The aquarium in its traditional form seems to be a simple construction, until you figure out what force will put pressure on the glass. Nevertheless, to make an aquarium with your own hands is for everyone.
In addition, it will not create a familiar rectangular container, but a more complex one that meets the wishes of the owner. To do this, it is enough to know some nuances and follow the algorithm exactly.
Aquarium is made of glass cuts, which are connected by means of one or another adhesive composition. When choosing materials and decorative elements you should always remember that they will be in contact with water and may be harmful to fish and plants.
If the desire to create a house for the fish on its own, still overcome the fear of failure, you can proceed to the preparation. First you need to pick up all the necessary tools. To build the aquarium will need:
- Corners made of metal.
- Clamps, it is better to take a small size.
- Silicone, if rods are used, then a heat gun is required.
- Masking tape
- Brushes, spatulas.
- Substrates for gaps.
Pay attention: for assembly it is necessary to prepare a perfectly flat surface.
The choice of glue – an important point to ensure the tightness of the seams
Especially carefully you should approach the choice of adhesive composition. The best option would be silicone based sealant. Carefully study the composition of the tool: it must be one hundred percent silicone.
Permission to use for bonding aquariums must also be indicated. No antifungal supplements are allowed: they can cause the death of the fish.
Sealant must be 100% silicone.
You can also highlight some recommendations:
- Colorless sealants will be universal, moreover, there are no noticeable errors when working with them.
- White is visible at the joints and is used only if it fits into the interior.
- Blacks look great on large aquariums.
Application of silicone on the place of future seams
In the event that it is planned to use glue in tubes, it is recommended to prepare a gun, since it will be difficult to squeeze it out.
Selecting the adhesive composition and preparing the tools, you can proceed to the choice of glass. It should be noted that the walls will have to withstand considerable water pressure.
Therefore, the thickness depends on the planned volume. So, with a case length of 60 cm and a height of 35 cm, glass thickness of 6 mm is sufficient.
But for aquarium a meter width will require a sheet with a thickness of 10 mm.
The thickness of the canvas will be the same for ordinary glass, and for organic.
With regard to the choice of the type of material, it should be remembered that Plexiglas has the ability to turn blue and scratches easily remain on it. Separate requirements exist for the brand of canvas.
For the manufacture of an aquarium with your own hands from glass, it is recommended to use material of grade M1, in which there are no defects, air bubbles and impurities.
The choice of material for the manufacture of covers for the aquarium also has its own characteristics. First of all, the size of the container should be considered. Plexiglas is suitable for small aquariums.
Also used plastic and silicate glass. Plexiglas is rarely used on large containers, as it has considerable weight.
Therefore, the best option is PVC.
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For the manufacture of covers suitable plastic with a thickness of 3 mm. Of course, you can put a canvas on the walls of the aquarium, but then the access of air will be excluded, which is not worth doing. For this reason, it is necessary to additionally make the beams raising the lid to a certain height.
If the aquarium is large and the lid is long, it is recommended to make stiffeners from strips of the same plastic.
Decorating the ribs of the aquarium material for the cover
Connect strips with plastic glue or resin. On large covers it is recommended to reinforce the corners with a metal corner.
It can be fixed in advance on the inner surface of the cover strip of aluminum. They will strengthen the canvas, and there will be a place of fastening of the lighting equipment.
After the lid is ready and the adhesive composition is dry, you can proceed to fixing it on the aquarium. For this, small canopies are used. A great option is the use of a cable channel.
Its width is selected based on the thickness of the glass and plastic. Hinges are attached to the back surface.
They can be either glued or screwed.
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In order for the lid to be comfortable to open, it is recommended to make a cutout on its front. Through it, you can also feed fish.
Just planning to make the aquarium out of glass yourself, you should consider which devices will be installed. The location and number of technological holes depends on it.
They are made on the sides of the cover side of the aquarium. For this fit a drill for wood.
If the cover fits to the glass sheet very tightly, it is recommended to make several holes on the opposite side, which will provide additional ventilation.
Especially carefully you need to choose lighting equipment. Light is necessary not only for fish, but also for plants.
With its lack of algae will not grow, and bacteria and parasites will begin to multiply in the water. The color range of lamps is determined based on their own preferences. But according to the coefficient it is recommended to take at least 60 Ra.
For larger aquariums, the indicator should be higher. Installed lamp in the lid of the aquarium.
As a rule, two units are used. Preference should be given to fluorescent lamps that do not heat up during operation.
