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Aquarium care and maintenance for beginners

maintenance, care, compatibility

What to do to breed fish? Where to begin?

How to make the first launch of the aquarium at home? What are the most unpretentious fish? Do I need seashells in the aquarium?

What kind of ground to choose? These and many other questions arise for beginning aquarists when they decide to buy a home aquarium and breed fish.

Of course, experienced aquarists already know many secrets and nuances in this difficult hobby of fish. And what should newcomers do in this case?

And in today’s article we will dwell in detail not only on what aquarium for beginners is, but also on what to do in order to create a real work of art at home.

Aquaria – a very delicate matter. If you buy aquariums for beginners, it is best to focus on their equipment and only then think about starting.

After all, everything requires maintenance and care, and the aquarium is no exception to the rules. In the new aquarium, the water needs to be changed not immediately, but only after several months. And the basic rules for the care of an artificial reservoir – is the replacement of water, but partial.

You also need to look for algae. Do not forget to change the filter, clean the soil.

Do not forget to also check the readings of the thermometer. And remember, you need to disturb the aquatic inhabitants as little as possible.

Fish do not like it.

The third rule – conditions for fish: what should they be?

The fourth condition is the right equipment.

The fifth rule – the filter must be washed in the aquarium water

The seventh rule – the launch of a new fish spend slowly!

The tenth rule – aquarism is my hobby!

The most important thing in aquarism is to fish with great enthusiasm, but without forcing yourself. Make it so that it brings pleasure and enjoyment.

After all, this is a real vacation at home. Near the artificial reservoir can spend a lot of time watching the behavior of fish.

In addition, scientists have proven that running and monitoring fish leads to normal blood pressure and calms the nervous system. And if there are small children at home, then this is also a very good educational moment.

After all, since childhood, caring for fish will teach them to care and attention. After all, probably, very few people want to see that the first experience with the aquarium is bitter and ends with the death of the fish.

After all, it often happens that novice aquarists, who have not coped with the problems, put an end to their dream.

Do not leave immediately, and after a while there will come a period when an experienced aquarist grows from an inexperienced beginner who will help the same beginners, like him, who buy aquariums for beginners himself just a few weeks or months ago. Believe it is not difficult!

It would seem that difficult to care for the aquarium? I fed the fish, and once a month I poured water, washed it with soap and boiled all the stuffing, filled it with clean water. Everything sparkles the first two days.

The fish are probably happy, they only live for some reason not for long. Of course, we described an extreme case of amateurish zeal, but let’s still examine the basic principles of caring for our little body of water.

Being a real ecosystem, the aquarium at the same time is small in size and is an open-loop system, and therefore unstable. Organic matter comes in from the outside in the form of at least fish food, it is inhabited by animals that feed, grow, produce waste and multiply, live plants that consume some substances from water and release other substances into it.

Therefore, to maintain an artificial reservoir in the form it was conceived – clean, bright, smelling the freshness of a forest lake – some, sometimes significant, human effort is required.

Caring for an aquarium usually takes 10-20 minutes daily and an hour and a half extra once a week.

Daily care procedures include:

  • check equipment operation;
  • inspection of fish;
  • feeding fish (this is a very broad question and a topic for a separate article).

During the launch of the aquarium or when there are some global changes in it, for example, when populating a large number of large fish, replacing the biofilter filler or installing carbon dioxide supply equipment, it is also advisable to test the aquarium water daily, checking the level of ammonia, nitrite, pH and other parameters.

  • water change;
  • cleaning the soil from excrement, food residue and other waste, siphon, if necessary;
  • cleaning the glass from algae;
  • washing the filter (not always, depending on its type);
  • care of plants (dressing, pruning).

Testing water once a week for nitrogen compounds, phosphates, hardness and acidity is also very useful for monitoring the condition of the aquarium, but in a stable and prosperous bank is not mandatory.

During cleaning it is necessary to turn off electrical equipment. Only an external canister filter can be left on if its water intake hose is low enough and remains below the water level. As for the internal filter, if the cleaning is ordinary and does not take long, it can be left in the aquarium in the off state.

If the cleaning is large, general, cleaning all the decorations, weeding and transplanting plants, draining a significant part of the water, the internal filter is placed in the drained aquarium water and turned on so that the bacteria colony does not die.

At the time of cleaning the fish are usually not evicted from the aquarium.

