maintenance, care, compatibility
FISH IS PAIN AND BAD
first symptoms of the disease, description of fish diseases
The first symptoms of the disease in aquarium fish should not be ignored!
Diseases of aquarium fish – an emergency for an aquarium. Even experienced, knowledgeable gurus of the aquarium world can have a state of emergency of illness of pets.
However, in such cases, do not despair. Many diseases, especially in the initial stage, are treatable.
The first and most important step in the treatment of fish disease is diagnosis. With the help of several signs – symptoms, you can understand exactly what your fish is sick and how dangerous it is.
Ichthyopathology – the science of fish diseases, divides them into: infectious infectious and invasive, as well as non-infectious. The causative agents of infectious diseases are viruses, bacteria and fungi.
Invasive diseases arise as a result of invasions – attacks on the fish organism of parasites of animal origin – disease-causing ciliates, intestinal cavities and worms. Some small crustaceans can also parasitize the body of the fish.
The occurrence of non-communicable diseases in most cases is associated with a violation of the optimal conditions of fish in the aquarium or improper handling.
The main sign that the fish hurt and bad – it is when they hang for a long time in one place or lie on the bottom, hiding under the roots or decorative elements of an aquarium.
When there is a lot of nitrates and nitrites in the water – organic matter that ferments, rot and pollutes the aquarium due to an excess of food and waste products of its inhabitants, the fish is wrapping gill cover (on the body of the fish, there are gill covers on the sides of the head, which cover the gills, and under them is a layer of skin that can “crawl out” behind these covers). A plus, if the fish is very active breathing, This is also a sign of an increased amount of nitrates, nitrites, since oxygen is very poorly soluble in such waters.
In such cases, it is necessary to immediately replace the aquarium water.
Due to the increased amount of organic matter, fish poisoning occurs. Poisoning can also occur due to the use of poor-quality live food caught in water-polluted waters when feeding dry daphnia and bloodworms, with frequent feeding of artificially diluted potworms – such food is difficult to digest and causes inflammation of the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract of fish.
Symptoms of poisoning are as follows: the fish willingly eat food, but remain sluggish, the color of the skin dims. They can lose orientation in space, with severe poisoning, convulsive movements are observed. In inflammation of the stomach, the belly of the fish slightly increases (should be distinguished from other diseases or from the maturation of the genital products), there may be redness of the anus.
Fecal masses have a large amount of bloody mucus and filamentous form.
In such cases, it is sometimes sufficient to transfer the sick fish to a diverse and comprehensive feeding with live hydrobionts and clean the aquarium, carry out the process of removing carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and volatile oils from the water. It is not recommended to collect live food in ponds with wastewater.
Also, when installing a new aquarium and various equipment, everything must be thoroughly rinsed – after all, toxic substances from putty used in their manufacture can get into the water.
If your colorful fish change color, reasons for excitement are few. Such a process often takes place as a result of maturation, mainly in young individuals.
Carp, for example, is born just gray, and after a while it can enhance the color, which is incorporated genetically.
If the fish spend the night in the dark, and in the morning they turn on the light – they can dull slightly. And if this happens during the day – this may be, again, the effect of nitrates and nitrites.
Of course, it is impossible to keep the aquarium on the windowsills – under the influence of direct sunlight the fish grow dull and can get sick.
Faded fins are often the result of injury. (aggressive neighbors, injury to stones and foreign objects, improper transportation, etc.) can lead to the formation of fin rot. In this case, it is better to isolate the fish until its fins heal.
If on them bunches that look like cotton flakes or white spots will appear, then the fish must be treated with antibacterial drugs.
Sometimes, on the fins of a fish, which ideally should be transparent, red strings appear – this is a hemorrhage in the fins, meaning a dramatic change in the parameters of water – hardness, acidity, temperature, increased content of organic matter. Of course, a simple water change and tracking and adjustment of its parameters will help here.
But pressed to the body fins – spinal, anal, lateral – can mean both elevated levels of nitrates and nitrites, and fungal disease, which is not difficult to destroy.