Making your own aquarium is performed in accordance with the following algorithm:
- Glass sheets must be prepared. Be sure to handle the edges, they should not be sharp. You can also do it yourself: the canvas is immersed in water and sections are processed with the help of a special stone.
- Next, the glass must be dried and wiped. For best fixation, you should degrease the edges and places where the sealant will be applied. Acetone or alcohol is used for this purpose.
- On the surface is laid canvas, performing the role of the bottom. Along the perimeter is applied adhesive composition. It is especially important to squeeze the sealant evenly, so that there are no places with voids and excess.
- Next, set the side blades. In this case, the sealant must be treated both outside and inside. After that, the design is set aside for a day for complete drying.
- The next day, gently turns the aquarium on a side surface. Next, fasten the ribs. After that, you also need to wait 1-2 days.
- After all the work has been completed, excess sealant can be trimmed. For this fit the usual blade. If colorless silicone is used, it can be cut off inside the aquarium.
- Only after a careful examination, you can begin to fill the aquarium with water.
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Do not immediately fill the container to the upper limit. Add water gradually.
After that, wait a couple of days and observe the condition of the seams.
Equally important is the stand under the aquarium. First of all, of course, you should take into account the interior of the apartment.
Next, select the quality and reliability. The surface of the cabinet should be perfectly flat.
The best option is a design in which the upper fabric is laid on the side surfaces. So the weight will be distributed evenly.
If the volume of the aquarium is large, then it is recommended to pick up a cabinet with an additional support in the middle. It is recommended to lay a thick cloth or foam on the surface.
They compensate for irregularities.
Of course, you can do without a filter, but then you have to frequently change the water, perform cleaning, and sometimes treat the fish. Therefore, in order not to lose all inhabitants in the future, it is recommended to use a quality filter.
This can be either an internal design or an external filter. His tasks include:
- Remove any dirt.
- Water purification from turbidity and odor (performed with the help of additives in the form of activated carbon).
- Removal of hazardous compounds from water. Biological supplements cope well with this task.
Filters are selected based on the volume of the aquarium. Not only the quality of cleaning, but also the duration of equipment operation will depend on this.
Thanks to the compressor, the water is saturated with oxygen, which is necessary for both fish and plants. You should not hope for natural ventilation, even if the volume of the aquarium is small.
Forced ventilation is sure to be organized. The compressor, as a rule, is mounted on the wall of a row with a tank, as it gives an extra vibration.
Models with air flow regulator are especially convenient.
Siphon can be bought ready, but more often it is done by hand. The simplest option is a tube covered at the end with a large mesh.
Cleaning is carried out on the principle of two communicating vessels. But you can complicate the design.
For this fit a hand pump.
Cleaning is recommended regularly, every 1-2 weeks. At the same time, much depends on the inhabitants of your aquarium.
Some residents do an excellent job of cleaning and siphon treatment may not be needed for several months.
In addition, gas generators are often used to supply CO2. You can use the finished version, but if you decide to do everything yourself, then the gas generator can be created by yourself.
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At home, the fermentation effect is applied to create CO2. It can be a mixture of sugar, starch, water and soda. The ingredients are mixed, boiled, and then yeast is added to the cooled composition.
The mixture is poured into one container. The second is used as a filter.
It is possible to determine the gas flow rate. In addition, you should consider:
- If the plants began to grow rapidly, it is recommended to reduce the gas supply.
- Gases in self-made composition will emit only at the access of light.
- If the fish become slow, the gas supply is reduced. To speed up the purification of water from impurities, it is necessary to increase the rate of filtration and aeration.
When setting up an aquarium at home, you should consider some recommendations:
- It is better to lay small pebbles on the bottom, unlike sand, it does not collect sludge and is easier to clean.
- The choice of vegetation depends on who you plan to inhabit the aquarium.
- Snags, bowls and grottoes are needed not only for decoration. Some breeds of fish need privacy, so they need to organize secluded places.
- Aerator is a must. The filter is especially important for large tanks.
- Lighting is mandatory, but in sunlight it is better not to keep the aquarium.
Especially carefully approach the choice of water. Do not use boiled or mineral.
It should be separated within 2-3 days.
Run the fish and other inhabitants should be a couple of weeks after it was flooded.
The soil is used not only to decorate the aquarium, but also to create certain conditions and fix the plants. It can be washed sand, small pebbles and polymers.
In any case, the elements should be smooth, without sharp edges.
