maintenance, care, compatibility
What habitat most love aquarium fish
Water that must be prepared for not very capricious ornamental fish requires preliminary preparation. In the general aquarium it is necessary to fill in soft (sometimes medium hard) pH-neutral water. This can be plain tap water.
In it, live-off and viviparous fish, which perfectly adapt to different conditions, take root well.
See how to change the water and care for the aquarium.
The degree of hardness can be measured using litmus paper, the temperature of the water – with a thermometer. Water of high degree of hardness is recommended to be mixed with soft rainwater (filtered) or distilled. Also, water from clean, melting snow or ice.
The listed types of water can be collected in a clean container only after prolonged precipitation; it is enough to pour 30% soft water into infused water from the tap.
Water from the tap can not be poured immediately. It is better to pour it into a glass, and see if the glass is covered with bubbles, whether a strong smell will emanate. Such water is saturated with compounds of gases that fell into it during filtration at the treatment plant.
Having let the fish in such a liquid, the pet’s body will instantly become covered with bubbles, which will penetrate into the gills and internal organs. As a result, the fish will die.
In addition to gas, chlorine is added to water for disinfection, it will also poison living beings.
To get rid of gases, tap water can be poured into glass containers, and let it settle there for several days (2-3 days). There is another quick way: pour water into enameled ware, bring it to the stove to 60 or 80 degrees, set aside and cool. Boiled water is harmful – it leaves on the walls of dishes scale calcium carbonate and magnesium.
Boiled water can be poured into spawning, but in extreme cases. To fill the entire area of the aquarium with boiled water will take a long time.
Another nuance – boiled water kills all the useful microflora.
If you do not have water supply (this occurs in our time), you should go to a clean river or lake (where there are no signs “No swimming!”, Etc.), and take water from there. If it is clean, river fishes (perch, bream, roach) really live and flourish in it, there is a water grid plant, which is a good sign. To destroy parasites, such water is heated in an enamel pot to 80-90 degrees, but not to make boiled water out of it.
The parameters it will be different from the liquid from the tap, so think about whether to take such a risk. You can go to another house, and get running water there.
In addition to thawed, spring, rain and distilled water, it is advisable to pour 30% of the water from the old aquarium to the infused liquid from the tap. If he was kept safely, the fish and plants did not hurt there, the water in him was not muddy – this is a find.
In the old (residential) aquarium water, whether it has been poured from a tap for a long time, there are many useful microbacteria that will create in the new dwelling the natural biological environment. In a residential aquarium environment contains a number of organic impurities that are very useful for the aquatic environment.
They make the water more acidic, do not allow the putrefactive and pathogenic bacteria to multiply. If high-quality and proven water is poured into the tank, all its inhabitants can be healthy.
Water is the source of life and habitat of all marine and freshwater creatures. Under natural conditions, animals feel comfortable mostly in clean water.
In such water, they can grow and multiply. At home, everything is different. Many people prefer to start aquarium fish, but not all care about the proper quality of water for the aquarium.
The use of ordinary tap water can be detrimental to its inhabitants. Therefore, there are several simple rules for preparing water for an aquarium.
What kind of water to pour into the aquarium?
Fish and other inhabitants of the aquarium should not be run in fresh water. It is fraught with diseases in animals. Various chemical compounds that are in the usual for us water, are detrimental to the inhabitants of the aquarium.
Chlorine is especially dangerous. Water, without fail, must be separated.
How much to defend the water for the aquarium?
To finally get rid of all the harmful substances contained in the water, it must be defended for 1-2 weeks. For the backlog of water is better to use a large bucket or basin.
Also, when buying a new aquarium, leave water in it and drain it at least once. At the same time, this way you can check if the aquarium is leaking.
Some pet stores sell special products that neutralize chemical compounds in water. But experts recommend not to neglect the settling of water, even using these drugs.
Aquarium water temperature
The most suitable temperature for aquarium water is room – 23-26 degrees. In winter, the aquarium should not be carried out on the balcony, nor is it recommended to place it near the radiator or heater.
