maintenance, care, compatibility
Why does white plaque appear on fish and how to treat it
White plaque on the body of the fish most often signals a malfunction of the body. If white plaque is a symptom of a disease, then the fish should be treated immediately.
In no case should you confuse white bloom on the body with the clouding of the body of the fish. Turbidity can be a signal that the fish is in poor quality water, it is not necessarily a sign of infection.
With alkalosis, the skin becomes dull, the fish rush around the reservoir, and mucus is formed on the fish. Appears in pets who are accustomed to water with an acidic environment. Ailment is eliminated by bringing the pH to the required level.
At the pet store you can buy a pH buffer, which will give indicators.
Also, body color may fade from inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. A large amount of mucus appears in the feces, with bloody discharge, the fish loses appetite.
One week the fish are not fed, later transferred to a variety of feeding.
For which diseases salt solution is used
- It is impossible to carry out treatment using iodized salt and salt with additives.
- Increase the temperature of the water in the tank to 28-30 degrees Celsius, gradually, 2-3 days before the start of treatment. Include a constant aeration (consider also the physiological features of the fish).
- Many infectious bacteria die in salt solution 4-5 percent, but the fish can not withstand this concentration of the solution, even a few minutes. Salt procedures should be carried out in liquids with a salt concentration of 1.5-2%, 10-30 minutes.
See how to treat aquarium fish with salt.
My two-year experience in administering an aquarium forum allows me at this stage to draw certain conclusions about the treatment of aquarium fish.
In this article, I would like to discuss all aspects and nuances of treating a sick pet. The purpose of the article is to give the basic basics to beginners, and to many experienced aquarists – WHAT TO DO IF FISHES ARE DISEASE.
This article will not be a revelation and a panacea, I will, in principle, talk about simple and understandable things, but still, in my opinion, it is in them that the key to the health of both fish and the aquarium as a whole lies.
To begin, let’s see why and from what the fish are sick. Fish – these are the same living creatures as we are with you. Any living thing will feel good and not get sick when it is in a comfortable environment.
People go to fitness clubs, go to a sanatorium, try to live in comfort, eat the right and healthy food, breathe fresh, clean air and this is a guarantee of their health and longevity.
The same applies to fish, they will always be healthy and you will not have to treat them if they live in comfort, i.e. in a healthy, full, proper aquarium. With a certainty of 120%, I can say that in a healthy aquarium with a tuned biobalance, no aquarium fish will get sick.
So, we have established the root cause of all troubles – the “bad aquarium”. What is it expressed in? There are many factors that characterize the concept of “bad aquarium”:
– this is both overpopulation and the wrong selection of fish;
– these are inappropriate parameters of aquarium water for one or another fish species (t, pH, dH, kH, etc.);
– this is also inadequate water quality, i.e. the presence of poisons in it: ammonia, nitrite and nitrate;
– This may be expressed in the wrong decoration of the aquarium;
– in defective or poor quality lighting;
– in the end, in the wrong care for the aquarium: feeding, water changes, etc .;
If you summarize all these negative factors, you can simply say: there is no in an aquarium BIOBALANCE – BIOLOGICAL EQUILIBRIUM.
Now, based on the above, let’s see what happens to the body of a fish in such negative conditions. And the same thing happens as with you and us – the protective mechanisms are activated. Depending on the damaging factor in fish, this can manifest itself in different ways, for example:
– in case of overpopulation or the wrong selection of fish, they begin to fight, stress or depressed state appears;
– at elevated temperatures or lack of oxygen, the fish begin to swim near the surface, puff up the gills, and greedily swallow air. Again, stress, lethargy, “fainting.”
– in the presence of poisons in the water, the defense mechanisms of habituation also work in fish.
Due to what work – these protective mechanisms? The answer is also simple – due to immunity. Which, as you understand, is not rubber.
And when it ends, the fish organism ceases to resist all pathogens and / or negative factors. There comes a phase of the disease.
- Water of inadequate quality (dirty, turbid, toxic). The likely cause of death is poisoning with nitrogenous compounds that are formed after the collapse of fish waste. Improper water purification leads to the fact that nitrites, nitrates and ammonium as toxic substances quickly spread in the water. The correct nitrogenous cycle is a guarantee of the health of all pets. But if the water is poisoned by nitrogenous compounds, it becomes turbid, the smell of rot will appear. The dissolved ammonia can be in a reservoir in high doses at a pH level of 7.5 and above. At lower pH levels, ammonium is not so toxic, but it can harm small fish. Fish die from poisoning with this substance.
Wrong conditions of the settlement of fish, too fast adaptation. Water in a pet store and in a home tank can vary in many ways.
If the fish instantly settle into the water of a different pH level, hardness, temperature, with a difference of one unit and more, then they die within 24 hours or one week. It is advisable to take water from the store aquarium in a portable package, and pour it into a separate container. It is necessary to add water from the main reservoir in portions, not more than 5% of the total volume, at intervals of 10 minutes.