In household supermarkets and pet stores, you can choose from a variety of types of soil
When choosing a soil should take into account some features:
- Soil affects the composition of water.
- The soil layer must be porous so as not to disturb the natural metabolic processes.
- Do not choose a very shallow ground. It rises during the movement of large fish and clogs the filters.
- If gravel is used, it should still be laid shallow soil for reliable fixation of the roots.
- The color of the soil is determined by the wishes of the owner, but still it is necessary to take into account the peculiarities of the fish.
- Bright stones should not be used in large quantities.
Snags will be not only a decor, but also a shelter for fish. Artificial snags can easily be found on the market. They are safe, attractive and almost no different from natural.
If you decide to use natural wood, then it should be prepared. To do this, initially removed a piece of rhizome from dirt and then digested within two days.
This is the only way to prevent the growth of fungus and root rot.
The grotto is also needed for shelter. This is especially true of fish that lie in a secluded corner during the day, for example, catfish.
The design is established on a bottom or on special fastenings. The grotto should be made of materials safe for fish, not have sharp edges, two holes must be made, one more than the other.
All of the above is required. In addition, aquarists equip tanks with additional elements.
For their manufacture are also used safe materials that do not emit toxic substances.
Ultraviolet sterilizer is necessary for water disinfection. For its manufacture will require a lamp of the appropriate value and a sealed enclosure.
Powered design from the power supply network.
If the aquarium is alone in the house, then there will be no problems feeding the inhabitants. If there are several, and moreover, from time to time there is a need for departures, you will need an automatic feeder. It can be made from any inclined plane, which is constantly feed feed, and the element that will create a vibration.
It may even be a mobile phone. By calling the phone, you can activate the vibration signal, which will cause the feed to pour into the water.
Samp is used for high-quality cleaning and preparation of water. Mounted near the aquarium.
It is better to buy a ready-made version, but if you wish, you can do it yourself. The complexity of the design is determined by the objectives.
As a rule, several steps of cleaning and water heating are used.
Thanks to them, they manage to reduce the diameter of the bubbles. As a rule, fits on the bottom of the aquarium.
This can be one or several points or a strip creating a curtain of bubbles. The following materials are suitable for production:
- The tubes. They can be rolled up in any shape. Weights are used to eliminate buoyancy.
- Porous stones, such as sandstone.
- The branches of trees such as rowan.
When arranging should consider the method of subsequent cleaning.
Very often in the aquarium the number of snails exceeds the desired performance. Manual cleaning is not only not convenient, but also not particularly effective, given that after turning on the lights, they hide in secluded places.
Therefore, if you decide to make an aquarium with your own hands, you should consider this moment as well.
As a rule, a construction is used that allows snails to freely pass inwards, but excludes their exit to the outside. The role of limiters perform plastic strips.
As bait fit vegetables.
Not always the temperature of the water in the aquarium should be raised. In some cases, a reduction is required. Refrigerators are used for this purpose.
The simplest option – household appliances in the form of air conditioning. Also suitable air and water cooling systems.
The complexity of the design and its power are determined by the parameters of the aquarium.
Skimmers are also designed to clean water from pollution. They can be used as part of the filter, and as a separate standing structure.
It is a flask, where water from the aquarium is fed from above, then it passes through a wooden filter, is cleaned of excess bubbles (foam) and pollution. At the top of the water is treated with ozone and then fed back into the tank.
It may be that after assembling and filling the aquarium, it begins to leak. Of course, this does not mean that all the work was in vain and you can get rid of homemade.
It is sufficient to determine the cause of the leak and eliminate it. While maintaining the integrity of the aquarium glass, the causes of leakage may be different.
Accordingly, ways to eliminate them will also differ.
In the event that a leak is found in the corner of the tank, you should drain the water, dry the aquarium and prepare it for gluing. The site is reprocessed with silicone from the inside.
In the event that there is a leak again after filling in a couple of days, you should cut off the silicone, cut the structure in a problematic place, process the edges again with alcohol and glue it with silicone.
We act in a similar way if a leak is noted along the seam. To begin, clean the place and try to glue it again.
If this procedure does not work, you will have to cut the wall, clean the joints of silicone, degrease and glue again.
In some cases, no leakage is observed, but on close inspection, rising bubbles are noticeable in some places. Experts say that this problem is not dangerous for fish and for the structure as a whole, so nothing needs to be done.
Observing simple recommendations, it is possible not only to create an aquarium of any shape, but to save a certain amount, since the cost of its manufacture will be minimal.