maintenance, care, compatibility
Aquarium plants are all for beginners with photos and video
Plants are an established aquarium biosystem, no harmful substances in the water, no algae.
Everything is simple! Aquarium plants are the primary indicator of the status of your aquarium.
If the plants “wither”, turn yellow and rot – this is a sure sign of the poor condition of the aquarium and conversely lush, beautiful spreads – this is a 100% indicator of the excellent state of the aquarium world.
Aquarian plants are a natural interior and “maternity hospital” for fish, fry, shrimps, snails, etc.
Plants are an additional food for aquarium inhabitants.
By the way, about the question of the correct planting
The most popular and unpretentious plant for an aquarium is Javanese moss. Outwardly, it resembles ornate, tangled green threads.
Moss tolerates shade and bright light; it is easy to grow. It does not need to be planted in the ground, because there is no root system.
Java moss can grow on the scenery, even independently attached to them. It does not bloom, but reproduces by spores.
You can also plant moss in a different way – by separating a fragment of a plant, and transplanting it to another area (on the ground, snags, stones). To prevent the current from moving it, Javanese moss can be secured to the surface with a fishing line or synthetic thread.
A popular plant species among beginners is the Thai fern. It does not have a root system, it does not need to be planted in the soil. But thanks to the rhizoids, it is easily fixed on the solid surfaces of the aquarium.
With it, you can create unsurpassed aquascape compositions.
Admire the thick Thai fern.
Good plants for beginners – elodey. Elodea of 4 genera are on sale: Egeria, Lagarosifon, Hydrilla, and, actually, Elodea.
In an aquarium, elodeas create lush green thickets in which fish and their fry can hide. These plants were imported from America, and well adapted to our latitudes.
Another useful plant for the aquarium – rogolotniki. They are known to all – grow in freshwater bodies of our latitudes.
The stem is thin, harsh to the touch, whorled leaves. Cormorants can live submerged, and bloom under water. There are no rhizoids, therefore it is not necessary to plant in the ground.
Can be mounted on the decorations of the aquarium, at its walls.
Plants nayas, or naiads – nayas Guadalupe and nayas Indian. A great choice for beginners aquarists.
Grow only under water. Characterized by a dark green shade of leaf plates, small stalks thin and branching, the leaves are covered with small spikes.
Nayas bloom, but in conditions of captivity, this rarely happens. It is recommended to contain in water hard or medium hardness.
In soft water, nayas literally dissolve. The root system is powerful. You can plant in the ground, and over time you will see how the openwork bush was formed.
Nayas can develop if it is let through the water, and not planted in the soil.
Does the aquarium need natural vegetation? How difficult is it to create conditions for it?
Are there any aquarium plants that even the inexperienced can grow? Let’s try to give answers to all these questions.
But let’s start with one more thing: why it is not so often to see live plants in aquariums, especially in simple amateur, family artificial reservoirs, whose owners do not want to shovel special literature and hang around for hours on thematic forums looking for tips and recipes, but simply want to have home a few fish for the soul? As a rule, they initially try to plant some twigs and weed in their jar (usually chosen only for their beauty), but they quickly grow over with incomprehensible fluff, or their leaves fall, or for some reason they begin to darken and rot at the root.
After a couple of unsuccessful attempts, a certain amount of plastic bushes are bought, and the home water body loses its most important element.
There are many benefits of living vegetation, but two main groups of functions can be distinguished:
- impact on the hydrochemical parameters of the aquatic environment – nitrogen compounds are consumed from water, they are saturated with oxygen, the twigs and leaves serve as a refuge for the biofilter bacteria;
- creating a favorable environment for fish and other animals – an additive to food, the formation of shelters for adults and young fish, the substrate for spawning.
There is also an aesthetic function. But let’s be fair: this is a matter of taste.
Some people like natural landscapes, while others like urban landscapes and lunar ones, and with the help of artificial elements, an aquarium can also be made very interesting.