Fish can be transplanted into the aquarium after the part of the aquarium water in the tank becomes higher than 60-75% of the total volume.
See how to properly transplant aquarium fish.
Gas embolism is a disease that can lead to the sudden death of a fish. On the eyes, the body can be seen capillaries, the body turns red, the fish swims from corner to corner, the body is covered with air bubbles, the scales are tousled.
The disease is the result of a sharp replacement of water (more than 50%), or the settlement of the pet in the water, recruited directly from the tap.
What to do if you find a dead fish in the walls of the aquarium?
Columnaria. The reason is the bacteria Flexibacter columnaris.
Symptoms: a grayish-white plaque or spots on the body of the fish or around its mouth. Sometimes these spots are microscopic, thread-like, especially in the immediate vicinity of the mouth. Often this disease is confused with oral fungus.
The state of the guppy fins may deteriorate, the gills will also suffer, ulcers may appear over time in the body. In the advanced stage of the disease, the fish holds the fins close to the body, without opening them. Columnaria is a consequence of poor water quality, where bacteria can easily multiply.
Sometimes the cause of the disease can be stress, or an infection brought into the water with new fish.
Treatment: antibacterial drugs, if columnaria is detected in the early stages. In the later stages, antibiotics should be treated.
Need to do a water change. Levomycetin and kanamycin are effective against this infection.
Levomitsetin take 500 mg per 20 liters of water and diluted in water. After 3-4 applications with the substitution of 25% water, there will be a positive result. Kanamycin – 1 gram per 25 liters of water.
It is also possible to cure fish with branded preparations for aquarium fish – Sera Baktopur Direct, JBL Ektol Bac Plus 250, the dosage according to the instructions for use.
Look at what a guppy looks like, infected with columnaria.
Ichthyophthyriosis. The causative agent of the disease is a unicellular parasite Ichthyophthirvus multifiliis. Signs: small white dots on the body of the fish, resembling semolina (“semolina”).
Fish itch provokes them to rub themselves against decorations or hard surfaces, which can cause scratches and ulcers on the body. The disease spreads quickly through the aquarium and is highly contagious.
White spots of “cysts” will appear on the skin, which will disappear into the water, and will give rise to life to new cysts.
Method of treatment: adding salt (5 teaspoons to 4 liters of water), salt must be diluted in water and introduced into the aquarium gradually. You can use special salt baths, where you can dip the fish for 7-10 minutes.
It is also possible to cure the disease with the drugs Tripaflavin and Biomitsin in the proportions of 50,000 units of biomitsin and 5 mg of Trypaflavin. They need to be well diluted in water, then added to the quarantine otsadnik with fish. The treatment procedure should be repeated until the white cysts are gone from the body of all the fish.
The duration of treatment usually takes 12-15 days.
Watch a video on how to cure ichthyophthyriosis.
Fin rot. Males of guppy fish suffer from this disease more often, their fins are longer and more sensitive than in females. Symptoms of the disease: the fin rays become opaque, they form streaks with blood.
The erosion of the fins can continue until it reaches their base. From a disease caused by the bacterium Pseudomonas, the fish may die.
Treatment: the introduction of the drug Levomycetin in water in the proportions of 1 tablet per 20 liters of water. The tablet must be diluted in water, and add the solution to the general aquarium.
Replace 30% of the water every three days. The medicine Bitsillin-5, which is sold in bottles, copes with the harmful disease.
The medication is enough for 6 days. The contents of the vial are divided into 6 equal portions, which are dissolved every day in 10 liters of water in a specially prepared bath.
The duration of the bath – 3 minutes. Also fin rot can be cured with Tetra General Tonic, Sera Baktopur.
Doses of medication – according to the instructions for use.
Guppy Disease, or tetrahimenoz (English Guppy Disease).
Pathogen: ciliates Tetrahymena corlissi, Tetrahymena pyriformis. These unicellular parasites can be found in every 6th imported guppy fish.
Symptoms: affected fins and mucous membranes of the body. On the skin appears mucous plaque, which disappears in the form of flakes. Fish scales ruffled, tail fin collapses, gills bulging.
Guppies greedily inhale the air, slowly “drift” in the water. Later, the parasites penetrate the tissues of the body of the fish, eating them from the inside.
We need to take smears from the body of the fish, and to detect in the laboratory of parasites.
Treatment of the disease: FMS preparation (dose of 1 ml per 100 liters of water), furazolidone (1 gram per 100 liters of water), Biseptol (dose of 2 tablets per 100 liters of water). The preparations are dissolved in water and injected into the aquarium in turn. The duration of treatment is 7-10 days.
It is better to treat the fish in a prepared jar so that furazolidone does not destroy the plants. In the quarantine cell there should be replaced 40-50% of water every day, introducing a new portion of drugs.