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Habitats of spirogyra, features of structure and breeding

Spirogyra is one of the representatives of the zygnemic family, it belongs to the genus of filamentous green algae. This is the most common type of algae on the entire planet. She prefers freshwater reservoirs (standing or with little flow).

On the surface of lakes and ponds, as well as at the bottom, it can be seen as a layer of mud covered with mucus. In the territory of the CIS countries, there are about 120 species of spirogyra, and there are more than two hundred of them.

Read more: green filamentous algae in the aquarium.

Spirogyra – the most common type of algae

Despite the fact that spirogyra represents organisms very close to higher plants, it is distinguished by its simplest structure and primitive life activity. Due to the large accumulation of the thinnest threads on reservoirs, cotton-like clumps are formed that can cover absolutely the entire surface of the water.

Most often, algae can be seen on silted ditches and ponds., in swamps, rivers. In the absence of proper care and regular cleaning, spirogyra appears in swimming pools.

The places inhabited by spirogyra are not limited to natural water bodies. Owners of home aquariums are often found with this representative algae and do not know how to deal with it.

The reason for its appearance and active distribution is the contamination of water with organic components (dead fish, excess feed), as well as an irregular water change and clogged filtration systems. Spirogyra lives in well-lit conditions., therefore, an excess of light contributes to its occurrence in aquariums.

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One of the most interesting characteristics of spirogyra is its structure. Thallus is a unbranched filament formed by multiple cylindrical cells of the same size. The length of a single cell is about 0.01 mm, and the width of a single thread can vary in the range of 5–200 μm.

Such dimensions allowed specialists to study this species in more detail than other algae, and to make their description.

The cell walls are formed by carbohydrates, which makes spirogiru similar to higher plants in structure. Each of them is covered with a membrane of cellulose with a layer of mucus. The intracellular space is filled with juice, and the nucleus and chloroplasts are in it..

The structural features determine the mechanism of nutrition: exclusively through photosynthesis. This type of inhabitants of freshwater bodies cannot be fed with nutrients from soil or water.

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A special feature of spirogir reproduction is that they never produce spores. Scientists identify two ways to form new cells and filaments in the development cycle of spirogyra:

  • vegetative – algae multiplies as a result of accidental damage and rupture of the thread, which breaks down into separate segments, which subsequently form a new independent thread;
  • sexual – conjugation occurs at a time when two threads, similar in appearance, approach closely to each other and are placed in parallel; several copulation processes appear from the side walls, which are connected to a single channel.

In the process of conjugation turns out a kind of ladder. The protoplast passes through the formed channel from the cell into the cell, forming a zygote.

During germination of the zygote, the nucleus is divided into four parts. Three of them degenerate and die, and from the largest, viable, a new individual sprouts.

Subsequently, from it appears a full thread.

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Sexual and asexual reproduction is characteristic of most green algae, but no special germ cells are formed during development. During the spring-summer warm period, spirogyra multiplies, as a rule, with the help of spores.

Simple adaptation of spirocira to habitat conditions allows it to occupy space even in indoor aquariums. Actively expanding, it fills most of the space with a dense mucous mass. This alga strongly interferes with other plants that are used as food or fish houses.

For the fry, the appearance of this undesirable inhabitant is altogether destructive, since they quickly become entangled in thick threads.

Spirogyra grows very much even in aquariums

Experts believe that the positive aspects of the distribution of spirogyra in reservoirs and aquariums too. Their advantage is that they can become a suitable substrate for the spawning period for some species of fish.

The density of threads allows you to safely hide offspring from dangerous predators.

The appearance of a viscous mass is provoked in most cases by an excess of mineral fertilizers (in particular, ammonium nitrate). If there is a pond equipped in the summer cottage or an artificial reservoir, then this type of top dressing of the soil nearby should be discarded.

The rapid growth of certain types of algae creates a lot of trouble for the owners of swimming pools, indoor aquariums or artificial ponds in their own area. The appearance of spirogyra can provoke rotting in water, and therefore it is recommended to fight it in all possible ways.

Chemicals against it do not work, so it is much easier to prevent water pollution and the appearance of this type of algae than to deal with its breeding. The most effective methods for removing green mass are:

  1. The spread of the environment is a method that involves reducing the intensity of illumination, planting shrubs and trees with dense crowns that can create a shadow over the pond. In addition, you need to run into the water those fish species for which spirogyra (white amur) will be the ration, but which will not conflict with other inhabitants
  2. Purification – manual or mechanized. The method is quite painstaking, but not complicated. Cleaning should be done every 3-4 days, but it is possible to collect large threads, and small ones remain in the water and continue to grow.
  3. Processing with special means is not the most effective way and is not recommended from the point of view of ecology of the environment. The use of chemicals can kill not only part of the algae, but also fish and other plants. The use of chemicals is recommended only in the case of cleaning ornamental ponds without inhabitants.

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