Perhaps the only type of aquariums where it is objectively practically impossible to maintain living plants is tanks with very large fish, such as, for example, adult pterigoplichts, astronotuses and the like. They destroy any young growth completely mercilessly and with a speed that excludes the possibility of its recovery, moreover, in such aquariums a very strong flow is created for the implementation of the required level of water purification, which the plants simply cannot transfer.
And even in such cases, it is difficult to do without natural greenery; it is simply carried out outside, equipping plant filters.
So, without the plants in the aquarium is bad and difficult. So, we need to create conditions under which they can live in our home reservoir.
Before you begin to select the vegetation for your pond, you need to know what conditions are created in it. The amount of light is measured first. To do this, take the power of the lamps in watts (if there are several, then the sum of power) and is divided by the volume of water.
For example, in a standard 80-liter aquarium there are 2 fluorescent lamps of 18 W each, which means the illumination will be 0.45 W per liter. It is quite sufficient for undemanding species, if the lamps are new, the spectrum is selected correctly, and the height of the aquarium does not exceed 40-45 cm.
For incandescent bulbs, the power should be about three times higher, and less for LEDs, but lamps of such types are used less often in aquarism and are not recommended for beginners.
Next, you need to evaluate the values of acidity and hardness, this can be done only using special tests. Now they are available in many pet stores in large cities and are not particularly expensive.
Residents of small towns and villages, where such delights can not be found, we can recommend to order them in online stores or ask borrowed from experienced aquarists, having become acquainted with them on the forum.
It should be noted that most plants do not like hard water (with an indicator of total hardness gH above 8 ° and temporary carbonate hardness kH above 6 °). If the indicators of your tap water exceed this indicator, then it is necessary either to select the appropriate types of plants (and there are not so many of them), or to lower the hardness – this is done by adding reverse osmosis or distilled water. If you can not get it, then use boiled water without sediment.
Another option: check the rigidity of various types of bottled water and try to find among them soft.
Based on the results, the selection of plants begins.
Choosing a flora for a miniature reservoir is often not an easy task. If a quarter of a century ago, 10-15 species of aquarium plants were available to most domestic aquarists, then today 200-300 species are actively used in the design of aquariums.
Almost all existing species of aquarium plants are the result of breeding. Therefore, when their content is not enough to repeat the parameters of natural water bodies, which are the birthplace of specific plants. Studying aquarium plants (photos, titles and descriptions), pay attention to the basic conditions of their content.
First of all, these are the lighting parameters. Incorrect selection of lighting will lead to plant diseases and the appearance of algae in the aquarium.
Also important are the temperature and hardness of the water, the nature of the soil.
If you focus on breeding fish, then the plants for the aquarium should be selected taking into account the requirements for the content of fish. It should also be remembered that with some fish plants are absolutely incompatible. Some fish damage only delicate plants (Sumatran barbs).
For aquariums with similar fish should choose hard-leaved plants.
When planning an aquarium, it is important to pay attention to the compatibility of aquarium plants. The opinion that some plants emit some substances that inhibit the growth of others is groundless. Different growth rates can be caused by the fact that there are slow-growing and fast-growing plants.
In addition, different species require different conditions and feel differently in each particular aquarium. By opening the catalog of aquarium plants, you can familiarize yourself with the requirements for the care of aquarium plants.
Algae in an aquarium are single and multicellular organisms that enter the water with food, fish or plants. They fill areas of soil, glass and leaves of plants inhabiting the aquarium.
Algae block the supply of nutrients to the aquarium flora, which delays its development and can lead to death.
To reduce the chances of algae development in the first weeks of the installation of the aquarium, it is necessary to immediately abundantly colonize it with plants. It is best to use fast-growing plants, such as hygrophil, cabomba, peristristum.
Later they can be replaced by a flora with a slower growth.
It is also extremely important not to allow direct sunlight to reach the aquarium and to maintain the correct light conditions.
To decorate any object, a sketch is needed, and the aquarium is no exception. You can draw a sketch of a future composition or make a seating plan.
Larger plants should be placed in the background of the aquarium, and undersized – in the front, then both foreground and background will be visible equally well.
At the initial stage, fast-growing plants will revive the aquarium. They receive food directly from the aquatic environment and actively recycle organic matter.
