Agriculture is the main industry where fishmeal is used. As a valuable component of animal feed, its nutrients, vitamins and trace elements help accelerate the growth and development of pigs, cows and birds.
For gardeners and farmers, fertilizer from the waste of soft tissue, bones and shells of the inhabitants of the seas and oceans serves as an indispensable aid in the cultivation of various crops.
Fishmeal is a source of vast amounts of vitamins and minerals.
Fishmeal is a substance in the form of powder or granules, obtained by drying and grinding fish processing waste, as well as from the remains of butchering marine mammals and seafood. Of the six tons of muscles, bones and adipose tissue, about one ton of the finished product is obtained, the quality of which depends on the composition of the raw materials.
Usually it is anchovy, pollock, flounder, herring, mackerel, sardine, whale, pinniped and crustacean meat. In flour with a fat content of more than 8%, stabilizing additives of the antioxidant ethoxyquine are necessarily present.
In fact, fishmeal is the remnants of fish and other sea creatures ground to flour.
Products manufactured in the Russian Federation must comply with the requirements of GOST 2116-2000 “Feed meal from fish, marine mammals, crustaceans and invertebrates.” For research, samples are taken from several batches with different production times.
This allows you to identify violations even before they go on sale.
The chemical composition of the product is given in the table:
|Protein||from 60 to 62|
|Fat||from 7 to 12|
|Humidity||from 6 to 8|
The main indicator of the quality of fish meal is fat. The correct balance of fats in the body stimulates the production of antibodies that fight pathogenic microbes. Proteins – sources of easily digestible protein, which is digested by 95%.
Flour includes proteins and amino acids, is rich in vitamins A, B, D, E, contains calcium, phosphorus, iron, iodine and successfully complements the components of plant origin in the feed.
Calcium is responsible for the formation of bone tissue, phosphorus accelerates growth, iodine is necessary for the thyroid gland. Vitamin A is involved in redox processes in the formation of new cells. Vitamins of group B are responsible for the nervous and cardiovascular systems, vitamin D promotes the absorption of phosphorus.
A number of amino acids, such as cystine, methionine, lysine and threonine, are involved in the construction of muscle fibers. Polyunsaturated acids are responsible for producing progesterone, which has a beneficial effect on reproductive abilities.
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The manufacture of fish meal is one of the important areas of fish processing in the national economy. Every year from 5 to 7 million tons of this desired product is produced in the world. which is done in one of two main ways:
- Fishing The process is carried out directly on the vessel from the extracted catch. Take frozen fish and waste of its cutting. Raw materials are not the most selective, but the quality of such a product is much higher, as there are no chemical additives in the composition. The main drawback is the content in the finished flour from 2 to 5% of impurities of sand entering the network.
- Shore. Fish caught and frozen during fishing is processed at special plants already on land. This is more effective in terms of the average daily processing of raw materials, but the main drawback is the presence of extraneous chemical components. The maximum possible protein content is about 70%, but in reality these values are rare.
There are a couple of well-known methods for the production of fish meal: processing fish waste directly on board and processing on land
Manufacturing technology for many years has not undergone significant changes and is carried out in several stages:
- Cleaning the fish mass from debris and dirt. Special devices are used for removal of metallic impurities.
- Grinding of raw materials. Fish cutters and crushers of various designs make it easier to release fat and water. The resulting fragments are easily exposed to high temperatures.
- Cooking. In the heated drums, equipped with paddles-mixers, the crushed raw material is loaded and processed for about 30 minutes to obtain a viscous semi-liquid mass.
- Pressing. The use of devices of various designs allows you to divide boiled composition into fat, water and protein components. It turns out the pulp with a moisture content of about 50%, and the fat-containing liquid is collected to obtain fish oil.
For a long time, the process and technology of production of fish meal do not change.
- Drying. There are two ways to remove moisture from the pulp: fire and steam. In the first case, the resulting flour becomes black, because under the influence of flue gases the protein burns out. When processing hot steam, a higher quality is achieved: the protein reserves are practically not lost, but the process itself is associated with energy costs and increases the cost of production.
- Grinding dried stuffing. The mass is ground in rotary crushers and sieved. The size of the grains depends on the humidity.
- Packaging in tara. Electronic or mechanical scales are used for weighing, and for packaging, bags made of cloth, polypropylene, multilayer paper, jute fiber, plastic bags or special containers.
The production technology is simple, but it is problematic to implement it at home, since special equipment is required: presses, dryers, conveyors, crushers. This affects the quality and cost of the finished product.
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Flour is made in different quantities by almost all countries with maritime or ocean borders. Its appearance and quality depends on the type of fauna in a particular fishing zone.
For example, Chile uses scad and anchovy as raw materials, and Japan uses sardines. Peru, Mauritania, Thailand and Morocco are considered the largest manufacturers in the world.
First place in the ranking belongs to Peru. But when trying to analyze why the number of flour products produced in this country (more than a million tons) exceeds the catch of live fish every year, a number of questions arise regarding the use of chemical additives.
The second place is occupied by Mauritania, which, when processing various varieties of fish, achieves a protein content of 62 to 67%.
Fish meal is made in all countries where there is access to the sea or ocean
Imported flour is expensive, so Russian farmers are increasingly inclined to purchase products from domestic producers. Its price is lower, and the quality is almost as good as the Chilean and Peruvian counterparts.
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The product of fish waste processing has found wide distribution in various branches of agriculture. Its use in fur farming contributes to the improvement of consumer qualities of rabbit fur and nutria.
Fishmeal flour has proven itself in farms for breeding pigs, cows, chickens, quails and other birds.
