maintenance, care, compatibility
Aquarium plants are all for beginners with photos and video
Plants are an established aquarium biosystem, no harmful substances in the water, no algae.
Everything is simple! Aquarium plants are the primary indicator of the status of your aquarium.
If the plants “wither”, turn yellow and rot – this is a sure sign of the poor condition of the aquarium and conversely lush, beautiful spreads – this is a 100% indicator of the excellent state of the aquarium world.
Aquarian plants are a natural interior and “maternity hospital” for fish, fry, shrimps, snails, etc.
Plants are an additional food for aquarium inhabitants.
By the way, about the question of the correct planting
the photo shows the rules of planting aquarium plants
List of all aquarium plants with the name, with a link to the photo and description
I propose to see beautiful photos of naturally decorated aquariums with plants.
For the life of underwater inhabitants are important algae in the aquarium. Species, which we present below, perform several important functions.
They create a special aquarium biosystem, purify water from harmful substances, serve as a natural interior and “maternity home” for fry, fish, snails, shrimps, additional food for many underwater inhabitants, and finally just decorate the house: with them your home water will look natural and aesthetic .
Often experienced fish lovers achieve amazing biological balance with the help of plants in an aquarium. They even eliminate the need for water filtration and mechanical aeration.
True, to accomplish this, it is necessary to know algae well for an aquarium. Photos and the name of these plants are often published in special editions for beginners observing the underwater world.
All plants can be divided into separate groups:
- floating on the surface of the water;
- mounted in the ground.
Often, novice lovers do not know the names of algae for the aquarium, but they notice them everywhere: on gravel and sand, plants and stones, equipment and walls. This is normal because algae are part of the balance of the reservoir, but only if they do not develop excessively.
In a balanced aquarium, there must be clear, well-cleaned, stirred water and perfectly clean glass, although many owners prefer not to clean all the walls: they leave the rear glass covered with fouling. Noticed: algae on the walls of the aquarium or on the stones absorb nitrates and many decay products, thereby reducing the growth of algae on the side and front windows.
In addition, some species of fish feed on the back wall, for example, all types of mail catfish.
Some types of algae are especially common and cause a lot of problems for aquarium owners. Here are some of them.
Algae in an aquarium, how to get rid of and fight with all their species
An algal flash is a visual indication of a violation (absence) of a biobalance in an aquarium. This is the loss of any link in the balance!
Finding out what link fell, you need to return it to its place. What a newbie to do is hard!
Here are the main reasons for the loss of the biobalance link:
– excessive amount of daylight in the aquarium or wrong aquarium lighting mode. Accordingly, it is necessary to reduce or adjust daylight hours.
Or in general, if possible, turn off the light for a couple of days, as a preventive measure.
– lack of daylight or the use of “wrong” lamps with a “wrong” spectrum. Accordingly, it is necessary to increase the light day or remove the lamps with a “bad” spectrum and you need to buy lamps for the spectrum or purchase lamps for the missing spectrum.
Read more Lighting aquarium and the choice of lamps and Lighting aquarium do it yourself.
– the presence in the aquarium of excess dead organic matter and dirt (dead plants, fish, food residues, kakul, etc.). Simply put, the aquarium does not have time to cope with so much “garbage” and the only way out of our beloved, living aquarium, is a call to help algae, who happily gobble up all this byaku.
Accordingly, it is necessary to remove all the “garbage”: siphon the bottom of the aquarium, clean the walls, decor and equipment, mechanically try to remove the algae, as well as make more frequent and more complete water changes for fresh, eventually, pour aquarium coal into the filter compartment.
– The following reason follows from the above and is a destructive continuation of the “dirt” in the aquarium. All dead organics are decomposed by beneficial bacteria and fungi, and removed from the aquarium. If this dead organic matter a lot and it accumulates, the microorganisms do not have time to process it!
In the aquarium, poisons begin to accumulate – decomposition products: ammonia, nitrites and nitrates, which leads not only to the appearance of algae, but generally ruins all life in the aquarium.
In addition to the above measures for thorough cleaning of the aquarium, you need to apply the following aquarium chemistry:
A) Zeolite. Sold in pet stores or other places.
For example, a mixture of zeolite and coal is ubiquitous. Fluval Zeo-Carb.
On a note: you need to know that aquarium coal is not effective from poisons and only ion-exchange resin – zeolite removes them. Read more …
B) Preparations of bio-starters, as well as preparations promoting the increase of colonies of beneficial bacteria. Simply put, these are drugs that contain the very bacteria that decompose poisons.
