Green flora needs personal living conditions, while there are also very unpretentious species that do not need special care. The choice of basic plants depends on which inhabitants settle nearby.
Such indicators as light day, brightness of illumination, hardness and salinity of water, its heating should practically coincide or be approximated by values.
Plants by structure and rooting are divided into
- root and rootless,
- can grow at the bottom
- swim not only on the surface itself, but also in the water column.
- some are mossy, they are excellent fitofilters,
- are herbaceous.
Consider the top 10 popular plants in aquariums.
Ludwig – a beautiful plant of the family Cyprus, which is common in many domestic waters. Often found in artificial ponds and aquariums.
Homeland Ludwigia – warm tropical or subtropical waters. There are 75 species of this plant. In an aquarium, its maintenance is possible both in free floating and rooted in soil form.
Many species like to be above water. Ludwig Creeping, Ludwig Tornado, Green and Ludwig “Super Red” are the most spectacular representatives of the Kiprei people.
Ludwig Creeping is a beautiful plant with long stalks, another name is Ludwigia repens. Sheet oval plates, glossy. The color of the leaves is dark green above and reddish-purple below.
The length of the stem – 40 cm. Prefers low water. It is better to plant at the rear walls of the reservoir, and to the fore, it is advisable to land Anubias Nana and Wendt cryptocoryne.
Loves clean water. Sometimes the leaves are covered with organic bloom, which spoils its beauty.
Regular water change once a week is recommended. Ludwig creeping is saturated with bright light, which can be combined – periodically light it with a lamp, periodically let the sun’s rays on the plant.
Ludwig creeping – ideal shelter for such fish as guppies, gourami, mollies.
Echinodorus is a perennial marsh grass, some species can also grow on land. The lack of a stem is the main feature of all types of Echinodorus, even large representatives.
The leaves of the plant appear directly from the rhizome, from there grow thickening (rhizomes), which then grow buds. The usual method of reproduction is budding. The leaves of Echinodus are strongly elongated and very dense.
The shape of the leaves is spear-like, pointed or oval on top, and also elliptical.
Echinodorus – is blooming algae, right from the leaves grows a long peduncle, ending in inflorescence. On the peduncle can form branches and grow leaves.
From them roots already grow, and the affiliated plant separates from maternal. It is also a characteristic method of reproduction of echinodorus along with the root.
Echinodorus contain, as a rule, in deep aquariums, because their height can reach 60 cm. Planted grass in the center of the aquarium closer to the back side. Coarse sand or fine gravel is used as a soil.
Also, it will not be superfluous to add river silt to the ground. The ideal temperature is 18-26 degrees Celsius, the hardness of water is 5-10 mg-eq / l.
Acid balance should be neutral. Such conditions are suitable for most decorative species, however, there are features for individual species.
A cryptocoryne is a genus of amphibious grasses, which includes a vast variety of species growing in the tropics and subtropics. Belongs to the family of Aroids.
The basis of its name was the combination of two words:
- “Crypto”, which in Latin means “hidden”;
- “Koryne”, which translates from Greek as “cob”.
This is a small bush of grass that has a horizontal root system. Under natural conditions, there are land specimens floating or growing in water.
From the rosette of the roots usually grows from 5 to 15 pieces of leaves on the petioles.
The shape of the leaves varies from lanceolate to oval, the texture of the leaves can be both smooth and pimply. The color scheme is different shades of green, brown or reddish. They have different lengths depending on the type and growing conditions (from 4 cm to 1.3 meters).
Most often, the plant propagates vegetatively: root suckers or division of rhizomes, very rarely – by seeds.
Its flower is similar in shape to a flute, has a small ear inside (up to 3 centimeters). However, aquarists usually have to be content with contemplating only the leaves of cryptocorynes, since it is quite difficult to achieve its flowering in aquarium conditions.