When feeding animals Pay attention to the following product features:
- Composition. This flour contains calcium, phosphorus and salt. The presence of feathers, meat and bone waste, soybean meal, urea makes it useless to observe the recommended dosages.
- Freshness. When stored in hot unventilated warehouses or under the open sun, the reaction of fat oxidation takes place, as evidenced by the smell of rancid old lard. Such a product is prohibited to use because it causes irreversible changes in the digestive organs and ends in a lethal outcome.
When used in poultry farming, fish meal allows chicks to grow quickly, gain weight, and also supports immunity. In the diet of chicken supplement is from 5 to 10%, adult birds – from 2 to 5%. Chickens are more likely to rush and better digest food, and eggs become more nutritious.
Healthy broilers gain weight well. It is important to balance the diet and sharply reduce the amount of additives 2 weeks before slaughter, otherwise chicken meat and eggs acquire a specific taste and smell.
Fish meal is a necessary component of animal feed in feeds, which influences the proper and full development of livestock and poultry
The effect of use in pig breeding is expressed in improving the appetite and immunity of the population. For piglets, supplements in the diet are recommended from 5 to 15%, for adults – from 2 to 4%. In sows, the fertility and survival of the offspring increase, boars become more productive, and piglets with gilts develop faster and gain weight.
Fresh fish waste is used as feed, and 2 months before slaughter they are excluded from the menu.
Fish meal is useful for cattle at all stages of development. The share in feed of calves and young stock varies from 3 to 7%, adult animals – from 1 to 3%. Daily supplements to the diet of pregnant cows increase fertility, improve the health of the offspring, improve the quality of milk, and calves grow well.
Meat breeds are developing rapidly and gaining weight, have a flourishing health and good digestion. Bull-makers are fertile and hardy, have strong immunity.
2 months before slaughter, use of the supplement is discontinued.
Domestic cats and dogs willingly consume fish meal in the composition of the finished feed mixtures, with the dosage instructions indicated by the manufacturer on the package. The beneficial effect on immunity and development, strengthening of bones and muscles, improving the quality of wool is achieved due to the high content of fats, vitamins and amino acids.
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The use of fish meal in gardens and vegetable gardens has a beneficial effect on the composition of the soil, helps to increase the yield and improve the quality of vegetables and fruits. Fertilizer enhances cellular metabolism, and during the growing season it compensates for the loss of nitrogen and phosphorus.
It is acceptable to apply even one or two weeks after the end of the harvest, then the powder or granules are scattered evenly over the area before digging.
It is believed that the flour from the bones of fish contains more phosphorus, and from the soft parts – nitrogen. All useful components will remain in the soil until spring and will become a top dressing for crops when they land next year. The properties of the flour are enhanced when used in combination with wood ash and nitroammofoska.
This fertilizer is useful for solanaceous crops, the yield of which immediately responds to the absence of phosphorus in the soil.
Fishmeal is also used in plant growing as a fertilizer for the soil.
When using fish meal for top dressing of various garden and garden crops follow simple rules:
- Potatoes. Fertilizer is applied to the soil a week before the planned planting of seed material. Consumption is 100 g per 1 square. meter area.
- Tomatoes. In the process of planting seedlings in each well put up to 40 g of flour. To enhance the effect, it is recommended to add bird droppings as well.
- Fruit or ornamental trees. Top dressing is used for adult plants with a frequency of 1 every 3 years and a dosage of up to 200 g of fertilizer per 1 sq. Km. meter surface pristvvol circle.
- Berry. In early spring, 100 g of flour per 1 sq. M. meter of plantation, and when transplanting shrubs and propagating by cuttings, the consumption is reduced to 50 g per well. Additionally used bird droppings.
- Bulbous plants and flowers. Fertilized in the spring at the rate of 50 g of flour per 1 sq. Km. meter of soil. Perennials respond well to such dressing, and when planting annual crops, it is introduced for digging.
Proper proportions of fertilizer for certain plant species must be observed.
Fertilizer based on fish meal is well suited for loosening chernozem, loam and calcareous soils. The indication for use is the lack of phosphorus and calcium compounds.
Therefore, prior to top-dressing, soil analysis is performed to identify the level of acidity and the composition of macronutrients.
An excess of nutrients is contraindicated in the same way as a deficiency, and adversely affects the quality and quantity of the crop. On clay and marshy soils, as well as in conditions of sandy soil, flour is poorly absorbed by the root system of plants, and its use is useless.
Stacks of bags or containers of fish meal contain in rooms with good ventilation, past treatment from pests. Storage areas protect against sunlight, the negative effects of moisture and heat. Storage times are recommended by manufacturers and are:
- 1 year – for products with a fat content of less than 14%;
- 6 months – for flour with a fat content of more than 14% and water not more than 8%.
With an increase in storage time, product characteristics are deteriorating. So, for a month under normal conditions, the amount of protein is reduced by 12%. While maintaining negative temperatures, protein loss is minimal, but the durability of the powder is significantly reduced.
Raw fat is oxidized, its mass fraction is reduced by a third, and this is the main cause of loss of product quality.
For proper storage of fish meal, it is necessary to observe the temperature and monitor the humidity in the room.
In the storage rooms should be maintained at an optimum humidity of 60 to 70%. In the conditions of raw unventilated warehouses, flour is actively saturated with water vapor, and in overly dry warehouses, on the contrary, it gives them away.
At high humidity and temperature, vitamins are destroyed, and as a result of the interaction of components, free fatty acids, peroxide compounds and ammonia are released. These undesirable chemical reactions turn useful flour into a harmful and even dangerous substance, so the product is not subject to long-term storage.