A lot of such drugs, for example, are popular: Tetra Bactozym, Tetra NitratMinus, Tetra NitrateMinus Pearls, Sera bio Nitrivec and others.
3. A large number of plants in the aquarium.
No one has scientifically proved that plants suppress algae, but the fact remains that in an aquarium with live aquarium plants (1/2, 2/3), there are no algal outbreaks, except greenish dots sometimes appear, and then from strong illumination.
Here is an example from my own experience. I had a herbalist for growth (I grew plants for the future of an aquascape), there were many different plants.
The time has come, I made my scape, spread out plants and flooded some algae (algae) in it, and this is all because the aquarium is young, the plants have not gotten stronger after transplantation, and their number has decreased. The time passed, the plants grew stronger and took over the lower ones and the thread disappeared.
Therefore, if you have the opportunity to provide plants with proper care: LIGHT, CO2, PLE – surely plant beds!
4. There are useful fish that fight – eat algae and algal plaque:
A) Siamese Algae Eaters – tireless workers of the aquarium, sometimes it seems that the only meaning of their life is the insatiable desire to kiss all the plants, suck all the stones and walk through all the aquarium decorations. They can still be found under the abbreviation SAE, which stands for Siamese Algae Eater and translates as Siamese algae.
There are also KAE and IAE – Chinese and Indian algae. Effective from algae “black beard”, “filament” and “deer horns”, etc.
B) Ototsinklyus – no less effective fish. Due to the structure of its mouth gently and well remove algae from plants, decor and walls.
Copes with green, brown (diatoms), etc.
B) Ancistrus– also helpful. But, unlike the aforementioned fish, adult antsistrus individuals are lazy.
And they say that in addition to algae, they chew and plants.
D) The whole family is also a good helper in the fight against algae. petsilievyh – guppies, swordtails, mollies, patcilia and others.
D) All possible clams. – apularias, coils, fizy, etc.
5. And finally, the aquarium chemistry will come to the rescue, the overwhelming algae. In pet stores sold a lot of these drugs, as a rule, in their name they contain the word “Algo” (alga), for example, Tetra AlgoStop Depot.
Use these drugs should be carefully, wisely and according to the instructions. I recommend Tetra products precisely because they have the mildest effect.
With proper applications – taking into account all the circumstances in the aquarium, Tetra preparations do not adversely affect the plants.
So, we have examined the main causes of the appearance of algae in the aquarium, as well as dismantled the main methods of dealing with them. Finally, it should be noted that, as a rule, “algal trouble comes in a complex”, and therefore it is necessary to deal with it in a complex, i.e. not one method, but several at once, if not all at once.
Algae in the aquarium – know the enemy in the face!
photo of thread in the aquarium
This is the most common type of filamentous algae that attack an aquarium. At first it looks like green down, then like long green strings.
When they occur, it is recommended to apply the above described methods of control. As well as in the literature it is noted that this alga appears due to the lack of macro elements. Surprisingly, in particular, phosphates and nitrates (of which everything is derived).
There is a positive effect when adding them. In advanced cases, algicidal preparations are used.
Kladofora (popularly known as Kladofora thread)
It has branching and does not have long strings. As a rule, it appears in aquariums with poor filtration, poor water flow and the presence of stagnation zones, where it “blooms”.
It is possible to get rid of it by eliminating negative factors, by mechanical means (by hand) and algicide.
This seaweed is very nasty and not only because it is slimy and green, but also because it grows with a geometric progression. It is difficult to withdraw – neither algaecide, nor SAE will help.
It is difficult, but you can defeat it mechanically: by manual selection, by rubbing it with your fingers (it is fragile), by pulling out from the bottom. As an additional measure of struggle helps: killing the light, fish and algae shrimp.
It can also be attributed to filamentous algae, because has a filamentous structure. As a rule, it appears in young aquariums, where the biobalance is not yet set up, which can be identically called the nitrogen cycle. This is not such a terrible seaweed!
It actually disappears after the establishment / restoration of the biobalance in the aquarium. Applies to it, all common methods of struggle are effective.
Most effective: water change and algaecide.
Already with this alga faced all and beginners and pros. It appears from the excess light or the wrong daylight mode. At the same time, plant biomass does not play a role.
It appears in aquariums with lush vegetation, and in the aquarium with “three rastyuchkami.”
Recommendations for combating xenococcus (the correct name is colekheta) are general: reduce, adjust daylight hours, algaecide, mechanical cleaning, fish and shellfish helpers, frequent water changes.