In order for a cryptocoryne to bloom in aquarium conditions, you need to do the following:
- choose a flower pot with a diameter of 7 cm and fill it with a mixture of sand and gravel and the necessary fertilizers or ordinary garden soil, which should not contain lime and humus. Sprinkle with decorative stones on top, add peat and plant an existing specimen of this species in them;
- fill the tank with water up to 4 cm above the ground, put a plant pot in it and turn on the bottom heater for the soil.
If all these conditions are met, then this hydrophyte will throw out the inflorescence within a year.
This tropical grass is quite unpretentious in the care. Almost all species absolutely do not need to frequently change the water for fresh, but they can also grow with frequent changes.
Suitable for aquariums without carbon dioxide and with poor lighting.
In principle, they can be planted both in a sunny place and in the shade. Remarkably grow on silted soils.
It is enough to feed many species with balls of clay and peat (or other water-insoluble fertilizers) and do without liquid fertilizers, which strongly contribute to the dominance of algae.
True, some types of cryptocoryne without making certain mineral dressings lose their decorative appearance.
Comparative unpretentiousness and high decorativeness made cryptocoryne quite popular aquarium plant.
Important! Cryptocorynes do not tolerate a sharp change in habitat conditions.
If you transfer an aquarium from a shadow zone to a solar one, change the temperature mode or the regime of water changes, change the composition of the water, then most likely this will lead to a disease of the plant.
Among the ailments of these plants, only one is distinguished, which is called “cryptocorynous disease”. The leaves of the plant become soft, lose their color and begin to rot and dissolve.
This disease usually occurs with a strong change in the environment of cryptocorins. It happens that this disease spread recently planted infected plants.
If the process of decay does not affect the root outlet, then the plant can be saved.
If you find signs of this disease, you need to change all the water and clean the soil, remove diseased plants and rotted leaves. Over time, new ones will grow from the root outlet.
For a comfortable life in an aquarium, the following conditions should be created for this hydrophyte:
- pour nutrient substrate about 5 cm; temperature in the range of 24-28 ° C;
- acidity of water in the range of 6.5-7.4;
- diffused illumination of 0.4-0.5 W / l;
- average hardness of water is 6-10 °;
- weekly change water and fertilize;
- transplanting once a year.
Of course, these plants are not capricious and are able to adapt to other conditions of the habitat, but most likely, the color and intensity of growth will change.
This plant is used not only to decorate an aquarium, it serves as a breeding ground for fish and harbor fry.
The color and shape of the leaves of Java moss depends on the degree of illumination of the aquarium. In bright light, the leaves have a rich emerald green color, the moss seems more voluminous.
Under dim lighting, the leaves have a lighter shade and elongated shape.
The moss is unpretentious, it can grow well in aquariums with different PH levels of water. Maintains various temperature drops. It can grow even in lightly salted water – 2-3%.
The best water temperature for moss is 20 degrees, but at 30 degrees it also continues to grow. For a little growth stimulation, you can use top dressing.
Riccia grows in all moderately warm areas of the planet. It is floating on the surface of the aquarium open moss of bright green color.
Riccia is often used by experienced aquarists as a natural substrate for fish spawning and as a shelter for fry. Also it is used as a shader.
Riccia grows in a tropical and moderately warm aquarium at a temperature of 22-26 ° C. May die or stop growing at temperatures below 20 degrees Celsius.
Water should be mild, neutral or weakly alkaline, as with hard water growth slows down. It is also recommended to regularly change 1/5 of the water.
For the growth of Riccia, use good lighting, since in low light it will disintegrate and will not create islets. It should be remembered that when the direct rays of the sun hit it, it is better to prichitiyu.
Use standard fluorescent lamps for lighting, but do not use incandescent bulbs. Algae have enough substances that get into the aquarium with fish or fresh water, so there is no need to feed the Ricci separately.
It grows very quickly, from a small Riccia thallus in a short time it spreads throughout the aquarium.
It is a floating plant. There are two types of it:
- Beggar. Its flat leaves have a rounded shape, a glossy surface and a diameter of not more than two or three centimeters. They are collected in small sockets, most often with five leaves in each. Short cuttings. On top of the leaves are painted in bright green color, and their underside is whitish. If you look from above, it seems that the water surface is covered with green coins. Roots are fibrous, their approximate length is 5 cm.