First proceed to clean the glass. To do this, you can use different devices, each of which has its advantages and disadvantages:

  1. Long-handled scraper with permanent or replaceable metal razor blades. A very effective thing, but not suitable for cleaning Plexiglas aquariums, as it can scratch them. When choosing such a scraper, you need to pay attention to the strength of the handle (if it is too flexible, you will not succeed with the necessary force and at the right angle to press on the glass). In addition, the metal blade should not be longer than the plastic cover and stick out of it on the sides, as in this case, when cleaning around the corners, you can damage the silicone joints of the aquarium.
  2. Magnetic scraper is extremely handy when cleaning large and deep containers. Suitable for cleaning plexiglass. When choosing, it is necessary to take into account what thickness of glass the scraper is designed for, otherwise the power of the magnet may be insufficient and the scraper simply will not attract. Using this device, you must be very careful when cleaning the glass near the bottom, so that there is no pebble or grain of sand between the scraper and the glass. They will leave deep and visible scratches on the glass. Usual household sponge washcloth. Many aquarists use just such, but they are made from materials of different stiffness, and some are completely capable of leaving scratches on aquarium glass, which individually are almost invisible, but over time make the glass all the more cloudy.
  3. The usual bank plastic card has perfectly proved as a scraper. It does not spoil the glass, and its only drawback is the lack of a handle and, accordingly, some inconvenience of use.

Green algae, torn off from the surface by a scraper, if there are not too many of them, can be left out of the aquarium, and left in the water, the fish usually eat them instantly and with great pleasure.

Some aquarists recommend that the rear window of an aquarium should not be cleaned of algae, as it is usually almost completely hidden by decorations and plants, and the algal plaque usually does not spoil the appearance of the pond, and nitrates and nitrites from the water slowly consume. And if you lead several algae fish, then the raid will not remain either on the rear window or on the viewing window.

Now, when our glass is clean, it is the turn of the ground.

The frequency and intensity of water changes depend on the biological load, that is, on the quantity, size and voracity of the aquarium inhabitants, as well as on their requirements for water quality: it is clear that the concepts of cleanliness differ from the discus and, for example, spore frogs.

With the average population of the reservoir and the fastidiousness of its inhabitants, substitution is usually carried out on a third, quarter or fifth of the volume every week. Ideally, to establish a substitution schedule, it is necessary to test the water in the aquarium and determine the nitrate content in it. It should be at the level of no more than 10-30 mg / l.

Accordingly, if the concentration of nitrates in water is higher, then water must be changed more often.

To carry out a substitution, it is necessary to prepare water with the same or very close parameters (temperature, acidity) as in the aquarium. Most aquatic animals prefer water that settled for at least 24 hours.

If you can not defend the water, you can use air conditioners, for example, Tetra Aqua Safe or Dennerle Avera.

Part of the water from the aquarium is drained using a siphon or hose, the end of which must be placed near the bottom. In order to easily navigate how much water you need to drain, it is convenient to make a mark on the glass.

Fresh water is poured with a hose, bucket or other container, while the jet is directed not to the ground, which is thus easily eroded, but, for example, to the grotto or placed on the bottom of the saucer.

The aquarium filter has several functions. The most important: it must trap particles of dirt and turbidity (dead organic matter, food residues, mineral turbidity from the substrate) and be home to biofilter bacteria.

The accumulated dirt in the cleaning process should be removed, while the colony of bacteria should be left as safe as possible. These conditions determine the rules for cleaning the filter.

First question: when is it time to clean the filter? It is easy to determine by the power of its jet. Having bought a new filter or having its next general cleaning, notice or remove on video what kind of power the jet has, you can see it, for example, by the vibrations of nearby plants.

If the jet is weakened, it’s time to wash the filter.

Usually, internal sponge filters are washed once a week, as are often sponges of internal filters, where there are compartments with porous fillers (these compartments themselves often do not need to bother!). External canister filters are cleaned less often, once in 6-10 weeks, in some models the prefilter sponges, parts of which perform preliminary mechanical filtration, are washed weekly.

In any case, the filtering materials are carefully washed and rinsed in water drained from the aquarium in order to minimally damage the colony of nitrifying bacteria. The same rotor head is washed and cleaned with the same water with a cotton swab or toothbrush – the engine compartment of the filter.

After cleaning, the filter is placed in the aquarium as soon as possible and turned on.

Usually, fertilizing plants is carried out once a week, if necessary. In addition, the leaves are covered with algae or eaten by fish and snails, the tops grown from the water are cut off, you can trim or weed out overgrown bushes and grass.