Algae in an aquarium are single and multicellular organisms that enter the water with food, fish or plants. They fill areas of soil, glass and leaves of plants inhabiting the aquarium.
Algae block the supply of nutrients to the aquarium flora, which delays its development and can lead to death.
To reduce the chances of algae development in the first weeks of the installation of the aquarium, it is necessary to immediately abundantly colonize it with plants. It is best to use fast-growing plants, such as hygrophil, cabomba, peristristum.
Later they can be replaced by a flora with a slower growth.
It is also extremely important not to allow direct sunlight to reach the aquarium and to maintain the correct light conditions.
Not all green algae in an aquarium are parasites: some of them belong to decorative species (for example, sparkle). The reasons for the appearance of malicious green Aquarius becomes excessive lighting and a sufficient amount of nutrients in the water. They harm higher plants because they shade them and absorb nitrates and phosphates intended for them.
In addition, this species changes the gas balance of water, which leads to a violation of biological equilibrium. In order to overcome this lower vegetation, it is necessary to resort to the following methods:
1. Lighting. It is necessary to change the light mode.
It is necessary to reduce the intensity and duration of both natural and artificial lighting.
2. Water change. In order to remedy the situation, it is necessary to regularly change the water, as well as clean the soil.
It should be done daily, otherwise the situation will only get worse, since clean water can only increase the reproduction of green algae. This method is best used in the case when the minimum number of fish in the aquarium.
3. Ozonation of water. It is necessary to create a strong current of water using a centrifugal pump, and apply a strong oxidizing agent, namely ozone.
With the systematic use of ozone will give good results: soon the flowering of water will stop, and the biological balance will return to normal.
GREEN ALGAE PHOTOS
Seaweed – this is not all that grows in water. So called lower, primitive photosynthetic organisms, often consisting of a single cell or several cells collected in colonies or filaments.
They live everywhere in the aquatic environment. They are distinguished from higher plants by the absence of developed organs: stems, leaves, flowers, and also the fact that throughout their history they lived exclusively in water, while the plants were formed on land, and only after that some of them returned to the water .
Why do algae sometimes capture an aquarium?
The laws of nature are such that living organisms settle everywhere where suitable conditions exist for them. The main thing you need to live algae:
Obviously, all this is in any aquarium.
Algae compete with flowering plants for light and macronutrients. Since the latter are more complex and highly organized, in favorable conditions they triumph in this competitive struggle, restraining the growth of their more primitive microscopic ancestors, taking away their nourishment.
However, they are older, smarter, more hardy, patient and less demanding. These, of course, are not properties of their character, but features of biology. Algae can form various types of spores and other structures that can survive adverse times, they need to illuminate a different spectrum, they have other, faster ways of reproduction.
And if the conditions in the aquarium are not ideal for higher flora, there will certainly be purple, diatoms or cyanobacteria, which will not delay to take advantage of this.
There are several sections of algae with different colors depending on the pigments they contain. Next, we describe how the representatives of different departments in the aquarium look and what conditions cause outbursts of their numbers.
Their cells do not have nuclei, so these organisms in the row of algae stand apart. In fact, they are bacteria that have acquired the ability to photosynthesis (in the course of it, sugar is formed from the energy of light from water and carbon dioxide in living cells).
Despite their low position on the evolutionary ladder, these creatures are extremely tenacious and plastic, and the damage they can do to an aquarium is difficult to overestimate.
Cyanobacteria form mucous membranes covered with large gas bubbles of a dark green or bluish film on the walls of the aquarium, soil, plant leaves, decorations. All this beauty (and in this sight there really is something fascinating, alien) delays the artificial reservoir at an incredible speed, emitting a noticeable stench.
The outbreak of the number of these organisms can greatly harm plants and fish even in natural conditions (cyanobacteria are the main cause of water bloom in the summer heat), and in an aquarium it is just a disaster that needs to be urgently addressed, and to save fish from death.
The reason for the uncontrolled reproduction of blue-green is a general failure of the ecological equilibrium, which results from a high concentration of organic matter in water, as well as nitrogen and phosphorus compounds due to systematic overfeeding of fish, irregular harvesting or death and decomposition of some of the fairly large inhabitants of the aquarium.
Often the situation is aggravated by an insufficient amount of oxygen in water, its alkaline reaction and high temperature.