Water hardness in the aquarium
Stiffness is an important parameter of water in an aquarium. This parameter is determined by the total amount of calcium and magnesium salts that are dissolved in water. The range of water hardness is very wide.
Under natural conditions, this indicator depends on climate, soil and season. Fish can live in water of different hardness, but they are extremely necessary for magnesium and calcium salts – they play an important role in the growth and reproduction of animals.
In an aquarium, the hardness of the water is constantly changing, it becomes softer – the fish digest the salts that are in the water. Therefore, the water in the aquarium should be periodically changed.
Aquarium water purification
The easiest way to clean is a complete change of water in the aquarium. But in some cases this task is difficult and unnecessary. Water is much easier to clean.
As a rule, simple filters based on activated carbon are used to purify turbid water in an aquarium. Water filters in the aquarium can be made independently or purchased at a pet store.
Aeration of water in the aquarium
This parameter is regulated by temperature, plants and the presence of living things in the aquarium. By aeration, oxygen is monitored in the aquarium. Aeration can be performed using special devices – compressors that saturate water with oxygen.
Also, there are filters for water treatment with built-in compressors. Water parameters in the aquarium play an important role in the normal functioning of fish.
It is important that any of the parameters be changed very smoothly, excluding sudden temperature fluctuations.
By following these simple rules, each owner of the aquarium provides fish with conditions as close as possible to the natural ones. And this, in turn, is the key to the health and long life of pets.
So, we will analyze the points, how to run the aquarium correctly:
- The run starts with water pouring. Water must be poured plumbing, pre-defend it is not necessary. After pouring water turn on the filter with aeration. If the filter does not have an aerator, then the compressor must additionally work, since nitrifying bacteria require a lot of oxygen and a heater (set at 24-25 °). In this form, with the lights off, the aquarium is left for 5-7 days. All these days they spend only monitoring the operation of the equipment: check whether oxygen is supplied, measure the temperature of the water.
- After 5-7 days, unpretentious fast-growing plants are planted, after which they turn on the lighting for 4-5 hours a day.
- After 1-2 days you can start the first aquarium animals. This may be small unpretentious fish (viviparous or, for example, danios), but it is better to use snail ampoules or hymeno-viruses that are more resistant to water quality. There should be few animals. Feed them once a day in very small portions. It is necessary to constantly monitor their behavior and appetite. Ampulyaria, for example, are excellent indicators of water quality: in clean, good water, they rush around the aquarium at cruising speed, straightening antennae and looking for food. At this stage, the light is turned on for the whole day (8-12 hours), you can add special bacterial cultures to the aquarium to start (they are from different companies, for example Sera Nitrivek).
- After a week, the remaining plants are planted and begin in parts (at intervals of 1-2 days) to launch the main fish population. For each released party you need to carefully monitor, feed moderately.
That is, in fact, all science. True, nothing complicated?
Of course, the equilibrium in the aquarium is still unstable, and some time after the launch such unpleasant phenomena can occur, such as outbreaks of diatoms. But if the launch was carried out correctly, these problems are usually not catastrophic, do not lead to a massive freezing of fish and are solved in working order.
To combat these diatomies, for example, a small charming catfish otozinclus is successfully used.
What you need for the aquarium, what to consider when choosing it and what kind of fish to have?
The right aquarium: what you need to consider when choosing, running and arranging
More than 7,000 people a month ask this question: “What kind of aquarium is right?”, “How to create it?”, “What is right and what is not in aquarium breeding?”.
So let’s try to deal with you in this matter. And we will try to bring a certain qualification of the correct aquarium.
To begin with, let’s define the concept – the correct aquarium.
You must agree, there are so many nuances and criteria of correctness: What form should an aquarium? What volume? What kind of fish?
What should be in it at all and what should not be?
I think in this matter you need to push off from a certain constant and understand that AQUARIUM is a closed ecosystem, an imitation of the natural conditions of fish habitat.