These are the basic rules for caring for an aquarium. Of course, sometimes there are situations when additional, more complex interventions and manipulations are required, but if you master these basic principles, you will gradually be able to easily master all the other knowledge and skills.

Video lesson about proper care of the aquarium:

Aquarium breeding is not difficult, if you do not take very demanding types of fish. There are many nuances that need to know an experienced aquarist, but you still get to them. And what should a beginner do?

You say to yourself: I want an aquarium! Where to begin?

We have prepared for you 10 golden rules that will help you to do everything right in the aquarium from the very beginning. The main thing is not to overfeed the fish. In the new aquarium it is better to feed the fish once a day, but after a while you can increase the quantity, following the rule – a little and often.

The main cause of problems for beginners aquarists (often even experienced ones) is too abundant feeding. Aquarium is a closed environment, so that it does not get into it, it will become part of the water in which the fish live.

The food gets into the ground, where it rots, releases toxic phosphates, accelerates the growth of harmful algae, and makes the aquarium look unhealthy. Overfeed the fish and the water becomes muddy, the fish get sick, and the glass will cover the disgusting algae.

How to understand if you are overfeeding fish? Everything that you threw into the aquarium should be eaten within a minute, if the food fell to the bottom or was not eaten in a minute, this is wrong!

The exception to this rule is catfish, they need sinking food, such as pills, and even if they fell to the bottom, catfish will quickly destroy them.

In the new aquarium, it is better to feed the fish once a day, but after a while you can increase the quantity, following the rule – little by little and often. Arrange a fasting day once a week – do not feed the fish, this will allow them to stay healthy and look for food on their own.

The most important thing is to enjoy your aquarium and fish, and spend a lot of time with it. Aquaristics is a rest, a part of real nature in our home, and it is not as difficult as it seems.

Try, make mistakes, but do not throw and after a while, you will already help beginners.

Continuing the article about the installation directly: How to run an aquarium?

Maintaining order in the aquarium seems like a no-brainer. For some reason it is considered that you need to change all the water in the aquarium.

But the main things are a partial replacement of water, removing dirt from the ground, removing algae, and cleaning the filter. All this is enough to do once a week.

And for the new aquarium water replacement is not needed! Only after a few months you need to start regularly changing up to 30% of water.

If your fish is sick – not eating, hiding, losing color, or behaving strangely, and the water quality and conditions in the aquarium are normal, then it is often difficult to understand why the fish got sick. Beginners often do not take into account one important factor – the environment in which the fish lives. Everything, for example – rocks, plants, decor, even other fish affects your pets.

If you take a small fish that lives in nature in densely overgrown, shady ponds and streams and put it in your aquarium with bright soil, light and no plants …. It will experience stress, it will get sick or die. Take the same fish, run into the aquarium with plants, soft light and she will eat well and grow.

When you buy fish, do not take all that you like. Now a lot of information, read, think, learn and compatibility of different types and you will not have to be disappointed.

Filters, lights, soil can directly affect how well your aquarium will look. It is unlikely that you will put a filter that suits the whirlpool, but a weak filter is a common mistake.

As a result, the gradual deterioration of water quality, poisoning of fish and plants. Small internal filters are good for beginners, but they often fail and spoil the aquarium with their appearance.

For aquariums longer than 60 cm, it is worth thinking about the internal filter, which filters much better.

As for the soil, you need to understand – whether you want to keep live plants in the aquarium. If so, the best choice is fine gravel is a good choice.

It is well filtered, not stale, unlike sand. But if you want an aquarium with beautiful plants, look in the direction of branded soil mixtures.

They are not cheap, but they give excellent results.

A very common mistake when aquarists wash the filter and its contents under running water and with soap. Such a wash harms both the fish and the bacteria that live inside your filter and help establish a balance.

Always wash the filter only with the water you have collected from the aquarium.

A new aquarium is not settled, it needs time so that the bacteria decomposing waste multiplied and settled down. If you run your tank too fast, add too many fish, you can get a bacterial outbreak, turbidity and fish death.

Launch a new aquarium slowly. Add fish a little, once a week.

The bulk of the problems in the aquarium lies in the quality of the water. Therefore, it is important that you know everything about the water in the aquarium and regularly conduct tests.

Water tests are very simple, and a scientific degree in chemistry is completely unnecessary. In most cases, a simple set can be found in the nearest pet store.

Buy, it will help to avoid serious problems.

Aquarium plants are all for beginners with photos and video


I propose to see beautiful photos of naturally decorated aquariums with plants.