Blue-green (cyanobacteria) photo IN AQUARIUM
Red algae (Rhodophyta) – bushy multicellular aquatic plants of dark gray, dark purple, olive or reddish. Otherwise they are also called crimson, they grow mainly in the seas, but about 50 species are found in fresh water. Compsopogon, which looks like dark gray bushes up to 5 cm in size, has become the worst enemy of aquarists.
They cling tenaciously to glass, snags, leaves. Rapidly multiplying, kompsopogon spoils the appearance of plants. Among aquarists, the plant has received the apt nickname “black beard”.
Red algae feel good in water with high temporal rigidity, as they are able to extract carbonic acid from bicarbonates.
RED ALGAE PHOTOS
Diatoms are unicellular organisms that have a silicon shell in the form of a box, many of which are capable of movement. The significance of diatoms in natural marine ecosystems is simply colossal, since they constitute a significant proportion of plankton and form a huge part of the organic matter of the earth (about a quarter), and their shells after dying are the basis of sedimentary rocks.
But in artificial reservoirs they, like their counterparts from other departments of lower plants, are unwanted guests. Brownish or brown algae in an aquarium, forming a slimy coating, especially in poorly lit places, often near the bottom – these are, as a rule, diatoms. (By the word “brown” – we mean only color, not systematic belonging, since Brown Alga proper is a separate department of highly developed marine organisms with large bodies, thallus).
The development of a certain amount of diatoms almost always occurs in the first weeks after the launch of a new aquarium. In long-running aquariums, diatoms appear in conditions of insufficient – weak and short-term – illumination or light of the wrong spectrum, without a blue and red maximum.
Their reproduction contributes to a pH above 7.5, high water hardness and a high concentration of nitrogen compounds. An outbreak of diatoms can cause an excess of sodium in water, which occurs, for example, after treating fish in a common aquarium by adding salt.
Diatoms (brown) algae in the aquarium PHOTO
This type of algae (although several species are meant by this name) is one of the most disliked aquarists because it is very difficult to fight. At first, these algae cover the edges of slow-growing plants, like Anubias, or grow in small bunches.
Then they cover all the plants in the aquarium, giving it an ugly look. For fish they are not dangerous.
Mechanically remove these algae is almost impossible. Blackout or chemistry with them, in principle, can be fought, but then they will grow back.
Some fish (siamese algae eater, for example) allegedly eat it, but on the condition that they are no longer fed.
black beard photo
Other algae species (filamentous, etc.)
These algae are of many species (hair algae, thread algae – filamentous algae, etc.). Hair algae, bright green color, grows on bunches of a ground, stones, etc. Easily removed mechanically or eaten by algae fish.
Thread algae, dark in color, grows in individual long threads. It is easily removed mechanically and usually serves as an indicator of excess iron in water (0.1-0.2 mg / l).
Algae growing on small islands on glass are considered normal for a plant aquarium and are easily controlled by scraping (be careful if you have a Plexiglas aquarium) using a razor or a special scraper. Usually this should be done on the front glass.
Fish, such as antsistrusy, etc., will help keep the glass clean.
filamentous algae photo
What are the chemical means of struggle and how are they bad
There are several chemical agents for algae control. Most of them are adapted from fish farming, where you have to struggle with overgrowing ponds.
An example is simazine, which is available under various brands for aquariums.
Unfortunately, these drugs act on different algae in different ways and are not always effective. In addition, these drugs have a negative effect on plants, causing the death of some plants.
Such as kabomba or vallinsneria, in the case of using simazin, which affects the process of photosynthesis.
The main disadvantage of these drugs is that they do not eliminate the causes of the appearance of algae (excess nutrients for algae in the water) and, accordingly, they will appear again from the spores. The use of these preparations can be recommended, as the last available remedy, in cases when it is necessary to quickly get rid of the algae and then continue the fight in a biological way, as described below.
Other ways are disinfecting plants in bleach. Some use hydrogen peroxide to control certain types of algae.
Cleaners and orderlies of the aquarium – wholesome fish, shrimps, snails relieving algae
Every aquarist, sooner or later, but such a question arises.
First, we acquire unpretentious fish, simple in content. Gradually interested in more complex fish, more interesting and rare.
Often, choose the fish for the beauty of color, shape, behavior.
But the moment comes when we are looking for useful fish, albeit not so bright and interesting in behavior, but which make it easier for us to take care of our aquarium world, who clean the aquarium, are its nurses and bring unconditional benefits!
I, too, came this moment. And I am interested not only in healthy fish, but also in healthy shrimps and clams.