- Spongy. This species grows in nature in the USA and Canada, inhabiting slow-moving water bodies and protruding 2-3 cm above the water surface. It is considered a weed. Rosettes of leaves have a diameter of not more than 6-8 cm. From them, straight roots go down in white. Stem and leaf stalks are short. The leaves themselves are rounded with a heart-shaped incision at the base. From above they are bright green and smooth, and below are silvery with a spongy structure. Flowers nondescript with elongated thin petals.
Limnobium is very unpretentious. Features care for him are as follows:
- Aquarium and water parameters. This plant can be placed both in a tropical and in a moderately warm aquarium, as it is able to grow in a temperature range from 20 to 30 degrees. But you need to know that as a result of a long stay in cold water near Limnobium stoloniferum, growth slows down. Acidity is not important, but the rigidity should not be above 12 degrees. Also limnobium can grow well in old water, but still regular changes are desirable. If those are produced in a timely manner, then additional mineral dressing is not necessary.
- Lighting should be top and bright, and daylight should be at least 12 hours. With natural sunlight, the plant not only looks very beautiful, but also grows to its maximum size. Artificial lighting is also permissible. But here we must remember that the leaves are located on the surface of the water, that is, very close to the sources of illumination. Therefore, the lamp is better to choose LED or fluorescent type LB with a capacity of at least 2 W / L. High temperatures near the surface of the water can also affect negatively and damage foliage. But if you still opted for these lamps, then they should have a minimum power and be dispersed over the entire surface area. Limnobium can also tolerate short periods of shading well.
- Periodic inspection. Algae colonies should not be allowed to appear not only on the leaves of the plant itself, but also on the ground and glass of the aquarium. Water blooming is also highly undesirable. It is necessary to regularly inspect the surface of the water and thin out thickets, removing excess and old leaves.
- Landing. Limnobium does not take root in the ground, which means it gets all the nutrients directly from the water. For development to go normally, you need to balance all the processes in the aquarium. Then the need for mineral fertilizers will disappear.
- Main enemy This waterspray in the aquarium – a snail.
The natural habitat of this plant covers almost the entire world. It is found in reservoirs with stagnant or slow-flowing water from tundra to the tropics. It grows only under water at different depths (up to 9 m).
The depth of growth depends on the parameters of the environment, the level of illumination. This plant does not like direct sunlight, but suppresses another flora due to the high growth rate.
The aquatic plant is a hornpole or tsiratophilum (from an armor. Ceratophyllum) – a perennial aquatic herb with a long stem and needle-like dissected leaves, which is arranged in tiers. According to the description, it strongly resembles a thermophilic cabomb.
But its leaves, like the stems, are hard and brittle due to the content of silica. The root system is missing.
Food is carried out the entire surface of the plant. To “anchor” releases rhizoid branches, thinner and paler than usual.
Tsiratophilum is distinguished from other higher submerged plants by a fat-like waterproof coating called the cuticle. This coating is more characteristic of algae.
All processes of the life cycle of ceratophilum pass under water, even flowering and pollination. This is rare among flowering plants.
Small same-sex flowers are collected in inflorescences. On fruits are formed growths that look like thorns.
Elodea – perennial water grasses from the Vodokrasovye family. They grow in cool waters and quickly fill all free space.
In the wild, you can meet elodey in the waters of North and South America. More thermophilic and cold-resistant varieties are found. Growing up, the plant behaves quite aggressively and displaces the rest of the flora.
Because of this, it was called the “water plague.” Also, the plant is called “prudovik.”
In the aquarium, the elodea feels no less beautiful; it purifies the water and ennobles the space. The plant is very unpretentious, so take care of him is easy.
It is preferred not only by experienced aquarists, but also by beginners.
Elodea – a beautiful and unpretentious plant. It can develop in water of any hardness, but with a sharp change in this parameter it hurts and withers.
Some species grow better in soft water, and gradually dissolve in hard water.