Everything, that on fish looks like a foreign body is bad and should attract the attention of the owner. In an infectious fungal disease (ringworm), the inhabitants of the aquarium covered with white thread, growing into a vat-like formation.
Sick fish become slow-moving, stop feeding, and in the absence of timely treatment they die from ulcers that affect the gills. In most cases, rheumatic fever suffers fish are in tight containers with dirty and cold water – below 20 ° C. At the initial stage, the disease is not dangerous and can be cured – you just need to create optimal conditions for the fish, dissolve salt or copper sulfate in water.
In the local form of fungal growths, the affected area is treated 2-3 times with a daily interval with a cotton swab moistened with a weak solution of potassium permanganate or rhinovanol.
If the fish white dots appeared of the same shape and size, this means that her ichthyophthiriosis or “semolina” is the simplest (ciliates) that settle on aquarium fish and parasitize, propagating by division outside the host’s body. The fish quickly dies from this invasive disease, but it is easy to cure it – dilute malachite green or corny salt, pour it into the aquarium, increase aeration, raise the temperature by 5 ° С for 10 days. If a white dots of different sizes, but round – this is most likely a bacterial infection.
It can also be killed with special medicines, for example, baktopur, antibacterial. It may be that points are not the same and have irregular shape – it will also be a fungus, it is easy to destroy it with malachite (malochite green), salt.
Sometimes on the fish may form an abscess, like a purulent pimple – these are microsporidia or cnidosporidia (protozoa that form a colony in the muscles of the fish). Destroy them almost impossible. The only thing that can be done at home is to put an ultraviolet lamp through which water flows, as a result of which all bacteria and microorganisms are destroyed.
That is, when these sporidii break through the scales and begin to look for another fish, then they pass through the water with the water passing through the lamp. But the best option would be to fish this fish with “cones”.
Aquarists call lepidorthosis the worst disease (Rus. scattering). Symptoms – when the scales start to stand on end (if you look at the fish from above, the scales look like needles), under it are visicules – bubbles, in which there are pathogens.
Lepidorthosis is almost not treated – such a fish must be very carefully pulled out with a net so that the bubbles will NOT crack and the pathogens will not get into the water. Sad and painful, but the fish itself must be disposed of, and the net boiled, or washed with alcohol or formalin.
It is also worth to disinfect the aquarium, soil, plants and equipment.
Ways to treat fish:
In general, the treatment of sick fish is carried out mainly in three ways: in the general aquarium, in a separate vessel and individually (with medical lotions). Common and effective treatment is in a separate vessel.
With its short course, a therapeutic solution of high concentration is detrimental to the causative agent.
Resuscitation of sick fish in the general aquarium does not always provide a 100% recovery. Low concentrations of therapeutic solutions do not completely kill the pathogens, especially those that are under the skin or in the muscles.
In addition, increasing the concentration of therapeutic solutions destroys aquatic vegetation. With this method of treatment, a number of pathogens remain in the soil and water for a long time, so symptoms are often attenuated: a fish with a previously pronounced disease clinic becomes outwardly healthy, and after a while the symptoms recur.
If in the aquarium there are single specimens of fish affected by parasites that can cause mass disease and death, it is necessary to treat all the inhabitants of the aquarium. Often the treatment of several diseases is the same. For example, if pathogens are ectoparasites.
Such treatment can be carried out both in a separate dish and in the general aquarium.
Prevention of aquarium fish diseases:
Prevention of fish diseases is very important for the prevention of diseases that often arise as a result of violations of the rules of keeping or the introduction of infections from the outside.
