A thirty-liter aquarium is the lot of more experienced aquarists. More space, however, gives more responsibility.
You can already equip in such an aquarium a permanent, permanent life support system for fish, but you need to take care of all this.
But you have the opportunity to get more exotic aquarium fish, waterfowl, large frogs. You can create all the conditions for the comfort of your living creatures, and, in addition, think about a full cover for the aquarium, in which, among other things, you can install the correct lamp for interior lighting of the aquarium.
Buy an aquarium for thirty liters – this is not only a pair of guppies and gourami, but a greater scope of imagination in the picturesque design of the underwater landscape, the wealth of inhabitants. One can no longer think too much about settling together a brood of shrimps, snails, a large catfish and a family of viviparous and spawning fish.
The choice is made, the acquisition took place, the question arises: how to properly arrange the aquarium to 30 liters?
Do not rush to launch animals. It is necessary to carefully prepare and create optimal conditions. They consist of:
- optimal lighting;
- water purification (filtration);
- preservation of temperature;
- safe biocenosis (compatibility of selected plant species, snails, amphibians, fish and other biological organisms).
Illumination of the aquarium in most cases occurs in two ways – natural light penetrating into the room during the day, and lamps that strengthen near the aquarium or in the lid. Many believe that it is enough to place the aquarium closer to the window and this will be enough, but this approach is fundamentally wrong.
First, fish and plants will receive a catastrophically little light through all obstacles: a window, a curtain, a glass of an aquarium, and the like. Secondly, the basic meaning of the aquarium is lost – aesthetic pleasure from the contemplation of the aqua-landscape and the inhabitants.
Therefore, competent aquarists approach the issue of lighting carefully and pedantically, and resort to a variety of options for artificial light. In the thirty-liter aquarium, we now have room for the choice of lamps and types of lighting, so we will try to carefully consider all the options.
Lamp for aquarium 30 liters should have a secure mount and create the optimal luminous flux. For this purpose, incandescent lamps (ordinary household electric lamps), fluorescent or LED lamps can be used.
The power of incandescent bulbs is determined at the rate of 1.2-1.5 watts per liter of volume. This kind of lighting is simple, but has several disadvantages: its luminous flux is clearly directed to one point, the water around this place is very hot, and the power consumption is unreasonably high.
The water in such an aquarium may begin to bloom, the walls are covered with yellow (if there is a lack of light) or green (if there is a surplus) with bloom. In aquariums equipped with electric lamps, a frequent visitor is a blue-green alga and “black beard”.
It is advantageous to equip an aquarium with a size of 30 liters with luminescent lighting options (sufficient power will be 15–20 W). Lamps can be daylight or have a certain yellowness. Their mechanism of operation provides a good light output, efficiency and the absence of a heating effect.
The disadvantage is the mercury vapor contained in the instrument. In the case of the smallest crack or split, they will fall into the air of the room and create certain problems for people’s health.
The optimal and modern option for nano aquariums – LED lamps. They are certainly more expensive, but economical, safe and effective.
In addition to the options described today, designers use low-power lamps that have color shades. Thanks to them, the scales of fish shimmer, the green of the plants becomes expressive, and the corals and other design elements acquire a mysterious appearance.
For greater effect, place them at the bottom, along the line of intersection of the faces, behind the rear wall.
Continuous water purification is a definite benefit. Modern filters do not purify water from everything, but from pathogenic bacteria, dirt, rot from plants and feed.
The fish quickly become accustomed to the fact that the water flows are constantly distilled, and do not experience such stress as from the constant dragging of the filter, with which we can push ten liters in an aquarium and twenty in an aquarium. There are a great many filter models, and it is not difficult to choose the best option.
The filter operates under the pressure of a mass of water. Therefore, it makes no difference what size the filter is: the main thing is that it maintains the necessary power.
For small aquarium devices, this power is optimal from 25 watts to 40 watts, although too powerful a device can work poorly and overtake too strong streams of water.