The optimum water temperature in the aquarium is + 15 … + 22 ° C. If it rises above + 24 ° C, the growth slows down and the plant dies. As the temperature drops, the stems descend to the ground and hibernate.
In the spring of new points of growth appear shoots. Elodea Canadian, in contrast to the heat-loving species, even without changing the parameters of the water freezes for several months.
It is very important for the plant bright lighting. If the sunlight in the room is not enough, you need to use fluorescent lamps.
They must completely see through the water column for at least 10 hours a day.
Turbid water is not a problem for the plant. It is even used as a water filter. All the suspension settles on the leaves, so the liquid quickly becomes transparent.
Themselves dirt particles serve as fertilizer for the algae, accelerating its growth. Also in the process of growth, elodeum releases bactericidal substances that prevent harmful microorganisms from developing in water.
It is important to remember that elodea is the inhabitant of freshwater bodies. Even a small amount of salt can destroy it.
Ribbon-like leaves of greenish colors sometimes with shades of red appearing in places. Can be very sharp.
Wallisneria does not need a certain light spectrum. Best of all, it develops in bright and mixed lighting.
With a long light day, it may bloom.
There are several types of it. Differences between them only in length, which is from 10 to 80 cm, width also ranges from 3 mm to 2.5 cm.
Well gets on with herbivorous fishes.
If the plant begins to interfere with the lighting, it is not necessary to cut the leaves to him. You just need to thin out a little landing.
Planted vallisneria is in loose soil with an area of about 5 mm along the wall of the aquarium. This will create a winning background that will not interfere with the underwater inhabitants while moving and will brightly highlight them.
The plant dies if the temperature regime in the aquarium keeps below 15 degrees for a long time. Optimally develops at a temperature of 19 to 30 degrees.
The acidity of the water must be necessarily neutral, and the hardness – medium. Care must be taken to ensure that the water is not stagnant, rusty, so that copper does not get into it along with fertilizers or drugs.
There is an opinion that this small plant is useless in the aquarium economy, they say it is ugly and in addition covers the entire surface of the water surface, which significantly reduces the intensity of light, so necessary for benthic plants.
In my opinion, such sayings frighten a novice aquarist from breeding it in their reservoir. With such a categorical opinion, all its merits are unreasonably wiped out:
- First of all, the Lemna is so unpretentious that it can live and reproduce peacefully without any care or special conditions. A minimum of light, that’s all she needs.
- Secondly, Lemna is a very useful plant, it contains salts of bromine and iodine, it contains almost no ascorbic acid. A duck, being in aquarium water, emits a large amount of oxygen into it, which significantly improves and improves its quality. And of course, duckweed, like other aquarium plants, is a good helper in the fight against nitrites and nitrates in the aquarium.
It is no secret that feeding fish should be balanced and correct. And this means that both protein and vegetable foods should be included in their diet.
To achieve these goals, many aquarists, in addition to “meat food”: live food, freezing, special stuffing and dry food, either give special food containing plant elements, or feed their aquarium favorites with lettuce, spinach, fresh cucumber, cabbage leaves and even carrot.
The above vegetative top dressing is good, but agree that the duck is more natural top dressing, besides free!
Cultivation of duckweed is especially necessary when keeping a Goldfish family, they really like to feast on this plant. However, it is worth noting that it is impossible to grow a duckweed in a “golden aquarium”, because the zolotushki will eat it immediately.
I grow a duckweed in an aquarium with an angelfish and about one twice a week I transfer it to an aquarium with goldfish. If you do not have a second aquarium as a “bed for duckweed,” any basin or bucket will suit, other dishes that you want to put in a warm, bright place.
Thereby, you will ensure the fastest possible growth of the plant.
Recently, due to the lack of duckweed, I even began to throw it into buckets, where the water is replaced for weekly replacement. In a week, the duckweed in the “settling tank” grows, plus it additionally improves the quality of water.
It is also worth noting that if you have a surplus of duckweed, it should not be thrown away. Leash can be dried, then mixed with any dry food and given as needed.
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