To fish was not bad, we recommend to observe the following rules:
– regularly and regularly conduct weekly cleaning of the aquarium in combination with the replacement of an average of 1/4 of the volume of water, to prevent overcrowding of the aquarium;
– do not place objects (decor) in the aquarium, which can cause poisoning or injury to aquarium fish;
– acquire only high-quality food for fish and ensure its proper storage;
– Be sure to follow the feeding regime (1-2 times a day), do not leave the fish hungry and prevent them from overfeeding;
– maintain an optimum and constant temperature in an aquarium recommended for specific species of fish, exclude the possibility of sudden drops and overcooling;
– ensure reliable transportation of fish;
– in winter, be sure to use the thermostat;
– put quarantined fishes at a time, placing them in a designated brewhouse filled with water from an active aquarium;
– Aquarium equipment (nets, siphons, etc.) that the patients were served with must be thoroughly disinfected (with potassium permanganate, rivanol, table salt, boiling) before using it for healthy fish;
– When treating fish with medicines and chemicals, strictly follow the dosage to prevent poisoning.
We also recommend that you read the brochure Navigator 3: an interview with an ichthyopathologist. Below is a link to the pdf-version, which you can download, as well as its test version.
To read and / or download “Navigator”
click on the picture below
If you do not have a PDF reader installed, we recommend that you use AdobeReader by downloading it from the official site.
The name of the aquarium fish photo catalog video species.
NAMES OF AQUARIUM FISHES.
Goldfish appeared almost more than a thousand years ago, the first color variations of the Chinese goldfish. It is from them that the goldfish with all its numerous species leads its pedigree.
Aquarium for goldfish should be large, with a large pebble or gravel.
GOLD FISH Name of aquarium fish
Beautiful fish “in the soul” remained crucian and, like crucians, dig in the ground, stir up the water and dig up the plants. It is necessary to have powerful filters in an aquarium and plant plants with a strong root system or in pots.
Body length up to 22 cm. The body is rounded, with long veil fins.
The color is orange, red, black or spotty. By a long-term selection of aquarists of the Ancient East, it was possible to bring out a huge number of beautiful species. golden fish.
Among them: telescopes, veils, celestial eye, or astrologer, Shubunkin and others. They differ from each other in body shape, fins, color, and have long lost their resemblance to carp.
Name aquarium fish-COMET
Pretty small fish that can live in aquariums from 30 liters. Classic color – brown.
Often these little catfish are confused with larger counterparts – pterigoplichtami. In general, a very hardworking fish and well clean growth.
Name aquarium fish – ANCISTRUS
HUMBLER – one of the most popular aquarium fish. In nature, it is found in the waters of Honduras, Central America, Guatemala and Mexico.
Viviparous fish. Males are distinguished from females by the presence of a process in the form of a sword, hence the name.
It has an interesting feature, in the absence of males, the female can change the sex and grow a “sword”. They are also known for eating algae and snails.
HEMBERS –Name of aquarium fish
Contents: 24 – 26 ° С; dH 8 – 25 °; pH 7 – 8
Very cute and smart catfish corridor. We would compare them with the Pomeranian Spitz in the dog world. The bottom small fish, which does not require special conditions, feeds on what it can find at the bottom.
As a rule, they are 2-10 centimeters long. Do not know who to plant in the aquarium – buy a corridor.
CORRIDORAS—Name of aquarium fish
This type of bots is the most popular among aquarists. Most likely due to the fact that clowns look very impressive, as seen in the photo.
Feature of the fish – thorns, which are under the eyes. These spikes can be advanced when the fish are in danger.
Can live up to 20 years.
BOTTION CLOWN—Name of aquarium fish
Perhaps one of the most spectacular types of barbs – for this and is considered one of the most popular of its kind. Keep them necessary in the pack, which makes the fish even more spectacular.
Size in the aquarium – up to 4-5 centimeters.
BARBUS—Name of aquarium fish
SIAMSKAYA VODOROSLEED – peace-loving and very active fish. The best helper in the fight against algae.
Inhabits the waters of Thailand and the Malaysian Peninsula.
In nature it grows up to 16 cm, in captivity it is much smaller. Life expectancy in an aquarium can be 10 years.
It eats algae of almost all types and even “Vietnamese”.
Contents: 24 – 26 ° С; dH 4 – 20 °; pH 6.5 – 7
VODOROSLEED –Name of aquarium fish
DISKUS – the most interesting and beautiful fish, a representative of the Cichlid family. The birthplace of this fish is South America.
Discussions are calm, peaceful and a little shy. They live in the middle layers of water, they do not get along well with scalars and highly active fish.
