maintenance, care, compatibility
Scalaria (lat. Pterophyllum scalare) fish is large, voracious, eager for fry and shrimp, but beautiful and with interesting behavior.
High body compressed from sides, various colors, rather large sizes, accessibility, all this made it one of the most common and popular fish that almost every aquarist contained.
Angelfish are very beautiful and unusual, popular among experienced aquarists, and among beginners. In nature, they are camouflaged, with black streaks along the silvery body.
Although there are changes there, fish without bands, completely black and other options. But, it is precisely this tendency to change that aquarists use to bring out new, brighter views.
Now many different types are displayed: black, marble, blue, koi, green angel, red devil, marble, diamond and others.
Despite the unusual shape of the body, they belong to the same species as the discus, to cichlids. It can be very high, and reach a length of 15 cm.
Medium in complexity, but the scalar needs a spacious aquarium so that it can swim without problems. The minimum volume is 150 liters, but if you contain a couple or groups, then already from 200 liters. How many live scalaries?
They live in an aquarium for a long time, 5 years or more.
Angelfish can be kept in the general aquarium, but do not forget that they are cichlids, and it is not desirable to keep very small fish with them.
The floating crescent, winged leaf, or angelfish rightly takes the place of one of the favorite fish of many breeders, perhaps due to its unusual body shape and soft, but diverse and beautiful colors, and possibly due to its active behavior and livable character. This fish is quite capricious and demanding to the conditions of detention, especially with regard to the purity of the water and the quality of food.
Therefore, if you decide to settle it in your pond, then you need to thoroughly prepare for it.
Aquarium. Since some individuals can grow quite large, then the aquarium will need a lot.
For example, for two pairs of medium-sized fish, it is better to take a 60-liter container, no less. Moreover, the width of the vessel does not play a big role, but the height of the aquarium should not be less than 45 cm.
Temperature. Some sources indicate that scalar can live successfully in the temperature range from 16 to 35 degrees.
However, we would not advise you to experiment like this, it is a big risk to undermine the health of your pets. The optimum temperature is 23-26 ° C.
Acidity should be maintained at 6.5-7.4, and the rigidity – 18.
Water. Prerequisite – clean water. To ensure it, you need to install a good (bottom or canister) filter, replace a fifth of the water weekly and wash the aquarium itself at least once every 2 months.
We add that the filter should be without a violent ejection of water, as the angelfish do not like a strong flow.
Lighting should be bright, but without a sharp change of day and night.
Vegetation. It is recommended to plant aquarium densely with plants, providing space for swimming. Superficial plants can also be used.
They will dim excessive lighting and create a sense of security in fish.
Priming. As the soil is good to use coarse sand, fine gravel.
Angelfish do not have the habit of digging it up.
Registration. Housing can be decorated with snags, decorative rocks and stone gorges.
Caves and shaded areas will serve as shelters. The main principle of selection is safety.
There should be no sharp corners.
The nature of the angelfish is peace-loving, some individuals may not attack small fish and their brood, but it is worth remembering that all cichlids are predators. When settling in a common aquarium, you must be careful. Representatives of their species will be good neighbors for them, or other fish: corridors, tetras, gourami, lyalius, iris, plecostomus, combat, barium, rasbor.
With large aggressive cichlids, some species of barbs, cockerels, goldfish content is unacceptable. Proper care will ensure the fish a long life – the scalar can live 10 years or more.
Care and maintenance:
- The fish requires good aeration and filtration of the reservoir, as it is used to clean and oxygenated water. Replacement of 20-30% of water 1 time per week is required.
- The reservoir does not need to be tightly closed with a lid, the scalar is not jumping fish.
- Maintenance and care for the scalar will be comfortable if you provide them with moderate lighting with LB lamps of 0.4-0.5 W per liter of water. The tank can be placed in a quiet, quiet place where there is no access to bright sunlight. As plants, use hard-leaved species with wide leaves (vallisneria, echinodorus, cryptocoryne). Soil – washed coarse sand or gravel.