From the above, it can be made simple that the RIGHT AQUARIUM is a body of water as close as possible to the natural habitat of fish. That is, in such an aquarium should be:
– All water parameters for a certain type of fish are observed;
– the landscape and design of the aquarium should be as close as possible to the natural habitat;
– filtration, aeration, lighting and purging must be present in sufficient quantity;
– care for fish, which carries people, should be as close as possible to the actions of “Mother Nature”;
Now, based on the definition, you can easily display the main parameters
THE RIGHT AQUARIUM
1. VOLUME AQUARIUM. Everything is obvious here – the bigger the aquarium the better! And this is not because a huge aquarium can boast or it will look “rich”.
Not! Simply, the more a closed ecosystem, the easier and better biological processes take place in it, such a system is easier to set up, such a system is easier to maintain.
We can say that such a system is more stable than in a small aquarium.
Many aquarists on the Internet give an example, that in a small aquarium it is much more difficult to maintain water temperature stability than in a large aquarium. And it is true. And if you drop even deeper?
It can be said that in a small aquarium it is harder to adjust the parameters of water, it is harder to dissolve a colony of useful nitrifying bacteria, more often you need to clean and change water, etc.
Alas, the living space and the financial component does not allow many to acquire a large aquarium. But, still for a novice aquarist can advise an aquarium of 100 liters.
So to say – this is the initial volume of the correct aquarium.
2. FORM AQUARIUM. Here in this article – “WHAT AQUARIUM IS BETTER”, examples of various forms of an aquarium are given – their infinite number.
However, the most appropriate form for an aquarium is rectangular or panoramic. At the same time, you need to take into account the characteristics and characteristics of the fish.
Some need a long aquarium, some tall.
The worst form of aquarium is considered – round. Such an aquarium is not convenient for placement of equipment, it is not convenient for maintenance, and even the spherical glass itself distorts the image of the reservoir.
3. EQUIPMENT FOR AQUARIUM.
Properly selected aquarium equipment is the key to success. The thermostat, aeration, filter, lighting should be of sufficient volume and quality. Based on the characteristics of a particular aquarium and specific fish, you need to select equipment with a certain specificity.
For example, the filters can be internal and external, multi-section or single-rack, with a compartment for ceramics (biofiltration) or without it. For more information about filters, see the article – A good filter for an aquarium. The same applies, for example, to lighting.
If there are plants in the aquarium, the aquarium lamps must be of sufficient power and the required spectrum.
4. LANDSCAPE AND DESIGN, EQUIPMENT OF THE RIGHT AQUARIUM.
The habitat of fish is different. Some fish live in the thickets of valisneria, some live near the rocky shores, some even live in the standing water of rice fields.
Therefore, when arranging the “right aquarium”, first of all you need to start from the needs of the fish and their natural habitats. For example:
Angelfish are South American cichlids that live in bodies of water with rapidly growing underwater and surface plants. That is why, as a result of centuries of evolution, the body of the scalar has acquired a flat shape – so it is more convenient to swim among the “underwater forest”.
Obviously, the most appropriate design for an aquarium with scalars will be an aquarium densely planted with a variety of vegetation, especially long-stemmed, tall plants, for example, vallyseries.
African cichlids – the exact opposite of the scalar. Most African cichlids live in the so-called “stone deserts”, where there is not a small plant.
The rocky shores of African rivers, completely covered with rubble, caves, grottoes. Such a landscape helps the fish to survive and shelter from the enemy; in the caves and minks, African cichlids hatch and hide their offspring.
Therefore, the right aquarium for such fish will be a reservoir, equipped with numerous stones, grottoes and snags.
Labyrinth fish (cockerels, gourami, macropods) are the South Asian guests of our aquariums. They live in the rice fields, where there is little oxygen, and the water is stagnant.
Living conditions have taught these fish to breathe atmospheric air, which they capture from the surface of the water. Therefore, the aquarium for them should not contain plants that float on the surface or completely close it. Otherwise, the fish will suffocate.
In addition, many labyrinths need shelters – caves.
5. PARAMETERS OF WATER AND CONDITIONS OF THE CONTENT OF FISH. Everything is simple – the parameters of water temperature, hardness, “acidity”, etc. must fully meet the needs of this or sometimes the type of fish.