Keep should be a group of 6 or more individuals. Very demanding on water temperature.
If the temperature is below 27 ° C, the discus is sick, refuse to eat and die.
Content: 27 – 33 ° С; dH to 12 °; pH 5 – 6
DISKUS—Name of aquarium fish
GUPPI – the most unpretentious fish, ideal for novice aquarists. Habitat – North part of South America and Barbados and Trinidad.
The male has a luxurious tail with a bright and beautiful pattern. The female is twice the size of the male and not so bright. This fish is viviparous.
The tank should be closed. It is better to keep them in a specific aquarium, as active neighbors can damage their veil tails.
Guppies are omnivores.
Content: 20 – 26 ° С; dH to 25 °; pH 6.5 – 8.5
GUPPI—Name of aquarium fish
Shark Barbus (bala)
The shark of the ball or the barbus is a fish, which was so named as a result of similarity with sharks (this can be seen from the photo of the aquarium fish next to the description). These fish are large, can grow up to 30-40 centimeters, so they are best kept together with other large barbs in the amount of 150 liters.
SHARK BALA—Name of aquarium fish
COCK – betta fish In nature, it is found in Southeast Asia.
The only drawback is that males are very aggressive towards each other. Can grow up to 5 cm in length. Surprisingly, this fish breathes atmospheric air, due to a special labyrinth organ.
The content of this fish does not require special knowledge. It is desirable to have an aquarium from 3 liters.
Variety in feed is welcome.
Content: 25 – 28 ° С; dH 5 – 15 °; pH 6 – 8
COCK –Name of aquarium fish
GURAMI – peace-loving and beautiful fish. It belongs to the Labyrinth family.
Found in the waters of the large islands of Indonesia, the Malacca Peninsula, southern Vietnam. Get along with any neighbors, grow up to 10 cm.
It lives mainly in the upper and middle layers of water. Maximum active in the daytime.
Recommended for beginner aquarists. It is necessary to keep in the aquarium at least 100 liters with live plants and bright lighting.
Contents: 24 – 26 ° С; dH 8 – 10 °; pH 6.5 – 7
GURAMI—Name of aquarium fish
Small fish up to 5 centimeters. It is not difficult to recognize because of the color – a black body with longitudinal white stripes.
Like all danios, nimble fish that never sits still.
DANIO—Name of aquarium fish
Telescopes come in gold and black. In size, as a rule, they are not particularly large, up to 10-12 cm, so they can live in aquariums from 60 liters.
Fish spectacular and unusual, suitable for those who love all the original.
TELESCOPE-Name of aquarium fish
There are black, orange, yellow, and mestizos. The form is a cross between a guppy and a swordtail.
The fish is larger than the above described relatives, therefore it needs aquariums from 40 liters.
Mollensia—Name of aquarium fish
Pecillia is the personification of the whole genus – petsiliev. They can be of different colors, from bright orange, to variegated with black patches.
Fish can grow to 5-6 centimeters.
PECILIA-Name of aquarium fish
Moral fish that does not like encroachment on its territory. Though beautiful, it requires proper attitude.
It is better not to plant them with their own kind, in the aquarium there is enough female and male of this species, they can get along with neons, guppies and other non-large species.
MACROPOD—Name of aquarium fish
NEON – mobile, schooling, peace-loving and very shy fish. Rod from the basin of the river Rio Negru.
In an aquarium it grows up to 3.5 cm, life expectancy up to 5 years. Keep should flock in an amount of 10 individuals. It is not worthwhile to push them into large fish, since neon can easily become their prey.
Keeps in the lower and upper layers. The size of the aquarium is selected at the rate of 15 – 20 liters per couple of individuals.
Feed: small bloodworm, dry flocculent.
Content: 22 – 26 ° С; dH to 8 °; pH 5 – 6.5
NEON-Name of aquarium fish
CALERY – angel fish. It is found in South America in the Amazon and Orinoco rivers.
This fish has been known to aquarists for many years. She is able to decorate with her presence absolutely any aquarium. This calm and gregarious fish with a life expectancy of 10 years.