The safety rules for the filter, regardless of its power, are the same:
- The filter can not be permanently left in the aquarium off. If it still happened, or you turned off the light for a long time – you need to get the filter out of the aquarium and how to clean it.
- You can not stick your hands in the aquarium when the filter is running. However, this applies to any electrical equipment that is directly related to the aquarium. Thus you can get a discharge, inadvertently jerking touching the device, not particularly strong, but quite tangible.
- The filter must not be allowed to remain in the air: it must be completely immersed in water, otherwise it affects its performance.
- The filter, which was permanently removed from the aquarium, cannot be immediately installed back: you must first wash it or completely replace the filtering material in it.
- Just bought the filter must be thoroughly washed, so that the factory smell and accidentally caught bacteria do not harm the fish.
The filter should be placed no closer than three or four centimeters from the bottom, and ensure that this gap remains constant, as the water from the aquarium tends to evaporate, especially under intense lighting.
But at the same time it is necessary to observe the golden mean, and not to leave the working parts of the filter on the air: the device must be completely covered with water. A broken and malfunctioning filter must be removed immediately from the aquarium.
Life in an aquarium of 30 liters, especially if it is not the smallest varieties of fish, is full of problems. One of the main ones is the lack of oxygen, as a result of which the artificial microclimate suffers and:
- fish suffer from asphyxia;
- vegetation has a dull color and does not grow well;
- waste products of living beings do not decompose and create prerequisites for the processes of decay.
To avoid this, a thirty-liter aquarium must be equipped with an aerator (or compressor) for air injection. Today there are many options for sale.
Based on the existing canons (for 1 liter of water a power of 1 W / h is needed), a 30 W compressor will be a good option.
Install the device outside the aquarium. The hose from it is easily pulled to the bottom and ends with a spray. Often, for the original design, he hides inside the shells, in design objects, or simply in thick plants.
This gives the inner world originality and similarity with the depths of the sea.
The disadvantage of such compressors is buzzing during operation, especially for devices of considerable power. Many of them have a work force switching regulator.
During the day, you can switch it yourself.
You will also need to install a heater (for a cold period of time) and a thermometer to monitor the temperature of the water.
It depends on what you will grow. If plants are not supposed, then it does not matter.
And so is the best and most universal soil for plants (based on their experience) coarse-grained river sand with a fraction of 3-5 mm. As a rule, everything grows in it.
It also depends on what kind of fish you will contain, i.e. if there are a lot of sand-digging fish (for example, catfish), you do not need to be too small, for obvious reasons, that there would be no eternal dregs.
For many large tsekhlid – need stones, but a little more, these beasts love to plot construction sites and can smash all the soil at random. .
What kind of primer is definitely not needed:
- painted Chinese trash with glass. Not only does it release into the water all sorts of rubbish, and fish can be injured.
- limestone, it greatly increases the hardness of the water, it is bad for many fish and plants, check the soil – dripping vinegar on it, if not fizzing, you can go to the aquarium.
- contaminated with oil waste and gasoline, do not wash anything.
Plants are needed for natural filtration, creating shade for secretive fish. Greens are involved in many biological processes that take place in a water body, for example, it absorbs carbon dioxide or harmful inorganic compounds. Beautiful and unpretentious plants:
- Java moss;
- Geterantera questionable;
When making an aquarium of 30 liters, study the conditions of the fish. Remember that bright and contrasting fish look advantageously against a dark background.
Some fish species are sensitive to angular stones and decorations.
Mineral rocks can be collected in nature. It is important that the aquarium stones do not contain limestone. You can check the stones, dripping vinegar on them.
If the reaction went with the release of bubbles, the stone is unusable. When you buy from a store or find stones in nature, rinse with a brush and boil.
Quartz, granite and flint will do.
Like stones, you can collect in the forest. Look for wood in a place with a favorable environment.
Snags that have been in the water for a long time will do. After collecting boil for an hour.
More information about snags in the aquarium in a separate article.
Avoid shell decorations (they increase water hardness), metal ornaments, materials used in gardening.
We recommend to familiarize yourself with the video, which says about the design of a 30-liter tank:
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