- Scenery for the reservoir: rocky rocks, caves, grottoes, snags. They love a large space, so one pair of fish is better to settle in a minimum 100-liter aquarium.
Watch a video about the content of angelfish in the home aquarium.
Angelfish care and maintenance spawning breeding description
These fishes liked many aquarist lovers for a long time. They contain and breed scalar fish in aquariums for a long time, so these fish managed to adapt and get used to any conditions. What allows you to call them unpretentious fish.
Scalyarium is suitable as soft water, and water with medium hardness.
The optimum temperature for a comfortable fish is 23-26 degrees Celsius. They can withstand the gradual cooling of water to 16 degrees.
If necessary, fish can and transfer the temperature rise to 38 degrees. Scalarfish grow large, especially males, and therefore for their favorable maintenance you will need an aquarium that will be high and in volume from 120 liters.
And the width of the aquarium can be any. These fish prefer fresh and clean water, so you will need to regularly change the water in the aquarium.
Angelfish love when calm and peaceful fish in the neighborhood. Not a single fish of prey can resist its long fins, an irresistible desire to bite and pull will appear.
Therefore, for these fish, the best neighbors will be guppies, gourami, neons. But you should follow the rules, hook the fish about the same size.
After all, an angelfish like any other large fish will be happy to eat fry of swordtails or neons.
These beautiful angelfish are usually kept in groups of 4-6 individuals. During the life of the fish themselves are divided into pairs.
In such groups, the principle of hierarchy prevails. The largest pair takes the best place in the aquarium.
Those fish that were left without pairs become an object that everyone else is chasing. The latest single scalar get access to feed.
In order to avoid actively chasing groups in the aquarium, it should be planted abundantly with plants or even fish should be planted.
Fishes love to eat bloodworms, pipemakers, gamarus. Fry love to eat daphnia. In the diet need to introduce granulated feed and flakes.
You should take into account the fact that with such a discoid body shape, the angelfish is difficult to lift the food from the bottom, so the fish should be fed in small portions, in different parts of the aquarium. Sometimes fish may refuse to feed, but this is temporary and completely normal.
Content angelfish will require good aeration.
MOLLINESIA CONTENTS FEEDING COMPATIBILITY SPREADS CARE DESCRIPTION
These fish are so long bred in aquariums that they have become unpretentious and accustomed to various conditions. They are able to live in water of different hardness. The most acceptable temperature for the scalar is 24–26 ° С.
They are very hardy and can tolerate both a rise in temperature to 35 ° C and a decrease in temperature to 16 ° C. But still, you should not allow significant fluctuations in temperature, so as not to harm the fish.
Angelfish grow quite large, so the house in which they will live should be large (at least 60 liters). The content of the scalar in an aquarium assumes the presence of large, dense vegetation, stones and snags.
The width of the aquarium does not really matter, as these fish species are adapted to life in narrow channels. Despite the fact that the scalar is very hardy, the maintenance and care of this fish must meet the following parameters: pH 6.5–7.3 (during spawning pH 6.5–6.8); dH – not higher than 18.
It is necessary to constantly maintain the necessary parameters of water and saturate it with oxygen.
Caring for scalars in an aquarium involves living in small groups. These are schooling fish that do not tolerate loneliness.
In addition, they are very loyal to their partner. On average, 4–6 individuals should be settled, which will be further divided into pairs.
The peculiarity of this species is that they are very shy and may lose their color. These surprises include lighted light or a knock on the walls of the aquarium.
Angelfish are considered one of the most peaceful, and their content with other fish should not cause trouble and surprises. They live without problems with the same non-conflict individuals, as neighbors are perfect: gourami, mesonaut, apistogramma, swordtails, mollies, petilles, termination and other species.
It is not necessary to move aggressive fish to the scalar, which can bite her fins or fast fish that will annoy her. Small species should be avoided, as they themselves can become food for scalar.
During the spawning period, it is necessary to provide this pair of fish with peace and additional care.
Feeding will not provide difficulties and special difficulty. They feed mainly on live food: coretroy, bloodworm, daphnia. It is necessary to avoid feeding the pipe worker, because it can become a source of fish disease.
