The filter for an aquarium is a life support system for any aquarium. Fish produce various wastes and if they are not removed, pollution can lead to the death of the fish, as they will not be able to survive in their own waste.
In nature, toxic waste products of fish, such as ammonia, dissolve in a large volume of water or carry them over. The water in the aquarium has limited volumes and we cannot change the water all the time, so we use technical developments and some help from mother nature to establish effective filtration.
Filtration keeps the water clean by mixing it and removing various slurry and fish waste. Without filtration, aquarium water may quickly become cloudy and an unpleasant odor will appear.
Worse, in such water, fish often get sick and even die.
When it comes to filtering water, it can be done in three ways: mechanically, biologically, chemically – using various fillers for aquarium filters.
– traps debris and solids in water. When they are clogged, filtering is inefficient, the pump / pump may be reduced or stop, so they must be regularly cleaned or replaced with filter materials.
Common forms of mechanical filler: sponge or filter fibers.
– This is the processing of fish excrements and other organic particles into less harmful forms, perhaps the most important in an aquarium, because without it fish can die from ammonia poisoning. For biological filtration, we use a porous filler with a large surface area, but not the filler performs biofiltration – but what lives on it, which is very important.
Biological filler is home to nitrifying bacteria. The greater its quantity / volume, the greater the area of the useful surface and the more bacteria can live there.
These microorganisms consume a lot of oxygen coming to them from the pumped water, so the long shutdown of the filter leads to their death due to lack of oxygen. Dead bacteria emit substances hazardous to fish, so when the filter is turned off for more than one hour, it is necessary to thoroughly rinse the filter sponge to avoid the ingress of poison into the aquarium water.
The biological filter / material should not be washed under a tap, as chlorine and chloramine will kill the bacteria. It should be washed with water taken from the aquarium, this water should not be poured back.
An example of a biological filter material is ceramic rings or plastic balls. The sponge will also work as a biological filter.
For the formation of new beneficial bacteria takes time, so the filter should work all the time and off for a maximum of one hour.
often used to fine tune aquarium water. The most well known is activated carbon; it absorbs any impurities from water and makes it crystal clear and odorless.
Coal filler is good because it is more porous and has a large absorbing surface area. Resins are also used as chemical fillers for filters and can be used to remove phosphates, nitrates and other organic pollutants.
They can be used along with other filter media to control the development of algae in your tank.
Filters can be divided into internal and external, electric pump-filters and air filters. Internal filters are located inside the aquarium, respectively, while external filters are located under the aquarium in the cabinet / stand, are mounted on the back of the aquarium or can be built into its cover, above the water level.
Modern filters can be equipped with additional options:
1. Device aeration.
2. The movable outlet tube changes the direction of water flow.
3. The power regulator makes it possible to reduce or increase the flow of water.
4. Built-in heater.
5. Built-in UV sterilizer.
6. The power indicator helps determine the strength of the water jet and pump performance.
7. Electronic module with software.
This is by far the most popular and most suitable filter for small aquariums and novice aquarists. In fact, the device of all internal filters is the same: aquarium water is passed through the filtering material. Filtering materials are located in a plastic container, in the walls of which there are holes for the passage of water.
Water is passed through the filter using an electric pump located in the upper section of the filter. The lower part of the filter is removable and resembles a hollow glass, in which filter materials are laid.
Device and principle of operation of internal filters.
Some internal pump filters are supplied with a water flow regulator and aeration device that supplies air to the water. Although traditionally available such as mechanical and biological filters, modern internal filters are equipped with other additional options.
1. Find a suitable place in the aquarium for the internal filter. Installing the filter in the far corner makes it easy to hide the tubes and equipment for plants and other decorations.
2. Insert the new replacement filter media. Place the filter in the aquarium and press the suction cups against the glass.
Ensure that the filter is securely fastened.
3. Double check that the filter is immersed in water, then plug the power cord into an electrical outlet or power strip. You will see bubbles coming out of the filter as soon as it begins to pass water through the cartridge.
Variants of placement of the internal filter.
Internal pump filters are the most widely used type of aquarium filter. This is especially true for small and medium aquariums, in large aquariums, as a rule, it is better to install together with an external canister filter.
The traditional external filter consists of an airtight canister, connected to the aquarium with a hose at the inlet and outlet. External filters are larger and more powerful than most internal filters and can accommodate much more filter media, offering better cleaning and support for more fish.
External filters are not particularly interchangeable for large aquariums with a dense landing and with large fish.
Device and principle of operation of external filters.
External filters are designed for various types of filtration – mechanical, biological and chemical; therefore, they are universal. Installed under the aquarium, which provides ease of access and maintenance.
The best of them are those that come with an autorun mechanism, which means that they are easily filled and run right on the spot.
Most of the air filters are in the past, but they are still used. Airlift filters are perhaps the weakest, so they create a slower flow of water and are less likely to be able to suck on small inhabitants.
Because of this, pneumatic filter sponges are popular with fish razvodchiki, and in individual use is suitable only for small – nano-aquariums, while air pumps consume a small amount of electricity, offering low operating costs.
Ways to use air filters.
Bottom air filters were once very popular, but they can inhibit the growth of plants. The bottom filter can be upgraded by installing a power head – a pump.
Which one is better for me?
1. The choice of filter may depend on your budget, experience and the types of fish you want to keep. The quality of filtering depends on the amount of filtering material, so the more, the better – it is in the order of things.
2. External filters are more expensive, a bit more complicated in technical setup, but they are the best filters for your fish.
3. For small aquariums, an internal pump filter will be sufficient.
Different brands of filters for aquarium can vary significantly in their filtration capacity, noise category and durability. Well-established brands are usually more expensive, but may be more profitable in the long run.
Most people are satisfied with less expensive brands, as they meet their needs and budget.