Главная 7 Aquarium Plants 7 Salvinia (fern): species (floating, eared, spruce, giant), maintenance, care, reproduction, water parameters, nutrition, pruning

Salvinia (fern): species (floating, eared, spruce, giant), maintenance, care, reproduction, water parameters, nutrition, pruning

Salvinia floating (Salvinia natans) is a freshwater annual fern of the Salvinia genus (Salvinia) of the Salvinia family (Salviniaceae). In nature, it is distributed in stagnant water bodies of the central and southern zones of Europe, Asia, and Africa.

In the Russian Federation it grows in the southern regions, in Western Siberia and in the Far East. In the suburbs is found in the oxbows of the rivers and swamps.

In Russia, it was cultivated in aquariums in 1910–1926. Re-introduced in the 90s.

Salvinia floats on the surface. Food is extracted from the water column.

Stem 10–12 cm long, spreads horizontally. Three-leaf mutations.

The characteristic distance between whorls is 1-1.5 cm.

Two surface leaves are elliptical, light green or light green, petioles are mild. The surface is hilly, 1.5–4 cm long, 0.5–2 cm wide.

Reverse with reddish setae. The third leaf is immersed in water: whitish shaggy processes resemble the root system, the length is 6–10 cm.

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Surface foliage is designed for photosynthesis. Fleecy tubercles prevent wet leaf.

The bristles on the inside retain air bubbles, providing the plant with buoyancy.

Roots absorb from the environment and store nutrients. Dense, perform the role of keel (ballast) for the steady position of the plant.

Under natural conditions are involved in reproduction.

Salvinia fern is common in tropical and subtropical zones. Species are similar to floating in appearance, structure and care, but more thermophilic.

With the “help” of man spread in tropical waters, where they are considered malicious weed. Displaces floating aborigines. Actively growing.

Shading the bottom, destroys light-loving plants.

Salvinia was named in 1754 by the Encyclopaedist Antonio Francesco Gori in honor of his naturalist and Hellenist teacher Antonio Maria Salvini.

Or salvinia ushvidnaya. Distributed in Latin America and the subtropics of North America. Stem – 8–12 cm.

The leaves are light green, 2-4 cm. The edges are wrapped up.

Young plants are confused with pistiem. Pistia does not have a stem; it is a rosette.

If there are two whorls on the stem — salvinia, the whorl has something other than two leaves and “roots” —pistya.

Distributed in southeast Asia. The leaves are bright green, 2-3 cm long, wrapped in a cone.

Occasionally found in the tropics and subtropics of the Americas and Asia. Oval leaves, light green, wrapped in a “boat”.

Oblong elongated leaf (Salvinia oblongifolia)

Or salvinia oblong. Distributed in the waters of the Brazilian plateau.

Stem up to 10 cm. Leaf light green, elongated to 6 cm, width – 2-2.5 cm.

Distributed on the coast of the Gulf of Guinea. The leaves are slightly oval, light green, up to 0.5 cm.

It looks like an oblong oblong leaf, but the foliage is smaller.

Or Salvinia molesta (Salvinia molesta), it is also “congenital”. Original area: Brazilian plateau. Spread across the subtropics and the tropics of the whole world.

Hard weed Growing up, destroys the local flora and fauna.

Difficult shipping, clogs the drains of hydroelectric power plants. To control the numbers, herbicides and bugs of the Silvinian weevil are used.

Reminds oblong, but with a massive submerged sheet.

The original range: Latin America and the Caribbean. Entered in the 20s of the 20th century in the USA, it harms no less than the giant in Africa.

Reminds small-leaved, but leaves up to 2 cm.

The rate of growth and reproduction depend on the light and temperature of the water. At temperatures below 20 ° C growth slows down, foliage loses its color.

To start cultivation, place a segment of the stem with 1–2 verticils in the aquarium. Disinfect the plant before placing it.

Place the “roots” in a light pink solution of potassium permanganate (potassium permanganate) for 1 minute.

Do not use metal halide and incandescent lamps for backlighting. Likely burn foliage.

  • Fluorescent lamps: 1 W / dm2 surface.
  • LED lamps: 0.5 W / dm2 surface. Color temperature – from 7000 K.

The length of daylight hours is up to 12 hours. With round-the-clock lighting, plants do not grow.

  • Medium temperature: 16–30 ° C. Optimally – 24–28 ° C.
  • Acidity: pH 5–8. Optimally – 6-7,5.
  • Stiffness is not regulated.

The floating plant has no roots and receives the necessary substances from the water.

  • Carbon dioxide (CO2) is needed for photosynthesis.
  • Oxygen (O2) plants are consumed at night. Needed for the synthesis of growth-providing proteins, fats and carbohydrates.
  • Calcium in the form of CaOH + provides “building material” for growth.
  • Nitrates (NO3).
  • Trace elements (metals, alkali and alkaline earth metals, phosphorus).
    NutrientConcentration (mg / l)
    CO2 (carbon dioxide)10–40
    NO3 (nitrates)10–50
    PO3 (3-) (phosphates)0.8–3
    K + (potassium)5–30
    Fe (iron)0.1–0.5
  • Plants absorb substances when the concentration in water is less than in the plant. Ensure compliance with recommended standards.

    • Weekly replacement of 1/4 of the volume of water defended. Do not use distilled water or osmosis. With the substitution of useful substances.
    • Cut and remove dying whorls.

    In the aquarium salvinia floating feeding is not necessary if there are living inhabitants. In herbalists add compounds with micro-and macro-nitrogenous.

    • BIO VERT NANO (yellow).
    • Tetra PlantaPro (K, N, P).
    • KNO3 (potassium nitrate) with the introduction of 1 g / 100 l increases the nitrate content by 6 mg / l.

    Salvinia floating reproduces sexually and vegetatively. In natural reservoirs both ways are used.

    In the aquarium – only vegetative.

    A whorl with 5–8 soros balls with male and female gametophytes develops near the whorl at the underwater leaf. When the autumn temperature drops, the sori come off and sink to the bottom until spring. In the spring, their shell is destroyed, and the contents (sporangia) come to the surface.

    Sprouted male spores fertilize female ones, forming a floating sprout.

    Outgrowth emerges appendix. Forcibly or spontaneously separated, giving a new floating plant.

    Similarly, breed in summer in nature.

    Unpretentiousness of salvinia floating. Rapid growth forces the owners to regularly “weed” the can.

    The stores sell for 30–40₽ per process up to 5 cm.

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