Young angelfish can eat the leaves of plants and algae. Young animals should be fed with fish fry and mosquito larvae.
A supplement to the diet can be dry granulated feed.
Adhere to simple rules on the content of these fish, and they will delight you for a long time.
The unusual shape of the body, dim, but diverse and beautiful colors, active behavior and quite livable nature – all this can be said about the aquarium fish scalar. If the floating “crescents” have conquered your heart, then we will tell you about how to properly contain an angelfish.
Angelfish – the fish is quite capricious in conditions of detention. They are especially demanding on the quality of food and clean water.
But, let’s talk about everything in order.
So, let’s start preparing for the new home for your new pets. Adult scalars are quite large – about 30 cm in height and 15 in length.
Therefore, an aquarium for scalar needs a big one. For example, for two pairs of housing volume should be at least 60 liters.
In the corners you need to locate aquatic plants, since the scalar are, by their nature, very cautious and shy and like to take shelter in dense thickets on occasion. In addition, these fish love bright light.
Scalarians need clean water, so the filter should constantly work in the aquarium, and one fifth of the water should be replaced once a week. The tank should be washed periodically, at least once every couple of months.
Angelfish in an aquarium get along quite well with almost all other peace-loving aquarium fish. The main thing is that all the fish should be about the same size, otherwise the smaller scalar neighbors can serve as food for them, and the larger ones may well pat the long scalar fins.
And, of course, the size of your tank should match the number of its inhabitants.
Another important point – the water temperature in the aquarium for the scalar. These fish are very sensitive to temperature changes and do not like cold water, therefore it is necessary to maintain about 23-26 ° C. There are allegations that scalar dwellers can live very well at a temperature of 16-18 ° C, but we would not advise you to experiment (especially if you are a beginner aquarist) so that you do not have to treat your pets.
During spawning or treatment of diseased fish, the temperature in the aquarium should be raised by several degrees.
Aquarium fish angelfish in food is not particularly whimsical, the main requirement – the feed for angelfish must be of high quality. To feed them it is generally desirable with live food (bloodworm, shaker, etc.). It can be alternated with special dry food and cereal.
The youngsters with pleasure eat live daphnia.
It is best to use feeding troughs for feeding the scalar, because of the unusual body shape, it is very difficult for these fish to lift food from the bottom of the aquarium. It is also necessary to monitor the amount of feed, as they are prone to overeating.
Grown-up scalaries form monogamous couples and, with proper care, often and successfully spawn. If you are going to breed fish, then it is advisable for you to purchase another aquarium that will become spawning. You can either spawn one caviar into it, or with your parents.
The first few clutches are usually unproductive. and most often the fish themselves and eat their eggs. It’s best to let them do it.
After a few spawning periods, the couple will train, her natural instinct will wake up, and parents will begin to actively take care of their offspring. During this period, the scalars become aggressive and will chase all their neighbors, protecting the clutch.
With all the conditions of keeping the scalar, their life expectancy in the aquarium is approximately 10 years. Summing up, we can say that caring for aquarium fish is troublesome, but interesting and yet not very difficult.
We wish you success!
The Amazon River has a slightly acidic pH and a mild level of hardness. Perhaps the most unusual hydrobionts live there, distinguished by their unique appearance and special structure of the organism. In the warm tropical waters of the scalar can live 20-25 years.
However, in an aquarium where space is limited and the diet is not so diverse, their lifespan is halved. The built environment, which is completely dependent on the person, does not always provide the fish with a balanced environment.
With proper care, regular cleaning of the reservoir, aeration, scalar live 10 years or more. If she is provided with constant care, without ignoring all the content requirements, she will live an order of magnitude longer, even 20 years. It seems that 10 years is not a long time for joy, I would like more.
But this figure is considered to be solid for not very big aquarium fish.
Watch a video on how best to care for scalars.