Actually, these same parameters are of first priority when deciding on the compatibility of fish – it is impossible to contain fish, for which the water parameters are different. See also the article AQUARIUM WATER – parameters dH, pH, rH.
Aquarium water temperature
Water temperature for aquarium fish
One of the most important parameters of aquarium water is its temperature. Most aquarium fish feel comfortable at a temperature of 22-26 ° C.
But there are fish that prefer a lower or higher temperature.
For example, discus is a heat-loving fish, a comfortable temperature for their maintenance is 28-31 ° C. But the Goldfish family, on the contrary, prefers cooler water at 18-23 ° C.
Thus, speaking of the temperature regime in an aquarium, one should take into account the comfortable temperature parameters for a specific fish. It should also be noted that the temperature of aquarium water directly affects the lifespan of some species of fish.
For example, neons at a temperature of 18 ° C live 4 years, at 22 ° C – 3 years, 27 ° C – 1.5 years.
Perhaps the most important rule for an aquarist is to prevent sudden changes in temperature (2-4 degrees). Such vibrations are extremely harmful.
Today, there are virtually no problems with maintaining the temperature regime in an aquarium. Therefore, when on the Internet you come across articles about the Soviet methods of “boiling with a kettle” involuntarily you are touched.
Only one thing is frustrating – after all, articles on this topic are usually looked for and viewed by novices or young aquarists who are so easily confused with unnecessary, unnecessary information.
The nuances covered in this article for an experienced aquarist will not inspire innovation, but beginners will be noticed.
So, to maintain the required temperature regime of aquarium water, you need to buy two things at the pet shop:
1. Thermostat heater.
2. Thermometer with suction cups.
Regarding the temperature control of the heater for the aquarium – it is chosen based on the volume of the aquarium (its power must be appropriate). They fix it, as a rule, on the back wall of the aquarium, near the filter with aeration, so that it is completely immersed in the input. IMPORTANT: when setting the desired temperature on the scale of the thermostat, the first time (6-12 hours) watch the level of heating of the aquarium water.
This is due to the fact that often the scale of the thermostat does not always correspond to the actual temperature of water heating (especially in Chinese thermostats) or the thermostat does not quite fit the volume of the aquarium. Failure to comply with this rule may lead to the fact that in the morning your aquarium may turn into “a pot with a good, elite ear.”
Well, the second thing to which you should pay attention – the heater for the aquarium should be completely immersed in water. Do not allow it to be in the on state in air (in whole or in part).
This will lead to its rapid overheating.
Regarding thermometers for aquarium – here everything is simple! They are:
in the form of a self-adhesive strip thermometers for the aquarium
(I do not recommend. creatively — yes, it is practical — no, especially since this strip “fades” over time);
and electronic thermometers for aquarium $ 12;
When buying a thermometer should pay attention to the quality of suckers. If they are weak – the thermometer will often fall to the ground.
In addition, there are fish that pathologically may not like the thermometer and they will deliberately drop it (I have suffered from these gays blue).
I think that with the heating of aquarium water everything is clear: – set, adjusted and forgot.
Let’s now talk about what to do if the temperature goes over the top (from overheating or “summer in August”). Nowadays, this is also not a problem – the air conditioner will not only cool the room, but also lower the temperature of the water in the aquarium.
Another question is what to do if it is not? Or if you need to urgently lower the temperature?
Ice from the refrigerator will come to the rescue. At one time, I poured water into plastic 2-liter bottles (carefully removing the bottle from the label and glue beforehand) and frozen them in the refrigerator.
After lowering them into the aquarium and thereby lowered the temperature of the water to the desired.
This method of lowering the temperature has two minuses: firstly, the frozen bottles and ice heat up quite quickly – they often need to be frozen, and secondly: sudden, frequent temperature drops are poorly tolerated by aquarium fish. If the temperature is “tolerable” it is better not to add an ice bottle.
REMEMBER: PROVIDING A COMFORTABLE AND CONSTANT TEMPERATURE OF AQUARIUM WATER IS THE KEY TO THE HEALTH OF YOUR AQUARIUM FISH.
Video about the temperature and care of the aquarium