A common variant of the plant for placement in the background is Nomaphila stricta or Nomaphila corymbosa, which is also called Lemongrass. This plant is very popular among fans of aquariums due to its color and size. Lemongrass leaves are light green, oval-shaped, silver-colored below.
If you have a large aquarium, this plant will be very profitable to look at it.
Above you can position the ground cover plants: they quickly grow, fill the slightest cracks in the ground, creating a kind of green carpet.
Ground cover plants require no less maintenance than other aquarium plants. They must be periodically cut and thinned, creating the necessary conditions.
Recently, new trends have emerged in aquarism, and the use of ground cover plants has shifted from simple decoration to an aquascape and various design techniques that create special conditions for ground cover plants.
If you have chosen several types of plants for which soil is necessary, it is desirable to settle each species separately, dividing them with decorative elements.
Aquarium plants are divided into 3 large groups: plants, the optimal location of which is located in the water column; plants requiring soil; plants that live on the surface of the water.
Below is a list of the most common aquarium plants and indicate their conditions of maintenance.
Plants requiring soil
|Title||Family||Water parameters||Lighting Requirements||Ground Requirements|
Water banana or banana plant (Nymphoides aquatica)
Floating in the water column
Hydrocotyl white-headed or White-headed Thistle (Hydrocotyle leucocephala)
Cladofora spherical or Egagropila (Cladophora aegagropila, Aegagropila sauteri)
Ludwig Creeping (Ludwigia repens or Ludwigia natans)
pH is neutral, slightly acid
Moss key or Fontinalis (Fontinalis antipyretica)
pH is neutral, slightly acid
Naiad Guadalupe or Naiad fine-toothed (Najas guadelupensis, Najas Flexilis)
Indian fern water (Ceratopteris thalictroides)
pH is neutral, slightly acid
Brazilian Peristomist or Brazilian Uruti (Myriophyllum brasiliense)
Azolla Caroline or Water Fern (Azolla caroliniana)
Humboldt swamp flower (Nymphoides humboldtiana, villacrisia humboldtiana)
Limnobium stalkoniferous (Limnobium stoloniferum or Salvinia laevigata)
pH neutral or slightly alkaline
pH is neutral or slightly acid
If your favorite pet has no wool and claws, feathers and beak, then, most likely, its body is covered with scales, and instead of a warm rug or a spacious cage, it needs an aquarium. Fish – one of the most popular pets, they calm the nervous system, do not require daily combing wool, walking, do not tear wallpaper, and generally quite unpretentious.
The only thing that is required for a long and good life of fish is a clean aquarium with suitable plants, fresh water and food.
All plants for the aquarium are divided into several types:
one. Required planting in the ground plants. Among the plants of these species, one is accustomed to being accustomed to being constantly underwater, as well as those that require a semi-submerged state. Here are more specific examples:
- alternantera lilatsina. Beautiful plant with bright leaf color. In an aquarium, alternantera are usually planted on the middle ground. It should be borne in mind that in the state of complete immersion in water the alternantra practically does not develop and, moreover, does not give flowers. In the half-submerged state, the plant grows, but also rather slowly;
- Anubias Afzeli. Flat large leaves of Anubias up to 20 cm in length, fluctuating from any stream of water, create a feeling of the bottom of a natural reservoir. The plant looks quite impressive in an aquarium, but very capricious, therefore, it will require a lot of time and effort to care;
- cardamine. A plant with heart-shaped leaves, due to which it received the second name “core”. Planted on the average plan, creates a feeling of thick green.
Plant growth in an aquarium will depend on their ability to be in a state of complete immersion. Some species are grown in swampy soils and only when the plant reaches the desired size, they are planted in the ground in an aquarium.
2 Floating plants in the aquarium. For large aquariums fit plants floating in the water column. These include:
- Kladofa spherical;
- peristrist Brazilian;
- Elodieus leafy, Canadian;
- winged fern, Thai, Indian water, horned.