Hope the article was helpful for you.
I think that the stated material has debunked
The myth “On the complex maintenance of aquarium plants.”

Plants are an established aquarium biosystem, no harmful substances in the water, no algae.

Everything is simple! Aquarium plants are the primary indicator of the status of your aquarium.

If the plants “wither”, turn yellow and rot – this is a sure sign of the poor condition of the aquarium and conversely lush, beautiful spreads – this is a 100% indicator of the excellent state of the aquarium world.

Aquarian plants are a natural interior and “maternity hospital” for fish, fry, shrimps, snails, etc.

Plants are an additional food for aquarium inhabitants.

By the way, about the question of the correct planting

Guppies (lat. Poecilia reticulata) – these fish are among the most popular aquarium pets. Today, there are various breeds of guppies with beautiful fins and bright patterns on the body.

They are great for beginners, because the content of guppies in an aquarium will not be difficult. These are viviparous fishes, the females of which produce full fry.

They are hardy and unpretentious, but they should be provided with high-quality care and maintenance so that the fish live as long as possible (up to 5 years).

Proper fish care can only be ensured if the aquarium is properly installed. Proper setup of the tank does not take much time.

Guppies can transfer a wide range of parameters of the aquatic environment: pH 5.8–8.5, although ideally the pH should be 7.0–7.2. The recommended water hardness is 15 dH. Fish are not recommended to settle in banks or round mini-aquariums.

It will be uncomfortable for the fish to live there, and caring for them will be difficult – it is difficult to clean the walls of a round can with a scraper. To install the heater, filter, compressor, lighting, decor and plants, you need a spacious rectangular tank.

The breeding of fish should also occur in a rectangular aquarium or spawning.

To prevent the temperature of the water from fluctuating within wide limits, install a heater in the aquarium that will regulate it. Guppies prefer water at a temperature of 23-26 ° C.

If you need to quickly grow fry fish or stimulate reproduction, you can raise the temperature to 27-28 degrees.

Quality care is not possible without lighting, which can indicate many problems in the aquarium. Bright lighting will be a source of vitamin D, and the lack of light can cause spinal curvature.

Abundant, constant coverage will also harm pets. For fry, the optimal amount of daylight hours is 4 hours a day, and 8 hours of darkness.

At night, the light must be turned off (after 8-10 hours of light for adult fish). You can purchase a timer for luminaires, which are automatically turned on and off every day.


Filtration system – to keep the aquarium water clean. When the filter filler begins to darken, it is a signal that it is time to replace it.

It is impossible to replace all the filtration systems at once, otherwise the beneficial bacteria will disappear. They decompose ammonia in water, which is formed from fish waste. It is better to cut the sponge, and replace the second half with a new one.

If you use activated carbon as a filler, change it more often and according to the instructions. Also replace once a week with 25% water for fresh.

Air pump – supplies oxygen to the aquarium water. It will pump out air bubbles and create a current, saturating water with oxygen.

Plant in aquarium live plants that also emit oxygen. These can be stile-leaved species: anubias, cryptocoryne, elodea, arrowhead, aponogeton and others.

The scenery – not only decorate the aquarium, but can also serve as a shelter for fish. At the bottom of the aquarium, lay out sand or gravel, in which it is easier to place live plants and structures.

Do not forget to install shelters in the form of caves, grottoes, pipes, clay pots.

See how the guppy fry are born.

Breeding guppies and caring for their fry is quite simple. Fish that have reached the reproductive cycle, enter reproduction by themselves, being in the general aquarium.

Before giving birth, the female’s abdomen swells severely, becoming almost square in shape. As a rule, they give birth within a month, so the pregnancy of the fish is easy to notice.


Already a few days before giving birth, a separate tank for fry should be ready, since breeding guppies is fraught with parents eating the fry. To increase the chances of survival of fry, you can put dense bushes of living plants in the general aquarium, which will create shelters. You can prepare a separate pit for the female, which has holes for fry.

After the female has given birth to fry (sometimes it can happen within 24 hours or more), she can be transplanted into the general aquarium almost immediately. But it is better to place the female guppy in a tank with a separator a week before giving birth.

With a sharp change in the situation, the female may have a miscarriage.

In fry, immunity is not as strong as in adults. Fry need to be fed frequently – 3-4 times a day. Guppy fry should be 2.5 cm in length per day when they are placed in a common aquarium with adult fish.

Starter feed – Artemia larvae, branded food for guppy fry.

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