I have different kinds of algae living in aquariums different in parameters and population. That is, the fight against algae, without the use of aquarium chemistry, prompted me to these searches.
I propose not to assess the degree of usefulness of certain inhabitants, but simply to create a list of aquatic organisms, bringing clear benefits in a freshwater aquarium.
I think this list can be replenished with your help.
So, let’s begin. Immediately come to mind such useful fish as:
Siamese Algae Eaters (SAE) and their relatives
Much has been written about these fish, practically, each aquarist has representatives of these species. Their use has long been tested and proven!
These wonderful creatures have recently become increasingly popular with aquarists. Our members of the forum, also appreciated the contribution of shrimp to the fight for the purity of the aquarium.
In confirmation of this, a number of articles on shrimp appeared on our website.
The best fighter with nitchatka – Amano’s shrimp
Cleaners of our aquariums, which are all, without exception, shrimp, eating up food particles, microscopic organisms, rotten leaves of aquarium plants.
Shrimp Red Crystal
Black Tiger Shrimp
Snail helena. Predatory snail-eating snail.
Thunderstorm all snails.
Next, I would like to elaborate on some snails.
Snail Nritin “Zebra” “Neritina natalensis sp” Zebra “
Some aquarists call it a tiger snail. They say that you can not find two snails with the same ornamentation of the shell.
The homeland of these snails is hot Africa.
Content temperature – 25-27 degrees Celsius, PH of 7.
The cover of the aquarium should be tightly closed, because there are shoots of snails from the aquarium. For a short time this snail can live on land. Frequent attempts to leave the territory of the aquarium may indicate that the parameters of the water do not like the zebras.
Zebras live in the aquarium for about 4-5 years, the size of the shell grows to 2-2.5 cm. In the aquarium, this snail does not reproduce.
Snail Neretina “Hedgehog” “Neritina juttingae”
The shell of this snail is decorated with spiral ribs and spikes. The size of the snail is 2-2.5 cm. Life expectancy in an aquarium is about 4 years.
The optimum water temperature is 25-28 degrees, the pH is above 6.5.
Snail Neretina “Black Ear”
Conditions of detention, dimensions are similar to the previous instance, the lower threshold of temperature may be 22 degrees.
All neretina excellent cleaners aquariums, tirelessly clean stele, large-leaved plants, stones, snags and decor from algal fouling. Moreover, the aquarium plants do not damage at all.
The only disadvantage of these snails – laying eggs on the glass aquarium.
Separately, I want to stay on a tiny snail –
Horned snail Neritina Clithon
These snails have a fairly wide range of habitats Japan, Thailand, the Philippines, China, Indonesia.
The photo shows that there are many options for coloring horned snails. A common feature – the presence of small horns on the shell of snails.
Life expectancy in an aquarium is up to 5 years. The size of the snail is only 1-1.5 cm.
But its capabilities have earned the love of aquarists: snails can crawl through even the most hard-to-reach places, cleaning them to shine.
According to reviews of aquarists: the horned snail perfectly cleans diamond algae from Anubias leaves, glass, stones, decorations.
Water temperature should not be below 24 ° C, PH 7-8. Recommended for 100 liters of 10-15 stuff.
Like all neretina, horned snail does not breed in fresh water.
This video, in accelerated playback, shows how successfully a tiny horned snail copes with algae.
Porcelain Septaria (Septaria porcellana)
This extremely slow snail is also called the snail-turtle. It belongs to the family Neritidae.
Related Names Septaria porcellana – Green Turtle Snail, Cellana toreuma, Neritia Crepidularia, Bourbon Nerite.
Dimensions septaria forforova from 1.5 to 3 cm. Conditions: temperature 22-26, PH from 6 to 7.5. Filtration, aeration, water changes are required.
The life of the aquarium in the presence of food (algal fouling) is about 2 years.
This remarkable snail was first discovered in 1758. The homeland of the snail is Indonesia and the Philippines.
In addition to its slowness, this snail is distinguished by its unusual form of carapace – a flat form. Snails are of different genders, but breed only in brackish water, therefore reproduction of porcelain Septaria in a fresh-water aquarium is not possible.
The snail firmly sticks its foot to the surfaces. In no case can not try to tear it off, thus you can snatch the snail’s leg, which will lead to its death.
Rotational movements, very carefully, you can try to peel the snail from the glass.
Like the previous types of neretin, Septarium porcelain, is also an aquarium nurse, and feeds on algal fouling. Excellent cleans the aquarium from algae, including from the Vietnamese.