3 On the surface of the water The following types of plants are floating:
- limnobium is a wilder;
- Pistia (water salad);
- riccia floating;
- duckweed three-part, small;
- salvinia floating, eared;
- eichornia starting (water hyacinth).
When choosing plants, their external features should also be taken into account: the width and density of the leaves, the length of the stem, the number of leaves. If you place floating plants with opaque leaves in the middle layer of a small aquarium, and light-loving plants on a low stem near the ground, then after a certain time after planting light lovers may die due to its lack, because the light will be delayed by floating plants.
It is also necessary to take into account the growth rate of plants, because the neighborhood with fast-growing “brothers” can turn into death for weaker plants.
Many wonder how to plant plants in an aquarium.
First, before planting, the plants should be cleared of snail eggs, pollution, algae. Secondly, the plants need to be sanitized.
To do this, it is placed in a pink solution of potassium permanganate for 20 minutes and washed with hydrogen peroxide solution. Completing the “bath procedures” washing with clean water.
When planting plants in an aquarium, their natural growth angle and the depth of the root system should be taken into account. Some plants require a deep “fossa”, for some it is enough to make an oblong fossa and arrange the roots like a fan.
The main condition for planting is not to make the plant live “not by its rules”: if the root system is straight, then you should not bend the roots.
Plants in the aquarium are necessary, their positive impact is simply impossible to overestimate. They can plant an aquarium, leaving 2/3 of it free for fish.
The variety of aquatic plants suitable for aquariums is large.
In general, all plants for an aquarium can be divided into the following categories:
- those that float on the surface of the water;
- plants that are mounted in the ground;
- plants that don’t care exactly how they are located in the aquarium.
Those plants are actually very much. We will tell and show which plants take root better in an aquarium and require minimal maintenance. So, let’s begin:
- Duckweed. It is a great addition – it creates a beautiful view and is popular with most aquatic inhabitants. Its only drawback – it quickly covers the water cover, preventing the flow of light. It should be thinned periodically, leaving a few leaves on the surface.
- Vallisneria. Unpretentious and fast-growing plant. It is indifferent to the composition of the soil, the amount of lighting and the temperature of the water. It grows bushes with narrow ribbon-like leaves, sometimes decorated with small cloves.
- Echinodorus gentle. Looks like ordinary lawn grass. Excellent carpeting for the bottom of the aquarium, besides, quite unpretentious plant that is very important for beginners aquarists.
- Hornpaw The plant looks like a Christmas tree. It grows quite quickly, has a huge amount of needle leaves on the trunks. Serves as excellent protection for small inhabitants of an aquarium.
- Elodea. Very easy to care and quite common weed for the aquarium. Requires good lighting, otherwise sheds leaves.
- Limnobium. Floating plant, similar to lake lilies, only small in size. From the leaves there are long roots that like to eat fish and shrimp. It grows pretty fast.
- Java moss Very beautiful plant. It does not grow very quickly and is quite demanding of lighting. They are usually wrapped snags for decorating the underwater world.
- Riccia. Floating plant growing fast. As it grows, it grows and sinks to the bottom. It looks very bright and beautiful. It can cover large spaces at the bottom, creating green islets. She is very fond of eating aquarium inhabitants.
- Heleocharis needle. Outwardly similar to echinodorus, only much thinner than him. At the slightest movement of water in the aquarium, it waves beautifully, creating an unsurpassed design effect.
When you decide on what plants you can plant in your tank, you need to learn how to care for them. The general rules for aquatic plants relate to ensuring their sufficient illumination and feeding.
Fertilizers for plants in an aquarium are necessary for their normal growth and reproduction. For aquarium plants such trace elements as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium are important.
There are many ready-made fertilizers, organic and inorganic. General purpose liquid mixtures are suitable for dimly lit aquariums.
There are also individual liquid supplements with micro and macro elements for aquariums with an average level of illumination.
Fertilizers in the form of a dry powder consisting of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are suitable for well-lit aquariums. They are more economical than liquid.
However, you need to have some experience for the correct calculation of the required amount.
If you are a beginner aquarist, it is recommended that you use ready-made liquid top dressing for general use.