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Moss species with description and names, list of plants

On earth there are representatives of the plant world, which are considered the largest. These are different types of mosses and lichens.

Virtually any of their varieties are used in the manufacture of medicines. Some even use in construction due to low thermal conductivity.

The special science of briology, which studies the bryophyte, is also highlighted.

In nature, there are about 20 thousand species of mosses.

Sphagnum is one of the most famous mosses in Russia. It grows in swamps.

Its lower region is dry, yellow, while the upper zone is green and moist. This is due to insufficient intake of oxygen and mineral compounds.

A certain part of the plant eventually dies off, turns into peat. It is used to produce fuel.

What plants are to the moss of sphagnum group:

  • Baltic;
  • bulging;
  • shore;
  • slotted

Sphagnum has many uses.

Any species of sphagnum moss is characterized by many useful qualities. With it, you can disinfect wounds, disinfect purulent surfaces.

Bandages with gauze and sphagnum impose on burns. It can be used when immobilizing limbs to prevent friction of the bandage on the skin.

At the same time, the plant provides a moisturizing effect.

The plant is characterized by antifungal properties. The insoles made on the basis of the shoe reduce perspiration. Sphagnum well absorbs the liquid.

It is known that it can incorporate water 20 times its own weight. It could be used in the fight against bleeding instead of cotton due to the specified property.

In addition, it does not interfere with skin breathing, does not form crusts.

Sphagnum is used in the construction of wooden houses. It is used to seal the joints between the logs, providing a stable temperature in the room.

He is good and the construction of baths.

Gardeners recommend to fertilize their plants, grinding and mixing it with the soil.

The soil due to this technique will become more fertile. At the bottom of the flower pot, you can also put sphagnum, soaking it with water: this way you can leave the plant for a long time without watering.

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This is a separate group of moss plants, combining several subspecies. They got their own name due to the characteristic shape resembling the liver.

Plants live in subtropics and tropics, usually they have long leaves and a stem. In addition, they form the oldest family of mosses. The most famous of its representatives is the blepharostomy hair-like.

It is characterized by a flat shape.

Hepatic mosses are usually found on fallen trees, stones, stumps, along the banks of reservoirs. They form friable and dense layers.

A separate category consists of bryophytes. They are divided into several groups in accordance with the appearance of the leaves, stems and method of fixing in the ground. Plants form dense layers from a few millimeters to 3 cm high.

Sometimes they account for huge territories.

Pellia liver moss can be grown in an aquarium

Moss pellia – one of the most beautiful representatives of the family of liver mosses. It occurs quite rarely and grows in the swampy areas of China and Thailand. You can grow it in the home, but you will need an aquarium.

The moss can grow on stone, sand and wood. It has no special lint that allows you to firmly stay on the surface, so it is better to fix the plants with a thread or a fishing line.

When the colony grows, it will independently support itself and provide everything necessary. The pellium stems are rather fragile, so you should not place it in those places where herbivorous fish live.

In general, with proper care, the pellium can turn into an excellent decoration for an aquarium.

Hepatic reproduce sexually and asexually. In appearance, the representatives of this group may differ significantly from each other, since this includes a large number of mosses and lichens.

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This category combines 10,000 species of mosses. Kukushkin flax is a classic representative of it. You can find it in almost any forest.

The plant resembles a miniature tree with a large number of pointed leaves. In suitable habitat conditions, it can form large colonies and grow to an impressive size.

If you place the cuckoo flax in the garden, in the future you will have to get rid of it for a long time.

When the moss begins to bloom, a seed box forms at the top of the stem. As it ripens, it opens and the wind spreads the seeds.

Foresters consider this plant a pest due to the fact that it is able to grow intensively in conditions of good lighting and soil moisture.

Kukushkin flax refers to leaf moss species

In appearance, representatives of this class resemble liverpieces. The description of a moss of a stalk leaf is: a lamellar rosette of dark green color, tight to the ground and reaching a diameter of up to 3 cm.

On it there are corneous processes up to 3 cm high, presented in large quantities.