Does not damage plants. Gets along with all the peaceful fish and shrimps.
Be careful with tetradonts, crayfish and other predators. I saw these snails in a cichlid.
Feel great, and the glass already glistened with cleanliness.
– without algae the snail can die from hunger!
– snail is not able to move on sandy ground!
Here are the rave reviews of the happy owners of these snails:
“This crumb in an hour has already collected two bunches of Vietnamese, and is clearly not going to stop,” “Not able to move on the sand. Excellent crawling on the ground 1-2mm! Trying to climb on some plants with low and wide leaves.
From the glass easily climbs on leaning snags. Still – along the glass it is buried in the sand, where algae sit between the sand and the glass, and joyfully eats them out.
I need another septar, ”“ a week a quarantine of 30 l was cleaned out of the greenery in quarantine, the glass was already shiny, and they were awaited by excellent water-lined ulitos overgrown.
Septaria also hangs its eggs on the scenery
And these mollusks very interested me !!
And it all started, here with this photo:
In two aquariums, water is poured from the same reservoir, but freshwater mussels, which are live filters, were placed in the second aquarium!
The same function they perform in aquariums.
Corbicula javan snail (Corbicula javanicus)
or sharovka yellow javanese or gold bivalve
The homeland of these mollusks: China, Indonesia, Vietnam and other Asian countries.
The optimal parameters for the content: temperature 15-30 ° C, PH 6.4-8.5, gH 10-24.
Not demanding on the quality of water in the aquarium, but there must be a good saturation of water with oxygen, which means aeration in the aquarium is obligatory. Water changes and filtration in the aquarium are also needed.
Corbicula grow up to 3 cm in size. Life expectancy: 4 – 7 years
The recommended soil is sand of a fraction of 1–3 mm, and the corticles are almost completely buried in it. The soil layer should be at least 2-3 cm.
Corbicula are excellent helpers in the aquarium against cloudiness of the water, as they are filter feeders.
Passing water through them, they feed on the microorganisms contained in it.
According to different sources: Someone recommends keeping one tank per 100 liter aquarium. There is information about the content in 20 liters of two or even three individuals.
Such mollusks are recommended to be contained in spawners, where the need for clean water is especially important. Corbicula lets through 5 liters of aquarium water per hour!
In aquariums where these mollusks live, the water is always crystal clear, it does not bloom and does not have suspension and turbidity!
An interesting fact is that in aquariums where corbicules are kept, ichthyophorosis diseases do not occur, in the opinion of aquarists, corbicules retain ichthyophthirius cysts that swim in free flight.
You can keep a corbicul with all peaceful fish and shrimps.
Corbicula are hermaphroditic, reproduction problems in the aquarium there. Viviparous corbicula reproduce tiny snails, barely visible in the unaided eye.
In an aquarium, newborn corbicules look like a muddy cloud, then sink to the bottom, where they continue to grow and develop.
If plants grow in your tank with a weak root system, then corbicules, plowing up the ground, can easily dig them up.
The author of the article is Esta (Natalia Polskaya),
for the provided material and cooperation!
Aquarium mosses or all about msharnnik: design, types, photo-video review
In this chapter we will talk about the basics of the arrangement of a borer and consider the typical mistakes that beginner aquarists make.
So firstly let’s immediately cut off the “wrong questions” that newcomers to search engines ask. Namely: “How to get rid of moss in an aquarium”, “black moss in an aquarium”, “round moss for an aquarium”, “Kladofora moss”, etc.
All of the above, has no relation to mosses and is called algae. For more information about algae, see the article: Algae in the aquarium, know the enemy in the face.
Secondly, often on the Internet you can see the information that when setting up an aquarium with mosses, you do not need to use the ground. This is explained by the fact that mosses do not have roots and do not use the substrate as a power source. All nutrients – fertilizers mosses taken directly from the water.
Therefore, the presence of soil in the aquarium with mosses is useless. Ostensibly from the soil in the aquarium is formed only suspension and dirt, which mosses do not like very much.
We can not agree with these arguments, for the following reasons.
Both the foundation for the house and the aquarium soil play a crucial role in the life of the aquarium! Novice aquarists very often pay attention only to the decorative properties of the soil and miss its most important function.
Aquarian soil is a unique biological filter, powerful and irreplaceable by nothing else.
The fact is that after the launch of the aquarium in the ground colonies of beneficial bacteria settle in, which process waste products (hereinafter – PJ) of aquatic organisms into harmless substances. I also call this process the ammonia cycle – the transition cycle of the PJ. in ammonia and then in its decay products – nitrites, nitrates.