Keep it should be a group of 4 – 6 individuals. A large and hungry angelfish can eat a small fish, such as neon.
And such a fish as a barbus can easily pluck her fins and antennae. Prefers live food.
Contents: 24 – 27 ° С; dH 6 – 15 °; pH 6.5 – 7.5
SCALARIAN—Name of aquarium fish
The tetra fish like when there are a lot of live plants in the aquarium, and therefore oxygen. The body of the fish is slightly oblate, the prevailing colors are red, black and silver.
TETRA—Name of aquarium fish
Ternetia is also called black tetra. Classic color – black and silver, in black vertical stripes.
The fish is quite popular, so finding it in your city is not difficult.
TERNESIA—Name of aquarium fish
The size of the fish is different, but in general they do not grow more than 8-10 centimeters. There are smaller species.
All the fish are beautiful, have a silver color, with different shades. Schooling fish and more calmly live in a group.
Rainbows—Name of aquarium fish
ASTRONOTUS – large, calm and a little shy fish. Occurs in the Amazon River Basins.
In the aquarium can grow up to 25 cm, the life expectancy can be more than 10 years. Little neighbors can eat.
The aquarium is selected at the rate of 100 liters per individual. Sharp scenery should not be, as the astronotus in a panic can hurt yourself.
Aquarium must be closed. Feed should be live food.
Content: 23 – 26 ° С; dH to 35 °; pH 6.5 – 8.5
ASTROTONUS –Name of aquarium fish
BLACK KNIFE – bottom and night fish. It inhabits overgrown parts of the Amazon River.
It has an interesting body structure. Can move in any direction. In the aquarium it grows up to 40 cm.
In the daytime, mostly hiding. It is better to keep alone, as skirmishes may occur between large individuals.
An aquarium of 200 l with snags, live plants and a large number of stone shelters will be suitable for maintenance.
It feeds on live food.
Content: 20 – 25 ° С; dH 4 – 18 °; pH 6 – 7.5
FISH KNIFE—Name of aquarium fish
There are aquarian inhabitants who feel great and look great in pairs or even in one copy. And there are those who are better to keep in groups.
Packs can be simple, in which all the fish are equal and the leader, depending on the situation, can be any, or hierarchical with a permanent leader and participants who clearly know their place. The pack has its own advantages: the fish are better protected from enemies, it is more convenient for them to eat, they are less nervous and, finally, they look very advantageous.
Let’s briefly consider the main types of schooling aquarium fish, for convenience, arranged in alphabetical order.
Columnaria. The reason is the bacteria Flexibacter columnaris. Symptoms: a grayish-white plaque or spots on the body of the fish or around its mouth.
Sometimes these spots are microscopic, thread-like, especially in the immediate vicinity of the mouth. Often this disease is confused with oral fungus.
The state of the guppy fins may deteriorate, the gills will also suffer, ulcers may appear over time in the body. In the advanced stage of the disease, the fish holds the fins close to the body, without opening them.
Columnaria is a consequence of poor water quality, where bacteria can easily multiply. Sometimes the cause of the disease can be stress, or an infection brought into the water with new fish.
Treatment: antibacterial drugs, if columnaria is detected in the early stages. In the later stages, antibiotics should be treated. Need to do a water change.
Levomycetin and kanamycin are effective against this infection. Levomitsetin take 500 mg per 20 liters of water and diluted in water.
After 3-4 applications with the substitution of 25% water, there will be a positive result. Kanamycin – 1 gram per 25 liters of water.
It is also possible to cure fish with branded preparations for aquarium fish – Sera Baktopur Direct, JBL Ektol Bac Plus 250, the dosage according to the instructions for use.
Look at what a guppy looks like, infected with columnaria.
Ichthyophthyriosis. The causative agent of the disease is a unicellular parasite Ichthyophthirvus multifiliis.
Signs: small white dots on the body of the fish, resembling semolina (“semolina”). Fish itch provokes them to rub themselves against decorations or hard surfaces, which can cause scratches and ulcers on the body.