The life expectancy of an angelfish in an aquarium can be 15-25 years, if you follow a number of requirements. First, be sure to launch these fish into a spacious tank of at least 100 liters per pair (female and male). Secondly, install the compressor and the aerator, the fish saturated with oxygen will only be delighted.
The compressor must be turned on for 20-30 minutes twice a day.
As for the general cleaning in the aquarium, it does not need to be carried out too often. If you remove the remnants of food and rotted plants in time, the water can be changed less often, some people manage to keep the water in crystal purity for more than six months. Otherwise, water replacement should occur at least 3 times a month.
Be sure to clean the soil, wash the walls of the tank and the filter from the accumulated dirt, green algae. Watch the water temperature – the new water should correspond to all the parameters of the “old” one.
Do not forget that the angelfish will live more years if the feed in the aquarium is not worse than they are fed in the wild. In the wild, they are omnivorous: they feed on insect larvae and insects, zooplankton, and plants. Therefore, they can be fed all appropriately feed: artificial for cichlids, dry, frozen and live.
You can not give bloodworms and tubers, because they do not live in weakly acidic water. You can see how the fish form brownish blisters at the anus – these are the negative effects of feeding the bloodworm and the strawman.
What decorative angelfish eat: micro-worm, artemia, earthworms, snails, koretra, daphnia, cyclop, lettuce and spinach. It is not recommended to give meat to warm-blooded animals that are saturated with fats. Feed pelleted with spirulina can be additional feeding.
You need to feed such portions so that the fish ate the food in 2-5 minutes. Overfeeding is also harmful and shortens the life of fish, food debris can oxidize water, spoiling its quality.
See how to care for scalars to prolong their lives.
Because of the violation of metabolic processes, improper conditions of detention, untimely hygiene, fish can get sick, having lived in an aquarium for few years. With poor aeration, the fish have difficulty breathing, hold on to the surface of the water, gasping for air.
The eyes become pale, the gills from the inside become covered with necrotic plaques. In this case, you can gradually increase the aeration by adjusting the temperature of the water and the supply of oxygen.
If it seemed to you that the angelfish in the aquarium is sluggish, swims slowly, the anus is inflamed on the body, this is a disturbing signal. Hexamitosis is a parasitic disease of the gastrointestinal tract. Late intervention with the use of drugs can lead to infection of other fish or death.
It is possible to treat with erythrocycline baths with trichopol (50 grams and 10 grams, respectively, in proportions to one liter of water).
A scalar can form a fin rot, which is a consequence of infection with a rod-shaped bacterium. This is the result of heavily polluted water if it is rarely changed.
On the body of a scalar appear white turbidity, also the eye corneas turn pale. Later the rays of the fins begin to exfoliate and fall off, ulcers form.
The consequences of such a disease can be lethal – a fish will live for few years if it is infected from time to time. Treatment of fin rot: take malachite green, hydrochloride and bacillin-5 (in proportions of 0.1 mg, 100 mg, 4000 units per liter of water, respectively).
The solution is added to a water tank. Be sure to process the decorations of the aquarium, plant plants bacillin.
Ringworm – a disease of fungal origin, which reduces the number of years of fish life. Late treatment will be fatal. Symptoms: white bloom on the body.
Later, the fungus can spread to the internal organs. For treatment it is necessary to use streptotsid, bacillin-5, copper sulfate, potassium permanganate (in the proportions of 1 gram, 4000 units, 0.5 gram, 0.05 gram, respectively).
Timely prevention of diseases, quarantine and quality treatment prolong the life of pets.
Fish that are planned for further breeding should be kept in optimal conditions. For scalar water temperature is of particular importance, which should not be below 27 ° C. The second most important factor is the quality of the feed, future producers should eat during the whole life with live food (moth, tubule, daphnia, etc.), or in their frozen form.
Angelfish, grown exclusively on dry food, are usually smaller in size, their color is paler, and they are often incapable of reproduction.
In good conditions, scalars can spawn every two weeks, provided that the eggs are immediately removed.
Males and females must always be kept together before spawning, since the preparation of males for spawning and the maturation of their genital products takes place only when females are present.