Thus, if there is no soil in the aquarium, then all biological filtration processes will be minimized. Yes, of course, biological filtration can be carried out through the installed filter, but it is worth noting that the lion’s share of the beneficial bacteria nitrifying live in the soil, and not in the filter.
In turn, excessive concentrations of ammonia, nitrite and nitrate cause the growth of algae, which do not like mosses, because mosses simply die from them.
From the above, it can be concluded that the soil in the aquarium with mosses should be present.
Creating an aquarium with mosses, we used the previously launched aquarium complex Tetra AquaArt Discover Line 60L. See the article for more details: Running Aquarium from A to Z.
All the manipulations in this aquarium, we carried out “live”, i.e. do not plant fish, snails, shrimps. Actually, we: removed some of the soil that was devoid of soil, removed previously planted plants, changed the background, secured mosses, and installed stones.
Thus, I would like to emphasize that the “redevelopment” of the aquarium can be safely made without a full restart of the aquarium. Such an approach allows minimizing damage to the already established biological equilibrium.
We did not wash the soil and the filter, and at the end of all the manipulations we poured back the “old water”.
At the same time, during the work, it was not possible to avoid raising a suspension – mechanical turbidity.
And the process itself naturally caused stress in the fish. In order to reduce these negative factors, in the process of work and after, we additionally put an internal filter with a synthetic filling material.
And at the end of the work was added Tetra aquasafe, which protects the mucous of fish and has sedative properties.
Filtration in the aquarium with mosses. An important issue in the arrangement of msharnika is high-quality filtering.
As previously mentioned, mosses do not tolerate excess organics and mechanical turbidity. The water in the aquarium with mosses should be perfectly clean.
At the same time, excessive filtration (purging) also will not contribute to the well-being of mosses.
In this review, as in the previous one, we used external filter Tetra EX 600 Plus, which copes with its task. An important bonus of this filter is the nozzle “flute”.
Its use in the aquarium with mosses allows you to evenly distribute the flow of water and this is very important. Indeed, from a strong current, the moss “disintegrates” and does not grow.
In addition, as previously mentioned, a small internal filter with a padding material was installed, which finally removes the slightest suspension.
Lighting in the aquarium with mosses. Like any representatives of the plant world, mosses love powerful lighting.
If the lighting meets the proper characteristics, the mosses look magnificent and have a rich color. At the same time, most aquarium mosses can not be called excessively demanding lighting.
And that is why even beginners can handle them. The specific parameters of the power of lighting for each aquarium are individual, the average value at which mosses feel good
0.5 watt / liter or
30-40 Lm / liter. Above the aquarium that appears in this review is set to 45 Lm / liter.
At the same time, it should be said that too much light will require more careful attention to the aquarium from the aquarist, since it can cause an algae outbreak.
Fertilizers for mosses. Mosses do not need root feeding, in fact, because they do not have a root system.
All micro and macro fertilizers they take from the water.
In our aquarium, we used not only mosses, but also stunted and delicate plants were planted: Marsilia, Eleoharis Parvula, Eleoharis Vivipara, Echinodorus rubra, Cryptocoryne Parva, Blix Japanese, Bucephalandra and Anubians Bonsai. Therefore, in the aquarium applied soil for aquarium plants Tetra Active Substrate and substrate Tetra Complete Substrate.
Liquid fertilizers were used as direct fertilizer for mosses.
Tetra PlantaPro Macro, Tetra PlantaPro Micro.
An important issue in the arrangement msharnika, is the supply of CO2. Perhaps – this is the most important fertilizer that is necessary for any plant.
In practice, it is known that many mosses are able to grow and develop without the supply of carbon dioxide. However, the proper concentration of CO2 will be favorably received by mosses. In our aquarium, we deliberately did not supply CO2 (cylinder, mash) and decided to use / test a relatively new drug in the Tetra – fertilizer line Tetra CO2 plus.
As a result, we got a good result – Msharnik fully developed. Objectively, of course, Tetra CO2 plus cannot replace the CO2 supply through a cylinder or a mash.
Nevertheless, he copes with the function declared by the manufacturer. The good news is that TetraCO2 plus is not an algaecide.
Concluding this question, it is worth saying that mosses grow rather slowly, therefore the processes of fertilizer consumption by them are “slowed down”. From this we conclude that it is important not to allow an oversupply of fertilizers in the msharnik – “less is more and more.”