In addition to cuckoo flax, the class combines several more classic representatives. The list includes:

  1. Hypnum cypress. It lives in the forest and covers large areas. Sometimes settled on the roofs and walls of houses. Stems have an elongated shape.
  2. Tortulu wall. It grows on limestone walls of buildings and forms miniature pads, from which long stems are drawn.

Another species of leafy mosses – Polytrichum juniper-like

  1. Polytrichum juniper-like. His spore boxes resemble flowers.
  2. Cirrifillum hair-bearing. Forms light green sods. Prefers a soil rich in limestone. You can find it in the brushwood, forests. Can be planted in the garden.
  3. Chylokomium brilliant. Occurs in forests quite often. During intensive growth forms cascades, which are divided into several floors.
  4. Anthoceros smooth. It lives in northern latitudes. Usually, this species appears first after the spring thaw.

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These plants prefer cold areas with a temperature of about -5 ° C. They have straight small and hard leaves. Due to thin villi, mosses penetrate the structure of the stone and take root in it.

In total, there are approximately 100 representatives of this class. The most famous of them are Dicranum, a multi-legged and Rotobrium rosette.

Rotobrium rosette one of 100 species of mosses of the subclass Andreev

In Russia, only 10 species are found that reproduce in a decorative way. They are clearly distinct from green mosses and sphagnum. The mechanism of their formation next:

  1. Colorless spores appear that germinate further.
  2. There is a division of cells under the shell. Tuberous bodies consisting of a multitude of cells are formed.
  3. A green ribbon-like protonema is formed.

The leaves of these plants are single-layer, composed of colorless hairs, which have a high absorbency. They absorb moisture from the air.

On a stalk there are no conducting bunches.

Oakmoss is isolated in a separate species. He has a soft bushy thallus. It prefers northern and temperate latitudes, grows in mountain forests, rooted on the trunks of pine, oak, spruce and fir.

Thallus can change shade depending on weather conditions. In dry time, it usually has a bright yellow or dark red tone.

As the summer heat sets in, the color of the plant changes to pale blue or white.

Depending on the season and weather conditions, oak moss changes color

It is noteworthy that this moss different strong allergenic properties. Despite this, it is used in small quantities in the production of perfumes.

This is due to its original tart smell of needles. In folk medicine, oak moss is also highly valued.

From it is prepared tincture, which is effective against many diseases.

Common moss is found on the territory of Asia and Europe, North America and Africa. He prefers stagnant water, but can also be found in water bodies over.

It has thin branched stems 40−50 cm long. Pointed leaves, rich green, up to 1 cm long.

Best mosses feel themselves on the rocks and stones. Here they do not have to compete with flowering plants – the latter simply cannot survive in such conditions.

If a reservoir is located nearby, then high humidity also contributes to their harmonious growth.

Marshes – common mosses habitat

Another ideal place for them is trees, especially rotten ones. At the same time, mosses cannot be called parasites. These plants love to settle in marshland.

Moss has no root system, so nutrients and moisture come to them and air.

In the moss tissue there is a special type of cells capable of retaining water for a long time. With a long absence of atmospheric precipitation, the plants become dormant.

They reduce their own metabolism and change color. However, it is enough for them to get only a few drops of moisture in order to return to their usual life.

Tortula wall prefers sunny and dry places

Most often you can see moss in wet shady places. But there are species that have adapted to dry and sunny areas.

An example would be the tortilla wall. She has transparent hairs on the leaves, protecting plants from heat. These plants have other methods for survival.

For example, sphagnum can form an acidic environment, which discourages bacteria, fungi, competing plants, which can force it out. And anthoceros prefer to live in a symbiosis with blue algae.

The latter produce nitrogen and give it to their “neighbor”.

Although moss has a rather inconspicuous appearance, it plays a very significant role in the ecosystem. These plants are able to retain a lot of moisture, which favorably affects the water balance of the marshland. In open spaces, this feature helps to reduce soil erosion.

In addition, without sphagnum, the formation of peat extracted from swamps is impossible. Plants form a dense green carpet, which serves as a favorable habitat for small animals and many insects.

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