Stimulate the spawning by increasing the water temperature by 2 ° C, frequent changes (3-4 times a week at 10%), while it is better to add distilled or boiled water to reduce its hardness in the aquarium. Large-leaved plants should be present in the aquarium, you can also put a piece of plastic or ceramic tile on which the scalar can spawn.
Usually, fish of this genus are not deposited in a separate spawning farm, allowing them to spawn in a common aquarium.
A pair that is ready for breeding can be recognized by the female’s abdomen and its changed behavior — future parents begin to jealously guard their territory and clean the surface on which they will spawn.
Angelfish, like other cichlids, take care of their offspring, but their parental instinct is not so strong, and this care usually lasts only 2-3 days. After spawning, the producers begin to protect the eggs from other fish in the aquarium, fan the eggs with the pectoral and dorsal fins, lift the eggs that fell from the substrate, and eat the whitened ones.
In some cases, they take care of the offspring until the moment when they start feeding on their own. I must say that this care is very useful for the fry.
But, unfortunately, such an exemplary behavior is more likely an exception to the rules, and usually producers just ate eggs for a few hours after spawning or after dark. Therefore, if you do not want to take the risk, figuring out how caring your angelfish are, it is better to transfer the eggs to a separate aquarium 2-3 hours after spawning.
The caviar incubator is prepared as follows: a small aquarium with a capacity of 5–10 liters is half filled with water from the aquarium where the producers are kept. The second half is filled with distilled water.
A heater set at a temperature of 30 ° C and an air dispenser are placed in the incubator, and after an hour the substrate with caviar is lowered there so that the caviar is washed by the current from the dispenser, but air bubbles do not fall on it.
For the prevention of fungal caviar damage, methylene blue is added to the water to an intensely blue color or the drug Sera mycopur at the rate of 1 drop per liter. It is useful to place small plants in the incubator, for example, a duckweed or riccia, they will work as a biofilter, preventing a jump in the level of nitrogen compounds in the aquarium when the fry begin to grow rapidly.
In addition, ciliates and rotifers breed in the thickets, which will then become food for the fry. Lighting should be around the clock.
Even if there are no plants in the incubator, it is necessary to leave the night light on at night.
The next day, the whitened eggs are removed.
After two days, the shell of the eggs breaks and turns into sticky cords, on which the larvae hang, moving with the help of a tail-like flagellum. Approximately on the fourth day in the larvae, heads and yolk sacs can be distinguished, due to the stocks of which they feed.
The larva is constantly moving, trying to break free from the cord attaching it.
After 7–12 days, the cord breaks, the fry begin to swim. By this time, the yolk sac is almost empty, and it is time to start feeding the fry. Fully feed them with egg yolk and dry food is impossible, so live food is prepared in advance: they breed ciliates, daphnia, and on day 5 after spawning they start to incubate Artemia.
Feed the fry 5-6 times a day. It is now necessary to place a small filter in the aquarium, and in order for the fry not to go there, the lower part of it is covered, for example, with a nylon stocking.
If there are a lot of fry, some of them will need to be planted from the aquarium, now their density should be no more than two per liter of water, otherwise the level of ammonia and nitrite can rise sharply. The water change is carried out once a day by a third, before feeding, previously removing the remains of food from the bottom of the siphon.
In about a month or one and a half, the fry will acquire the shape typical for the scalar, after which they will again need to be seated in a container at the rate of 4–5 liters of water per fry. At this age, they are fed with a cut pipe maker, small moth, you can begin gradual training to live food, and after a short time settle them in a common “adult” aquarium.
As you can see, breeding an angelfish is troublesome, painstaking, but very interesting. Even if not everything comes out from the first, there will be a chance to try again, because a pair of healthy fish in good conditions often spawn. And sooner or later, a stubborn aquarist will be able to boast a flock of bright young angelfish, which he raised from eggs.
Now it remains only to find them a new home, thereby increasing the number of fans of these amazing fish.
Read about the content of the angelfish in the following article, and now a short video about the spawning of these fish: