the aquarium

External suspension filter (waterfall) – plastic box, in some cases consisting of several sections, which is placed outside. The principle of operation of this filter is simple: water is pumped from the aquarium into the filter, processed there and drained back into the aquarium.

Air lift filter – is a small plastic container that can be in the shape of a cube, cylinder, or pyramid. Principle of action: water passes through a perforated cover into the filter, goes down through the filtering material under pressure from top to bottom, then rises along the airlift, going outside.

They are convenient in small aquariums for additional filtration.

The canister filter is usually in the form of a vertical cylinder, with an electric pump at the top. From the aquarium the water goes through the plastic tubes and is pumped through the filter material through the pump.

This filter is suitable for large aquariums.

Sponge filter – one of the most primitive and popular types of filters. Consists of a perforated tube on which cartridges with a sponge are attached.

Dirty water is cleaned in the sponge filter and out through the tube.

Water in the aquarium should be constantly filtered. This is known to all owners of home decorative fish.

In pet stores there is a fairly large selection of aquarium filters of various designs. However, such a device can be made independently of the available material.

Some aquarists believe that it is not worth saving on the fish and the food for them, but you can find a replacement for expensive equipment for the aquarium. Some accessories and accessories, including a water purifier, are quite capable of making with your own hands.

Of course, for this you need to know the basic principles of filtration of water, as well as have some skills as a home craftsman.

How to clean the water in the aquarium :: why you need a pump in an aquarium :: Aquarium fish

The aquarium is a small body of water inhabited by water. In order to maintain biological balance in it, various means and methods are used.

One of the methods is water purification in an aquarium.

The question “opened a pet store. Business is not going. What to do? “- 2 answers

To clean the water, use special aquarium filters, working with electric pumps or air flow. There are universal filters in which you can adjust the rate of flow of water.

They are used in aquariums inhabited by various types of fish.

External suspension filter – is a plastic box, consisting of several sections. This filter is located outside the aquarium.

Its principle of operation is very simple: water is taken from the aquarium, filtered and returned. Visually, this process resembles a waterfall.

Air lift filter is a small plastic container that has various shapes: a cylinder, a cube or a pyramid. Water enters the filter through a perforated cover, goes under pressure from top to bottom through filtering material, then rises along the airlift and goes outside.

This type of filter is suitable for small aquariums as an additional filter.

Filter canister – is a vertical cylinder, at the top of which there is an electric pump. Water from the aquarium goes through the plastic tubes and passes through the filtering material.

This filter is very good for large aquariums.

A sponge filter is the most primitive and at the same time the most popular type of filter consisting of a perforated tube with jaw cartridges attached to it. Contaminated water enters the sponge filter, is cleaned, and exits through the tube.

Calcium carbonate – increases water hardness and acidity. Visually similar to limestone crushed stone, sand or coral chips.

Used as a mechanical or biological filter.
Activated carbon – fixes all unnecessary substances on its surface and disposes of medicines and heavy metals dissolved in water.
Gravel is a filter that can be used endlessly.
The aquarium is filled with water, usually with the help of a pump, which is a pump. Very many pumps are designed for both fresh and seawater.

They are submersible and external.
Depending on the type and type of filter material, the appropriate care for the aquarium is carried out. Means for mechanical cleaning (various scrapers and sponges) must be constantly cleaned.

Chemical filter materials require periodic updates. Biological filters are partially replaceable.
In addition to the use of filters, it is necessary to clean the aquarium bottom once a month. The procedure is performed using a rubber tube with a tip made of plastic or glass.

The diameter of the tube opening should not prevent the passage of water through it with garbage.
Twice a week it is recommended to change from 15 to 30% of the total water volume of the aquarium. Water for this pre-defend one to two days.
Also to normalize the condition of the water will help special chemicals that are completely harmless to the inhabitants of the aquarium. The choice of such chemistry is quite diverse and is present in almost all pet stores.

Filter for aquarium do it yourself :: DIY aquarium filters :: Household :: Other

External filter for aquarium makes chemical and mechanical water purification. Typically, this type filters installed on aquariums with a volume of 200 liters. Very large aquariums may require several filterov

These devices belong to a high price category, so you can try to make such filter do it yourself

1. Pick for enclosure filterand a cylindrical piece of plastic. For these purposes, a piece of plastic sewer pipe is suitable.

The length of the pipe fragment must be at least half a meter. The hull will require plastic parts that play the role of cover and bottom. Make a hole in the bottom of the case.

Screw the fitting into this hole. You can buy it ready or take it from another device, for example, from the sensor from the heating boiler of the bus.

Then you will need FUM tape to seal the thread. Wind it onto the threads of the fitting.

Lock the fitting with the enclosed nut inside the housing. filterbut.

2. Cut a circle out of plastic. Using a drill or a knife, make a lot of medium-sized holes in it.

Put a circle on the bottom filterbut. Thanks to him, the bottom hole filterand will not be very clogged.

3. Getting Started filterOur filler. Put a round piece of foam rubber on top of the plastic circle. On top of the foam rubber, pour in a special filler for filterWater rations, which can be bought at a pet store.

It is made of ceramic material. Repeat layers again.

First foam and then ceramic biofilter.

4. Over filterLayers installed electric pump. It will create the movement of water from the bottom up. For a wire with a switch that goes from the pump, make a hole in the plastic case.

Insulate the hole sealant.

5. Prepare two tubes. They may be plastic.

With the help of them will be the flow of water in filter and its exit back to the aquarium. Connect one tube to the bottom outlet.

To the bottom of the tube you need to connect a special faucet that will remove air from the external filterbut. Connect another tube to the top cover. filterand to the fitting. Immerse the tubes in the aquarium.

Now you can turn on the finished external filter and check it out in action.

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