The recommended parameters of water with the content of mosses water hardness KN = 1-4, gH = 5-10, pH = 6.3-6.7. However, mosses adapt well to less ideal water parameters.
In our aquarium, the following water parameters: water KN = 6, gH = 8, pH = 7.2.
A very important point in the care of Masharin, are the correct water changes. As with any herbal aquarium, it is recommended to replace the water once a week in 1 / 4-1 / 2 part.
The issue of water change is individual, after starting it is necessary to look at what the tests say and visually assess the “health of the aquarium”. In our aquarium, we did small water changes 1/4 – 1/3, but twice a week.
The current care for mosses is simple. As they grow, they are trimmed and shaped.
A good haircut makes mosses more luxuriant and branchy.
Mosses are a huge division of the plant world, which has more than 10,000 species. They can be attributed to the most ancient inhabitants of our planet, they appeared more than 300 million years ago.
Mosses are divided into three classes:
Anthocerotic mosses – characterized by lamellar thalli.
Hepatic mosses – small and gentle. The most famous moss is Riccia.
Leafy mosses – the most numerous class. It has three subclasses: Andreev, Sfagnovye, Briev.
In our aquarium we used the following types of mosses:
Triangular Moss – (Cratoneuron filicinum, Triangle Moss).
Beautiful, unpretentious moss, with long branches in the shape of an equilateral triangle. This species has long been recognized among aquarists.
It grows very well to the substrate, has an interesting triangular shape, which is why it got its name. The growth rate is average, but under good conditions, an increase in growth was observed.
Moss flame (Taxiphyllum sp. ‘Flame’, Flame moss).
Very original moss. Most moss grows in different directions, flaming moss grows in waves and only upwards, which actually resembles a flame. From other mosses, also differs in a darker color.
Unpretentious to the conditions of detention. Quietly tolerates the absence of CO2 at a pH of 7.5.
Fertilization is not necessary.
This moss is often used to form “forest landscapes”, it looks good both in the background and in the center of the composition.
Moss Phoenix – Fissidens Fountainus
Moss Phoenix (fountain) was given this name, because it looks like a frozen fountain – it grows from the center in all directions, like a flowing fountain. With it in the aquarium, you can perfectly simulate a hummock.
Like most mosses phoenix can grow in an aquarium with a low level of illumination (up to 0.5 W / L) and practically without additional supply of CO2, micro and macro fertilizer fertilizers. The growth rate is low.
It grows well with its rhizoids to stones and coagles.
Java moss (Vesicularia dubyana).
The most common and popular moss. Absolutely unpretentious, not demanding of lighting or water parameters.
Able to grow outside the ground – on snags, stones and other surfaces, while making the unique and inimitable landscape of your indoor pond. See the article for more details. Java moss.
Christmas moss (ChristmasMoss, Vesicularia montagnei).
Christmas Moss – along with Javanese moss, one of the most common aquarium mosses. A more branched tree-like structure distinguishes it from Javan moss, which is what its name owes. However, Christmas moss grown in poor conditions (low lighting, no CO2, micro and macro fertilizers, high dH, rare water changes) is not so ramified and it is very difficult to distinguish it from Java moss.
In general, Christmas moss, like other aquarium mosses, is unpretentious.
Additionally, we used a little Queen moss / S.P. and Willow Moss, Bubble moss.
Aquarium decoration mosses
There are many benefits of living vegetation, but two main groups of functions can be distinguished:
- impact on the hydrochemical parameters of the aquatic environment – nitrogen compounds are consumed from water, they are saturated with oxygen, the twigs and leaves serve as a refuge for the biofilter bacteria;
- creating a favorable environment for fish and other animals – an additive to food, the formation of shelters for adults and young fish, the substrate for spawning.
There is also an aesthetic function. But let’s be fair: this is a matter of taste.
Some people like natural landscapes, while others like urban landscapes and lunar ones, and with the help of artificial elements, an aquarium can also be made very interesting.
Perhaps the only type of aquariums where it is objectively practically impossible to maintain living plants is tanks with very large fish, such as, for example, adult pterigoplichts, astronotuses and the like. They destroy any young growth completely mercilessly and with a speed that excludes the possibility of its recovery, moreover, in such aquariums a very strong flow is created for the implementation of the required level of water purification, which the plants simply cannot transfer.
And even in such cases, it is difficult to do without natural greenery; it is simply carried out outside, equipping plant filters.
So, without the plants in the aquarium is bad and difficult. So, we need to create conditions under which they can live in our home reservoir.