The first living organisms appeared more than 3 billion years ago in the aquatic environment, and biologists put algae at the beginning of the plant system — single and multicellular lower plants, which gave rise to the first higher terrestrial plants 400 million years ago at the boundary between water and land.
Algae and their spores enter the aquarium together with food, plants and fish, and if they find favorable conditions in it, they multiply rapidly, covering the glass, the soil, as well as higher plants, blocking their access to nutrients and condemning them to death.
From the point of view of algae development, the first weeks after the installation of the aquarium are especially dangerous, since The metabolism in higher plants is still weak, and at this time the question of who will prevail is solved, whether algae are introduced into the aquarium or higher plants that take nutrients from the algae.
Therefore, the immediate landing of fish is impractical, because the plants have not yet begun to feed intensively, and the bacteria have not begun their useful work on waste processing. Significantly reduce the chances of algae growth during this period of dense planting, and especially those that grow rapidly, such as hygrophil, peristristum, cabomba and others with an elongated stem, you can later replace them with more slowly growing species.
Before turning to the description of different types of algae, some common methods of dealing with them
one. It is noticed that algae do not like being disturbed. Therefore, you should regularly, preferably several times a day, remove them from the aquarium with your fingers or winding them on a rough wooden stick.
However, this method is unsuitable for some types of algae, which are firmly attached to stones, leaves and other objects.
2 Block access to nutrients, why completely darken the aquarium, turn off aeration and filtering and do not change the water until the algae completely disappear. Higher plants, being more resistant, usually survive, but the most valuable specimens should be removed from the aquarium. This method requires; a certain patience, for the process can take several weeks.
Of course, they continue to feed the fish at this time, but in such a way that the remains of food remain in the aquarium.
3 Stimulate the growth of higher plants, which suppress the development of algae, for which purpose to increase the number of plants, reduce the fish population, increase the light, make it 12 hours long, clean the soil daily and change 1/10 of the water volume.
four. Many types of algae can be destroyed with copper sulfate. A solution containing 1 g of copper in 1 l of water is prepared from chemically pure or pure copper sulfate for analysis.
After removing fish from an aquarium, it is introduced into the water at the rate of 1-10 ml per 1 liter of water, starting from a low concentration, and if it does not work, the dose is increased. After the death of algae, the water in the aquarium is completely replaced at least 3 times and only then fish are allowed.
five. On sale are drugs to combat algae. They must be applied strictly guided by the instructions.
6 A number of fish species eat some types of algae., especially young shoots. These are, for example, Labeo, gyrinoheusus (young specimens), antsistrus, farlovela, ototsinklus, sturizoma, labeotrofeus, trophyus, chelostomy, petilia, swordtail and guppy.
The following is a description of the most common algae species in an aquarium:
Green Algae (Chlorophycae)
Tiny (up to 0.005 mm), spherical algae of the genus Protococus (Protococus), which form a light green, slightly slimy floor on the aquarium glass and are easily removed with a wiper.
Siphon Algae (Siphonales)
form on the sunlit walls of the aquarium dense dark green flooring of branched filaments. Easily removed with a wiper.
Light green, slimy and thin Ulothrix threads form tangles that connect and cover the ground with the flooring and the walls of the aquarium illuminated by the sun. They are removed, winding on a rough stick, and they after some time, after rapid development, disappear.
Many species of microscopic algae floating in suspension paint water green, yellowish green, or brick green. A full blackout of the aquarium helps, and sometimes the use of a large number of daphniae or several bivalve mollusks (put in a plastic box without a lid so that they do not spread out), which some of these algae eat.
Alga green ball (Aegagropila sauteri) consists of a colony of thin branched filaments and reaches a diameter of 12 cm. Feels good in water with a dH greater than 8 °, pH 6-7 and 18-20 ° C. At a temperature of more than 22 ° C, after a rapid growth in 2-3 months, it disintegrates, and then a new ball slowly forms from each part.
Propagated by division, serves as a filter.
Cladophora it is attached to a solid substrate (stones, snags, leaves, etc.), forming branching bushes up to 2-3 cm in height from gray to soft green. Remove with tweezers.
Hitch or conjugates (Conjugateae) very similar to green algae.
Among them, the most well-known is filamentous alga or spirogyra (Spirogura), which envelops plants with its thin, long threads of light green color. It most often appears with very strong aquarium lighting.
They remove it by winding it on a rough wooden stick, in some cases bicillin-5 helps, and sometimes the alga disappears by itself.
Blue-green algae (Cyanophyceae) can in a short time cover stones, soil and plants with a foul-smelling mucous flooring. Favorable conditions are strong illumination with an excess of nitrogen compounds due to the rare change of water and dirty soil.
At the first signs of the appearance of algae, it is sucked off with a hose, thoroughly clean the soil and change 1/3 of the water.
To destroy the algae that began to spread with different results, the following methods were used:
– pinicillin concentration of 10 000 units / l and after 48 h – 2 500 units / l;
– 3% boric acid, 30 ml per 100 l of water;
– frequent complete change of water (fish removed);
– Streptomycin, 3 mg per 1 liter of water;
– pH less than 6, frequent change of water (fish removed).
– for 3 nights in a row in the unlit
the aquarium is brought in a solution of bicillin-5 at the rate of 10,000 units / l to a clean aquarium and 20,000 units / l to a heavily polluted one (at this concentration plants may suffer), within the next week, 1/3 volume of water changes 2-3 times .
Diatoms (Diatomeae) in case of poor lighting, they form brown flooring on the walls, soil and leaves. With increased lighting perish.
Red algae or Crimson (Rhodophyceae) they multiply rapidly and are able to spread throughout the aquarium in a short time.
Flip Flop (Audocinella) is a growing from one point of the sheet and tightly attached to it a brush of black and green threads with a height of 5-20 mm, which begin along the edge and then cover the entire sheet. Two methods of struggle are known:
1. Submission of carbon dioxide into the water to destroy brushes with long hairs, which after 2-3 months. separated from the leaves, and they are sucked off with a hose.
2. Water with a dH of more than 8 ° and a pH above 7, with daily cleaning of the soil and changing 1/4 of the water.
Bearded seaweed (Compsopogon) forms tightly branched sticks tight on a sheet up to 15 cm long dark to black-green.
Destroy by lowering the pH to 3.6 by adding concentrated hydrochloric acid to the filter drop by drop, and after 12 hours the water in the aquarium is completely replaced (before lowering the pH, the fish are removed). G. Brunner, P. Beck recommend the supply of carbon dioxide and frequent water changes.
Red algae can be distinguished from green algae by putting in alcohol or acetone.
In red algae, the color is preserved, and the greens become colorless.