Plants in an aquarium are not just a source of beauty, they also play a very important role in creating a microclimate in a tank. Algae absorb carbon dioxide, as well as metabolic products released by the fish, suck in the remains of dead plants, not eaten food.
While the light day lasts, aquarium plants emit oxygen, which is necessary for respiration of inhabitants, at night they absorb a small fraction of oxygen, emitting carbon dioxide.
Thanks to the plants, aquarists can create an environment that is comfortable and close to natural conditions for fish. If the aquarium is empty, without vegetation and shelter, the fish will have nowhere to hide, because in the thickets of plants females hide from males, fry of viviparous fishes. Inhabitants become more fearful and irritable; the process of reproduction of some fish is also impossible without plants, because they throw eggs to the leaves or among the thickets of plants.
Also, floating and high-growing plants are a kind of screen that protects the inhabitants of the reservoir from excessive light and prying eyes.
Creating a small underwater world, it is necessary to observe the biological balance: the qualitative ratio of fish and plants must be correct. Point of view: the more plants – the better, radically wrong, the excess vegetation is also harmful.
When choosing plants, consider the conditions in which you plant them: the type of aquarium, its dimensions, the fish you want to settle. Plants must be purchased with a bright green color, young, with intact root system, leaves and roots.
Conventionally, the number of plants can be calculated: for 2-3 square decimeters of the bottom of the aquarium, 1 type of vegetation.
After you have purchased the plants, carefully inspect them. Parts that are prone to decay or disease should be removed, the roots should be cleaned of dirt and thoroughly rinsed in water.
If the plant has a strong root system, but a short stem, the roots need to be thinned, the rest are cut to 2-3 cm. If the roots are thin and fragile, they are practically not cut: for example, in Anubias, the roots are not at all touched. with leaves and roots (for a minimum of 3-4 knots).
If you are transplanting plants, be prepared for the fact that they will grow more slowly, because they lose their old roots and take time to form new ones.
Like any living, properly functioning organism, a plant can get sick. Only specialists can diagnose a disease, but aquarists need to make sure before a plant is considered sick, perhaps it is simply damaged by fish or snails.
Basically, the development of the disease is provoked by microorganisms that appear in the aquarium or the wrong conditions.
The main signs of disease in aquarium plants and the fight against them:
Cause may be due to carbon deficiency or an unbalanced acid-base balance of water. What to do: add CO2 to the water if the problem is in PH – transplant the plant to another tank;
- Black and diseased roots
The reason It may become too compacted shallow soil that does not allow air to pass through. What to do: add gravel, crushed stone or pebbles to soil;
- Leaves die small areas, after which the leaves fall
Cause – lack of phosphorus. What to do: purchase special dressings for plants;
- The plants are pale, with long internodes and thin stems, the leaves in the lower part fall off
The reason may be a lack of light. What to do: extend the daylight to plants, put the aquarium in front of the window;
- Small leaves of plants and excessively long internodes
This indicates a violation of temperature and light. Many fish species like high temperatures, but the lighting for plants requires appropriate. What to do: adjust temperature and light conditions: the more degrees – the longer the daylight hours;
- The upper part of the plants is very elongated
The reason may be enhanced radiation from the red spectrum of the lamps. What to do: hang the lamps higher, closer to the lid of the aquarium or purchase less powerful ones;
- Wither and wither plants, you notice partial damage, holes, frayed edges of sheets
Cause: Either you have too active fish, or the chemical composition of water simply does not fit the plant. What to do: to feed, analyze the composition of water;
- Damage to the leaves (this is especially true for plants with a well-developed root system and a small stem).
The problem may be caused by overly dense soil, which causes water to stagnate.What to do: regularly “siphon” the soil, dilute it with gravel, pebbles, tuff, make “loose”;
- Lime deposits on the leaves.
Go The reason This phenomenon may be a lack of carbon dioxide. What to do: CO2 is required for normal plant development, so gradually increase its content in water;
- Too small leaves in plants.
Go The plant may lack nutrients or vice versa, there is an excess of light. What to do: try to give additional food, if it didn’t bring any results, reduce daylight hours;
- Leaves turn red or turn yellow.
The reason there may be a shortage of sulfur or nitrogen. What to do: feed the plant with nutrients, experimentally finding out what, in fact, he lacked;
- Yellow edges on the leaves of the plant.
This is evidence of calcium deficiency. What to do: you can make carbonate, shells of mollusks, ready-made mixtures for fertilizing plants;
- The leaves begin to wither along the edges, yellow spots appear on their surface.
It means that there is not enough potassium in the water. What to do: prepare a solution of potassium sulfate (potassium sulfate), mixing it with distilled water, bringing to a boil and allowing it to stand. Add in small portions;
- Yellow spots appear between the veins of the sheet, then holes are formed in their place.
This is evidence of magnesium deficiency. What to do: add MgSO4 * 7H20 sulfate – you can buy it at the fertilizer store or at the pharmacy;
- The plant leaves turn yellow, it becomes vitreous.
So, he lacks one of the most important elements – iron. What to do: compounds of ferrous iron are added, the main thing is not to overdo it, the concentration in water should not exceed 0.1 mg / l;
- The leaves are yellow, and the veins remain green.
Phenomenon may indicate a lack of manganese, and the excess iron. What to do: manganese is needed for tissue respiration and photosynthesis, so you need to make a nutrient mixture containing this element;
- “Cryptocorynous disease” is manifested by the fact that the plant becomes vitreous, the leaves are “perforated”, as a result it decomposes together with the stem.
The reasons not yet known. What to do: the leaves are cut, the remains of the plant are sucked out of the soil with the help of a hose, the water is changed – this way the root system can be saved.
Plant recovery takes more than one day to prevent disease, regularly change the water in the aquarium, adjust the lighting, do not overcrowd the aquarium. Remember that each plant has its own environmental requirements and must also be considered!