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Types of algae and characteristics of their varieties

Aquatic plants are divided into higher (Cormobionta) and lower (Thallobionta). The latter include all types of algae. They are one of the oldest representatives of the flora.

Their main feature is spore breeding, and their peculiarity is the ability to adapt to different conditions. There are types of algae that can live in any water: salty, fresh, dirty, clean.

But for aquarists, they become a big problem, especially in the case of their violent growth.

Depending on the algae species, some are attached to underwater surfaces, others live freely in water. Cultures can contain only green pigment, but there are species with different pigments.

They paint algae in pink, blue, purple, red and almost black.

Biological processes occurring in the aquarium, are the basis for the independent appearance of algae. They are entered when feeding fish with live food or newly acquired aquatic plants.

Some algae look like a fluffy bundle, others resemble a spread carpet, and still others look like a mucous coating. There are flat, thallus, branching, filamentous cultures. Unlike higher plants they have no roots, stems and leaves.

Their shape, structure and size are diverse. There are species that can be seen only under a microscope.

In the natural environment, plants reach several meters in length.

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Each species has its own requirements for the environment in which they grow – the temperature of the liquid, the intensity and duration of illumination. An important factor is the chemical composition of water.

An imbalance of algae in an aquarium indicates the occurrence of adverse conditions in it. Excessive increase in their reservoir affects the quality of water, which adversely affects the health of the inhabitants of the aquarium. The cause of an algal outbreak can be:

  1. Unadjusted aquarium lighting mode. This is a lack of daylight or excess.
  2. Excess organic matter in the tank. They can be in the form of residues of food, dead aquarium plants, fish impurities.
  3. Decomposition of organic matter. The appearance in the aquarium nitrite and ammonia.

Having identified which factor causes the appearance of crops, it is necessary to eliminate it or minimize it as much as possible.

Algae are divided into 12 types. For the aquarium most often characterized by the presence of three main types of cultures.

List of plants:

Their presence is predictable where there is water, light and nutrients.

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This is the most common and most diverse in structure and shape of a group of plants, which has about 7 thousand species. They are non-cellular, unicellular and multicellular forms.

Algae form colonies on glass or soil.

Their peculiarity is that almost all cultures appear as a result of excessive illumination. They have a green color, despite the content in them except for green chlorophyll of yellow pigment.

Algae dye the liquid in green or brick green.

There are marine and freshwater species. Names of algae that are in the aquarium:

  1. Ulotriks. The time of their appearance in the tank is summer. They are located on the line of the level of the liquid or attached to some aquarium objects. Culture reproduces sexually or asexually, and feeds phototrophic.
  2. Nitella. Plants of this genus are unpretentious and consist of multicellular nodes and internodes. Thin stems of dark green algae or a clear-green color without the root system float in the tank. Reproduction occurs sexually or vegetatively.
  3. Chlorella. This genus of plants appears abundantly in the aquarium in spring and summer. It is more widely distributed in fresh water. Algae reproduce by small cells that form in the mother cell. They go outside, tearing its shell. Appearing small algae on the surface of the water give the liquid a green color.
  4. Spirogyra. These are filamentous algae, which are represented in the aquarium as tina. Each transparent plant thread consists of individual cells. All of them are connected to each other by the tops and can be woven around the aquarium plants by the type of web. Cultures are propagated by cell division or spores.
  5. Chlamydomonas. A genus of plants that feed on phototrophic and multiply by cell division. The time of their abundant development in the aquarium falls on autumn, spring and summer. They cause water to bloom, floating on the surface, which leads to an increase in carbon dioxide in the liquid and the emergence of toxic decomposition products.

The main reason for the appearance of most species of green algae is excessive light, therefore, with the restoration of biological balance, this problem can quickly disappear.

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If the liquid in the tank has to be changed often, because it quickly becomes cloudy, – there was a kelp in it. It not only spoils the interior of the aquarium, but also causes inconvenience to its inhabitants. These are single-celled microscopic organisms that multiply rapidly and create a slimy coating on the leaves of aquarium plants and the glass panes.

They live alone or in colonies in the form of ribbons, threads, chains, tapes, and bush.

At the initial stage of the appearance of a raid in the tank, it is easily removed, and in advanced cases it becomes multi-layered, and it can be difficult to get rid of it. Brown plants will not cause harm to aquarium animals, and they are dangerous for aquarium plants.

Plain on cultures prevents photosynthesis, which leads them to death.

The reproduction of the diatom is carried out by division. Plant cells have a solid shell with a silica composition.

Their dimensions are at least 0.75 microns, maximum 1500 microns. This culture is easily distinguished by the shell in the form of points, chambers, strokes, ribs, arranged with geometric accuracy.

In nature, about 25 thousand species of brown crops. Most often in capacity are found:

  1. Navikula. This genus has about 1 thousand species of algae. In the tank start up in the spring and autumn. The method of reproduction is cell division. Cells are different in shape, structure, shell and structure. They serve as food for the inhabitants of the aquarium, while they themselves feed on phototrophic.
  2. Pinnula. Early autumn and summer – the time of appearance for this kind. As a result of cell division, each receives one leaf from the mother cell. Single cells are rarely connected into ribbons. About 80 species of these algae are known.
  3. Cymbella. The genus is a single free-living cells, which are sometimes attached to the substrate by the mucous leg. In addition, they can be encased in gelatinous tubes.

Brown algae develop in those tanks where water does not change in time or poor lighting. Their distribution is influenced by a dense population of the aquarium, a large amount of organic matter, a clogged filter.

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Red algae, or crimson, is a small species of crops, overwhelmingly multicellular, with up to 200 species. All purple eggs are divided into 2 classes, each of which contains 6 orders of magnitude.

They settle on the stems and ends of the leaves of aquarium plants, stones, grow rapidly and multiply rapidly.

The reason for the appearance of this type of plant is an excess of organic matter in the water, improperly installed lighting or overpopulation in the tank. These cultures pose a danger to its inhabitants, so they must be destroyed in a timely manner.

Purple, depending on the combination of pigments, changes color from bright red to bluish-green and yellow, and freshwater ones are usually green, blue or brownish-black. A feature of plants is their complex development cycle. As a rule, these cultures grow attached to other plants, stones, reservoirs.

You can find colonies of cultures in the form of mucous deposits.

For aquarists, two types of catastrophes are a disaster:

  1. Black beard At the initial stage they are single black bushes, which are concentrated in one place, or they can be scattered throughout the reservoir. If you do not begin to fight it, then with the help of rhizoids, the culture clings to the substrate, as if growing into it. Very often, these algae appear after the purchase of new aquarium plants, or if we neglect the rules of care for the tank.
  2. Vietnamese. Such aquarium algae are filamentous species. Based on their appearance, aquarists call them a bush, beard, or brush. Plants have different colors and very quickly multiply by spores. Culture prefers to be located at the tips of aquarium plants or tank decor.

The appearance of any kind of algae talks about the problems of the microclimate in the reservoir. It takes months to fight some plants, and you can quickly and easily get rid of others.

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