The disease spreads quickly through the aquarium and is highly contagious. White spots of “cysts” will appear on the skin, which will disappear into the water, and will give rise to life to new cysts.
Method of treatment: adding salt (5 teaspoons to 4 liters of water), salt must be diluted in water and introduced into the aquarium gradually. You can use special salt baths, where you can dip the fish for 7-10 minutes.
It is also possible to cure the disease with the drugs Tripaflavin and Biomitsin in the proportions of 50,000 units of biomitsin and 5 mg of Trypaflavin. They need to be well diluted in water, then added to the quarantine otsadnik with fish. The treatment procedure should be repeated until the white cysts are gone from the body of all the fish.
The duration of treatment usually takes 12-15 days.
Watch a video on how to cure ichthyophthyriosis.
Fin rot. Males of guppy fish suffer from this disease more often, their fins are longer and more sensitive than in females.
Symptoms of the disease: the fin rays become opaque, they form streaks with blood. The erosion of the fins can continue until it reaches their base.
From a disease caused by the bacterium Pseudomonas, the fish may die.
Treatment: the introduction of the drug Levomycetin in water in the proportions of 1 tablet per 20 liters of water. The tablet must be diluted in water, and add the solution to the general aquarium. Replace 30% of the water every three days.
The medicine Bitsillin-5, which is sold in bottles, copes with the harmful disease. The medication is enough for 6 days. The contents of the vial are divided into 6 equal portions, which are dissolved every day in 10 liters of water in a specially prepared bath.
The duration of the bath – 3 minutes. Also fin rot can be cured with Tetra General Tonic, Sera Baktopur.
Doses of medication – according to the instructions for use.
Guppy Disease, or tetrahimenoz (English Guppy Disease).
Pathogen: ciliates Tetrahymena corlissi, Tetrahymena pyriformis. These unicellular parasites can be found in every 6th imported guppy fish. Symptoms: affected fins and mucous membranes of the body.
On the skin appears mucous plaque, which disappears in the form of flakes. Fish scales ruffled, tail fin collapses, gills bulging.
Guppies greedily inhale the air, slowly “drift” in the water. Later, the parasites penetrate the tissues of the body of the fish, eating them from the inside.
We need to take smears from the body of the fish, and to detect in the laboratory of parasites.
Treatment of the disease: FMS preparation (dose of 1 ml per 100 liters of water), furazolidone (1 gram per 100 liters of water), Biseptol (dose of 2 tablets per 100 liters of water). The preparations are dissolved in water and injected into the aquarium in turn.
The duration of treatment is 7-10 days. It is better to treat the fish in a prepared jar so that furazolidone does not destroy the plants.
In the quarantine cell there should be replaced 40-50% of water every day, introducing a new portion of drugs.
Aquarium frog content grooming compatibility breeding description.
And now let’s see if it is possible to make frogs with fish.
As for the spur-winged frog, knowing the peculiarities of its behavior, one can answer unequivocally – there is nothing for it to do in the aquarium with fish.
She will swallow anyone who fits in her mouth, will wipe out most of the plants, dig up the soil, lift the dregs, and move the carefully set decorations.
In addition, she does not like fresh water with a good flow, and most fish do not like her usual marsh.
The only advantage of living together fish and spur frogs is that the skin mucus of frogs contains antimicrobial substances that can have a therapeutic effect on diseased fish. But with the current level of development of aquarium pharmacology, this can hardly be considered a serious argument.
If you really want to do without chemistry, it is much easier to put the sick fish in a small container, where a frog had been for some time before that.
Some aquarists advise keeping xenopus along with labyrinth fishes, as they feel well in the old water and breathe atmospheric air. But why do this?
A separate small aquarium with frogs will take up very little space, and all will be well as a result.
With hymeno-viruses, it’s not so scary. It is believed that they get along well with calm, not too large, non-predatory fish.
The beauty of the aquarium, they also will not break. However, in a large aquarium, hymeno-viruses spend a lot of time in shelters, so they can hardly be watched, and it is quite difficult to control their feeding process.